Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1543
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Zedan Magdy - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function in wheezy infants, with risk factors of asthma and with some immunological parameters which may be useful as predictors of subsequent asthma. METHODS: The data of 241 infants aged 5-36 mo, with recurrent wheeze (≥3 episodes of physician confirmed wheeze) prior to receiving inhaled corticosteroids or ...
Herr M - - 2012
Determinants of wheezing severity are poorly documented in infants. To study the determinants of wheezing severity in infants aged 18 months followed-up in the PARIS (« Pollution and Asthma Risk : an Infant Study ») birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medications, as well as biological markers of atopy, were collected ...
Love Lauren E - - 2012
Over the past 20 years, the recognition of nitric oxide (NO) as an endothelial-derived vasodilator has led to remarkable advances in vascular biology awareness. The signaling molecule NO, produced by NO synthase, is a molecule that is widespread in the body and important in multiple organ systems. Soon after its ...
Ylijoki Milla - - 2012
Background. Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor underlying preterm delivery, and it has also been suggested that it associates with brain lesions and deviant neurological development in prematurely born infants. Objectives. This systematic review evaluates the possible effects of chorioamnionitis on the brain of preterm infants by reviewing all available ...
Caria Andrea - - 2012
The human infant face represents an essential source of communicative signals on the basis of which adults modulate their interactions with infants. Behavioral studies demonstrate that infants' faces activate sensitive and attuned responses in adults through their gaze, face expression, voice, and gesture. In this study we aimed to identify ...
Ul Haq Israr - - 2012
Cervical-cord damage is a complication of a difficult delivery, and results in spinal shock with flaccidity progressing to spastic paralysis. Conventionally, outlook for such patients is extremely poor and most will recover only slightly from quadriplegia and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report a case in which the extent of damage ...
Dargaville Peter A - - 2012
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a complex respiratory disease of the term and near-term neonate. Inhalation of meconium causes airway obstruction, atelectasis, epithelial injury, surfactant inhibition, and pulmonary hypertension, the chief clinical manifestations of which are hypoxaemia and poor lung compliance. Supplemental oxygen is the mainstay of therapy for MAS, ...
Mundt Christian - - 2012
Background. New aerosol drugs for infants may require more efficient delivery systems, including face masks. Maximizing delivery efficiency requires tight-fitting masks with minimal internal mask volumes, which could cause carbon dioxide (CO(2)) retention. An RNA-interference-based antiviral for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus in populations that may include young children is ...
Carrim Zia I - - 2012
Aim: To describe the clinical and demographic features of patients with retinal haemorrhages from presumed non-accidental injury (NAI) at a tertiary referral centre in Leeds over a 2-year period. Methods: All patients with retinal haemorrhages from presumed NAI between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2008 were retrospectively identified from ...
Onland Wes - - 2012
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as oxygen dependence at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), remains an important complication of prematurity. Pulmonary inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of BPD. Attenuating pulmonary inflammation with postnatal systemic corticosteroids reduces the incidence of BPD in preterm infants but may be associated with ...
Shah Sachin S - - 2012
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays an important role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. To determine the effect ...
Shah Vibhuti S - - 2012
Chronic lung disease remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. ...
Vemgal Prakash - - 2012
Non-oliguric hyperkalaemia of the newborn is defined as a plasma potassium level > 6.5 mmol/L in the absence of acute renal failure. Hyperkalaemia is a common complication in the first 48 hours of life in very low birth weight (VLBW) (birth weight < 1500 g) and/or very preterm newborns (≤32 ...
Shah Sachin S - - 2012
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a serious and common problem among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or ...
Neri Margherita - - 2012
This case report describes a sudden cardiac death in an apparent healthy 11-month-old infant caused by a multifocal cardiac rhabdomyoma. Parents reported that a few days before the child had fallen to the ground getting a little superficial injury to the scalp. The authors hypothesize that it may have been ...
Walsh Brian H - - 2012
Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns can cause significant long-term neurological disability. The insult is a complex injury characterised by energy failure and disruption of cellular homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial damage. The importance of individual metabolic pathways, and their interaction in the disease process is not fully understood. The aim ...
Reyburn Brent - - 2012
Despite changes in the epidemiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), longer-term morbidity, particularly in the form of airway dysfunction, remains a substantial problem in former preterm infants. The stage for this respiratory morbidity may begin as early as the transition from fetal to neonatal life. Newer therapeutic approaches for BPD should ...
Douglas-Escobar Martha - - 2012
As neonatal intensive care has evolved, the focus has shifted from improving mortality alone to an effort to improve both mortality and morbidity. The most frequent source of neonatal brain injury occurs as a result of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Hypoxic-ischemic injury occurs in about 2 of 1,000 full-term infants and severe ...
Douglas-Escobar Martha - - 2012
The term "encephalopathy of prematurity" encompasses not only the acute brain injury [such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)] but also complex disturbance on the infant's subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh ...
Alexander M L ML Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, USA. - - 2012
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and associated brain injuries are seen in premature as well as term infants with birth complications. The resulting impairments involve deficits in many cognitive domains, including language development. Poor rapid auditory processing is hypothesized to be one possible underlying factor leading to subsequent language delays. Mild hypothermia treatment ...
Gao Jie J Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, - - 2012
The aim of this study is to employ tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to analyze the voxel-wise differences in DTI parameters between normal and mild hypoxic-ischemic (HI) neonatal brains. Forty-one full term neonates (24 normal controls and 17 with mild HI injury) and 31 preterm neonates (20 normal controls and 11 ...
Kratky Elisabeth - - 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate regional oxygen saturation of the brain during immediate transition after birth, and to correlate it with pre-ductal arterial oxygen saturation in newborn infants. The prospective observational study including newborn infants in the first 15 min after spontaneous vaginal delivery and uncomplicated transitional ...
Kazanci E - - 2011
Amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a user friendly technique suitable for long term continuous monitoring of cerebral electrical background activity. It is increasingly being used in monitoring high risk neonates in intensive care units. Newer two-channel aEEG monitors by providing data from both side of the brain may increase the ...
Ortinau Cynthia C Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis Children's Hospital and Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. - - 2012
Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to define the neurologic abnormalities in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), including preoperative injury and delayed brain maturation. The present study used qualitative scoring, cerebral biometry, and diffusion imaging to characterize the preoperative brain abnormalities in infants with CHD, including the identification of ...
Pryce J W - - 2011
BackgroundCurrent guidelines for the investigation of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) include full neuropathological examination with recommendations for brain fixation for 1-2 weeks. Little evidence is available regarding the yield of such examination in determining cause of death in clinical practice. This study examines the frequency of neuropathological findings ...
Singh Abha - - 2011
To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of vacuum versus forceps application in assisted vaginal delivery. Women in labor with vertex presentation were delivered by vacuum and forceps. A total of 120 cases were included in this prospective study. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were compared in terms of perineal lacerations, episiotomy ...
Greisen Gorm - - 2011
Several instruments implementing spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor tissue oxygenation are now approved for clinical use. The neonatal brain is readily assessible by NIRS and neurodevelopmental impairment is common in children who were in need of intensive care during the neonatal period. It is likely that an important ...
Gervain Judit - - 2012
Breaking the linguistic code requires the extraction of at least two types of information from the speech signal: the relations between linguistic units and their sequential position. Furthermore, these different types of information need to be integrated into a coherent representation of language structure. The brain networks responsible for these ...
Scher Mark S MS Department of Pediatric Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. - - 2011
Neonatal EEG sleep was used to determine whether differences are expressed between healthy late preterm and full-term (FT) groups. Twenty-seven 24-channel multihour studies were recorded at similar postmenstrual ages (PMA) and analyzed for eight asymptomatic late preterm infants (LPT) compared with 19 healthy FT infants as a preliminary analysis, followed ...
Filan Peter M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for ...
Gancia Paolo - - 2011
Therapeutic hypothermia (whole body or selective head cooling) is recognized as standard of care for brain injury control in term infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Recent metanalyses and systematic reviews in human newborns have shown a reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, ...
Colombo Giovanna - - 2011
Sleep is a very important element for the development of a premature newborn, because it helps in creating good clinical condition, good weight gain, mastering full oral feeding and improving parent-infant relationship as well. Moreover, the development of a correct sleeping-awaking pattern is a key factor for the development of ...
Smith Gillian C GC Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave., St Louis, MO 63110, - - 2011
Although many perinatal factors have been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in very premature infants, much of the variation in outcome remains unexplained. The impact on brain development of 1 potential factor, exposure to stressors in the neonatal intensive care unit, has not yet been studied in a systematic, prospective ...
Ibuki Keijiro - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of the neuroanatomic and developmental changes in infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) or single-ventricle (SV) physiology to identify variables in anatomic development of the brain associated with functional impairment. METHODS: Thirty-three infants with congenital heart defects, 23 with SV and ...
Nakagawa Thomas A - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: To review and revise the 1987 pediatric brain death guidelines. METHODS:: Relevant literature was reviewed. Recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:: 1) Determination of brain death in term newborns, infants, and children is a clinical diagnosis based on ...
Hadders-Algra Mijna - - 2011
Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at present it is unknown whether early intervention is ...
Guzzetta Andrea - - 2011
Early intervention programmes based on the manipulation of the extra-uterine environment have been used in preterm infants with the aim of improving development and functional outcome. Infant massage, among them, has proved effective for weight gain and reduced length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. We have recently ...
Anderl Stefanie - - 2011
Epileptic seizures, particularly infantile spasms, are often seen in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) soon after birth. It is feared that there are long-term developmental and cognitive consequences from ongoing, frequent epilepsy. In addition, the hallmark brain pathology of TSC, cortical tubers and giant cells are fully developed at ...
Nakagawa Thomas A - - 2011
Objective: To review and revise the 1987 pediatric brain death guidelines. Methods: Relevant literature was reviewed. Recommendations were developed using the GRADE system. Conclusions and Recommendations: (1) Determination of brain death in term newborns, infants and children is a clinical diagnosis based on the absence of neurologic function with a ...
Swain James E - - 2011
This overview is a synthesis of our current understanding of parent-infant bonding, chiefly from the perspective of the parent's brain physiology. The parent-infant bond is central to the human condition, contributes to risks for mood and anxiety disorders, and provides potential resiliency and protection against the development of psychopathology throughout ...
Ball Gareth G Centre for Developing Brain, Imperial College London and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, - - 2012
Preterm birth is a leading cause of cognitive impairment in childhood and is associated with cerebral gray and white matter abnormalities. Using multimodal image analysis, we tested the hypothesis that altered thalamic development is an important component of preterm brain injury and is associated with other macro- and microstructural alterations. ...
Gucuyener Kıvılcım - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) at <6h is the best single outcome predictor in term infants with perinatal asphyxia at normothermia. Hypothermia treatment has changed the cutoff values for outcome prediction by using time at onset of normal trace and SWC. Cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation changes detected by near infrared spectroscopy ...
Wijbenga Rianne G - - 2011
Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive method for monitoring brain oxygenation. Aim of the study was to investigate differences between cerebral oxygenation in different brain regions in newborns. In a prospective study we monitored simultaneously left and right fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and cerebral fractional tissue extraction ...
Glasel H - - 2011
In order to understand how genetic mutations might have favored language development in our species, we need a better description of the human brain at the beginning of life. As the linguistic network mainly involves the left perisylvian regions in adults, we used anatomical MRI to study the structural asymmetries ...
Otero G A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: QEEG allows a more objective evaluation of cerebral electrical activity as well as the production of topographical maps for easier comprehension. Here we have developed qEEG norms for the first year of life using methods previously published for other age ranges, including for example, regression for Gausssianity before Z ...
Chaudhari Sudha - - 2011
There has been a marked increase in the survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, but these babies have a long stay in the NICU. Strategies to decrease their neurodevelopmental impairment become very important. The maximum development of the brain occurs between 29-41 weeks. From the warm, dark, acquatic ...
Lin Peter P New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner and Department of Forensic Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, - - 2011
Homicidal injury is a leading cause of death among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. We studied all homicides in which the victim was pregnant at the time of the lethal injury. Records of the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner were reviewed. There were 27 ...
de Vries Linda S - - 2011
There is controversy in the literature about the value of brain imaging in neonates regarding the prediction of cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this review was to unravel the myth that CP cannot be predicted by neuroimaging in neonates. Major intracranial lesions in the preterm infant should be recognized ...
Artzi Moran - - 2011
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of neuropsychological deficits. Little is known about brain diffusivity in these infants following cooling and its potential in predicting outcome. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied to 3 groups: (1) three infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: cooled; (2) three infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: noncooled; and (3) ...
Takashima Tadayuki - - 2011
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a pivotal role in limiting the penetration of xenobiotic compounds into the brain at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where its expression increases with maturation in rats. We investigated developmental changes in P-gp function in the BBB of nonhuman primates using PET with R-(11)C-verapamil, a PET radiotracer useful ...
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