Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1012
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Ahmed Iftikhar - - 2002
We describe a white female infant with neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) and encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL). Multiple, giant and small congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) were observed on the head, neck and trunk and involved 70% of body surface area. Histologic examination of several CMN revealed atypical nodular proliferations of dermal nevomelanocytes. In ...
Queisser-Luft A - - 2002
Prevalence rates of birth defects in the Federal Republic of Germany are informative to assess the general background risk of having a child with a birth defect. They provide basic figures to determine temporal and regional prevalence trends, to evaluate and initiate preventive measures and to initiate research projects. To ...
Simpson Joe Leigh - - 2002
For many years, ageing of gametes as a result of prolonged retention in the female reproductive tract before fertilisation has been circumstantially associated with major birth defects. To assess this association, we studied pregnant women who had recorded the timing, with regard to presumed ovulation, of the coital event leading ...
Botto Lorenzo D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between mothers' use of multivitamin supplements and their infants' risk for omphalocele, a congenital anomaly of the abdominal wall. Omphalocele can occur in certain multiple congenital anomaly patterns with neural tube defects, for which a protective effect of multivitamins with folic acid has been demonstrated. ...
Forrester Mathias B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The live birth prevalence of Down syndrome is approximately 10 per 10,000 live births in the United States. Down syndrome prevalence has been reported to change over time and to vary by selected demographic factors. METHODS: Data from a population-based birth defects registry in Hawaii involving 363 Down syndrome ...
Freishtat Robert J - - 2002
Latex allergy in the pediatric population is most commonly identified in patients who have undergone multiple operations for neural tube defects or exstrophic genitourinary anomalies. However, there are a significant number of children who, without the usual risk factors, clinically and/or serologically appear to be latex allergic. There is sporadic ...
Brignolo L - - 2002
Although congenital digital defects, particularly polydactyly, have been reported frequently in humans, their occurrence in rhesus macaques is relatively rare. We observed two cases of spontaneous digital defects in male rhesus monkey infants recently born at the California Regional Primate Research Center. One infant exhibited bilateral postaxial polydactyly and the ...
Farley T F - - 2002
Despite increasing use of folate prior to conception, neural tube defects remain among the most common birth defects in the United States. The Study objective was to investigate the maternal and child characteristics associated with having an infant born with a neural tube defect (NTD) in Colorado between 1989 and ...
Modell Bernadette - - 2002
Consanguineous marriage is customary in many societies, but leads to an increased birth prevalence of infants with severe recessive disorders. It is therefore often proposed that consanguineous marriage should be discouraged on medical grounds. However, several expert groups have pointed out that this proposal is inconsistent with the ethical principles ...
Connolly Leonard P - - 2002
PURPOSE: This study assesses the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the diagnostic evaluation of infants with ectopic ureteroceles. METHODS: The records of 20 infants (age range, 3 weeks to 4 months) who were referred for renal cortical scintigraphy after an ectopic ureterocele associated with a duplex kidney was found ...
Orr Maureen - - 2002
This case-control study evaluated the relationship between birth defects in racial or ethnic minority children born during 1983-1988 and the potential exposure of their mothers to contaminants at hazardous waste sites in California. Four categories of race or ethnicity were used: black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander. ...
Chia S-E - - 2002
The main findings reported by recent epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects are reviewed, and the main limitations associated with these studies discussed. Epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects were reviewed for the period 1989 to 1999 inclusive. Systematic searches were made with search engines with ...
Bove Frank - - 2002
Concern for exposures to drinking water contaminants and their effects on adverse birth outcomes has prompted several studies evaluating chlorination disinfection by-products and chlorinated solvents. Some of these contaminants are found to be teratogenic in animal studies. This review evaluates 14 studies on chlorination disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) ...
Fraser Nia - - 2002
Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal-wall defect (AWD) that typically occurs to the right of the umbilicus. Rarely, a mirror variation of the above may occur with a defect to the left of the umbilical cord. This report concerns a neonate born with an unusual AWD in the left upper quadrant, ...
Mosley Bridget S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: As part of the continuing evaluation of the Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS), we assessed the effects on birth defect prevalence rates introduced by incomplete case ascertainment along surveillance boundaries. METHODS: Using data from ARHMS and Arkansas Vital Statistics for 1993-1998, we determined birth defect prevalence rates (per ...
Finnell Richard H - - 2002
Exposure of the developing conceptus to selected environmental agents can lead to deleterious and often times lethal birth defects. These malformations result in serious emotional and financial consequences to families and societies worldwide. As we continue to progress technologically, we face challenges from the introduction of new pharmacological agents and ...
Petrini Joann - - 2002
BACKGROUND: While overall infant mortality rates (IMR) have declined over the past several decades, birth defects have remained the leading cause of infant death in the United States. To illustrate how this leading cause of infant mortality impacts subgroups within the US population a descriptive analysis of the contribution of ...
Bugge M - - 2002
In the last two to three decades, increasing rates of gastroschisis but not of omphalocele have been reported from different parts of the world. The present study represents a register containing 469 children born with abdominal wall defects based on data retrieved from 20 birth cohorts (1970-89) in three nationwide ...
Williams Laura J - - 2002
Few resources are available to guide public health officials in investigations of reported birth defects clusters. The majority of published resources focus on the investigation of cancer and infectious disease clusters and do not address clinical and epidemiologic concerns specific to birth defects research. This document aims to address these ...
Mangano Joseph J - - 2002
Subsequent to 1987, 8 U.S. nuclear plants located at least 113 km from other reactors ceased operations. Strontium-90 levels in local milk declined sharply after closings, as did deaths among infants who had lived downwind and within 64 km of each plant. These reductions occurred during the first 2 yr ...
Koren Gideon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Folate deficiency in early pregnancy and maternal adiposity, independent of folate intake, lead to a greater risk of neural tube defects in infants. Atypical antipsychotics cause various degrees of weight gain. The authors assessed folate status and obesity among patients with schizophrenia receiving atypical antipsychotics. METHOD: A sample of ...
Olesen J - - 2001
Arthropods and in particular crustaceans show a great diversity concerning their limb morphology. This makes the homologization of limbs and their parts and our understanding of evolutionary transformations of these limb types problematical. To address these problems we undertook a comparative study of the limb development of two representatives of ...
Waller D K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Infants that develop congenital anomalies may also have an excess prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight > or =4,000 g). This may indicate that abnormalities of glycemic control play a role in the etiology of birth defects. This study was undertaken to determine whether all infants with congenital anomalies have ...
Lary J M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in the prevalence of several human birth defects have often been reported in the literature, but the extent of sex differences for most birth defects is unknown. To determine the full extent of sex differences in birth defects in a population, we examined population-based data from the ...
Wollins D S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital cardiovascular malformation (CCVM) sometimes associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD). Although the phenotypic association is well documented, little research exists on the epidemiological features distinguishing CoA with and without VSD. METHODS: The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (1981-1989), a population-based study of CCVM, ...
Graves C G - - 2001
Disinfection by-products (DBP) are a side effect of water chlorination. Some toxicological studies suggest an association between DBP exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This investigation considered all toxicological and epidemiological evidence for the various effects, outcome by outcome. The weight of evidence demonstrated that no association with DBP ...
McGuirk C K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence rate of all types of limb reduction defects in general and those that potentially are caused by vascular disruption in particular is needed to provide a baseline for the evaluation of infants who are exposed in utero to teratogens that cause vascular disruption. The objective of this ...
Suresh G K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and types of major birth defects in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and their impact on mortality and resource use. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of data from the Vermont Oxford Network Database from 1994 and 1995 on infants with birth weights of 501 to 1500 ...
Botto L D - - 2001
To assess the relationship between maternal intake of vitamin A and cardiac outflow tract defects, we examined data from a population-based case-control study among liveborn infants born from 1987 through 1989 to mothers residing in the Baltimore-Washington area. Case infants (126) had a nonsyndromic cardiac outflow tract defect. Control infants ...
Botto L D - - 2001
We assessed the relation between febrile illness during pregnancy and cardiac defects in the offspring in a population-based case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Case infants (905) with cardiac defects were actively ascertained from multiple sources. Control infants (3,029) were infants without birth defects who were selected from birth certificates by ...
Woods S E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The literature linking gestational smoking to congenital defects has been very inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relation between gestational smoking and congenital malformations. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort (N = 18,016) of live births in the TriHealth Hospital system from 1 January ...
Elliott P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. DESIGN: Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 ...
Lin M H - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The recent increase in the prevalence of ventricular septal defect (VSD) has been ascribed to the improved detection of small defects with echocardiography and the wider use of screening. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and timing of spontaneous closure of specific types ...
Gilbert-Barness E - - 2001
A male infant was liveborn at 38 weeks of gestation to a G4P1AB2, 22-year-old, mother. Polyhydramnios and multiple congenital anomalies were noted by ultrasonography; the infant died 5 min after birth. At autopsy, the infant had multiple defects of blastogenesis including midline anomalies with asplenia and abnormalities of laterality formation. ...
Ericson A - - 2001
A study was performed of congenital malformations in infants whose mothers used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in early pregnancy. Data were obtained from an ongoing prospective recording of drug use during the first trimester. During the period July 1, 1995 through December 31, 1998, 2557 infants were born to women ...
Hamid R K - - 2001
Neural tube defects of the brain and spinal cord, among the most common birth defects in the United States, cause neurologic morbidity from the lesions themselves and from associated hydrocephalus and Arnold-Chiari malformation. Because the myelomeningoceles, and encephaloceles are repaired surgically within hours of birth, neonatal anesthetic management with attention ...
Hernández-Díaz S - - 2001
Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). To determine whether periconceptional exposure to folic acid antagonists (FAAs) might therefore increase the risk of NTDs, the authors examined data from an ongoing case-control study of birth defects (1979-1998) in the United States and Canada. They compared ...
Rasmussen S A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between prematurity and birth defects. STUDY DESIGN: In a population-based cohort study, infants with birth defects were ascertained through the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a surveillance system with active methods of ascertainment. Gestational age data were obtained from birth certificates of liveborn, singleton infants ...
Toppari J - - 2001
Cryptorchidism and hypospadias share possible risk factors, such as intrauterine growth retardation. According to the data collected by the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS), apparently increasing trends in the incidence of hypospadias were found in Sweden during the 1960s, and in Norway, Denmark, England and Hungary during ...
Carbonaro C M - - 2001
The E' center is a paradigmatic radiation-induced defect in SiO2 whose peculiar EPR and hyperfine activity has been known for over 40 years. This center has been traditionally identified with a distorted, positively charged oxygen vacancy V(+)O. However, no direct proof of the stability of this defect has ever been ...
Martínez-Frías M L - - 2001
Exstrophy of the bladder (EB) and exstrophy of the cloaca (EC) are generally recognizable as distinct clinical entities. In patients with EB, the posterior bladder wall is exposed through a midline defect of the abdomen. The umbilicus is inferiorly displaced and located close to the superior margin of the exstrophic ...
Shaw G M - - 2001
The proportion of preterm births associated with structural birth defects has not been adequately quantified. We explored the proportion of preterm infants with structural birth defects diagnosed in the first year of life, as well as the specific phenotypes of birth defects occurring among preterm infants. The data used were ...
Botto L D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Documenting the prevalence and trends of congenital heart defects provides useful data for pediatric practice, health-care planning, and causal research. Yet, most population-based studies use data from the 1970s and 1980s. We sought to extend into more recent years the study of temporal and racial variations of heart defects ...
Zimmerman L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The current epidemiology of rubella reveals an increase in the number of cases among adult Hispanics and an increase in the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases among infants of Hispanic mothers. Recent rubella outbreaks have occurred primarily among adult Hispanics, many of whom are foreign-born natives of ...
Lie R T - - 2001
CONTEXT: Few systematic data exist on survival and reproduction among males with birth defects and their contribution to occurrence of birth defects in the next generation. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival of males with registered birth defects, their subsequent reproduction rates, and their risk of transmitting birth defects to their offspring. ...
Loffredo C A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in clinical, pathological, and genetic aspects of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) have set the stage for epidemiologic investigations into possible risk factors. Previous analyses of the total case group of AVSD included complete and partial subtypes without analysis of the subsets. METHODS: To address the question of ...
Martínez-Frías M L - - 2001
Hyperthermia is defined as a temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C over the normal core body temperature. It is a proven teratogen in animals and in humans. The type of defects induced by hyperthermia in experimental animals are: anencephaly/exencephaly, encephalocele, microphthalmia, arthrogryposis, abdominal wall defects, limb deficiencies, embryonic death, ...
Asindi A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into the newborn ...
Yoon P W - - 2001
The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight ...
Hobbs C A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The characteristics and methodologies of state-based birth defect surveillance systems might influence reported prevalence rates, making comparisons among states difficult. Standardizing methods to minimize variability beyond true differences in prevalence will aid national surveillance efforts and birth defects prevention programs. METHODS: Using data provided in the January 2000 Congenital ...
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