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Kumar Praveen P Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Batson Children's Hospital, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216-4505, USA, - - 2014
The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) consists of an algorithm and curriculum to train healthcare professionals to facilitate newborn infants' transition to extrauterine life and to provide a standardized approach to the care of infants who require more invasive support and resuscitation. This review discusses the most recent update of the ...
Mayor Julien J FPSE, University of Geneva, - - 2014
The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one ...
Amirav Israel I Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, - - 2014
The oral route has been considered superior to the nasal route for aerosol delivery to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) in adults and children. However, there are no data comparing aerosol delivery via the oral and nasal routes in infants. The aim of this study was to compare nasal and ...
Longest P Worth - - 2013
Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine optimal aerosol delivery conditions for a full-term (3.6 kg) infant receiving invasive mechanical ventilation by evaluating the effects of aerosol particle size, a new wye connector, and timing of aerosol delivery. Methods: In vitro experiments used a vibrating mesh nebulizer and ...
Wong Carrie F P CF Department of Anaesthesiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, - - 2014
Limited information is available on the management of the 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' (CICV) situation in infants. We compared the time to achieve adequate oxygenation following rescue ventilation using the Enk oxygen flow modulator (OFM) with a jet ventilator in a simulated CICV situation using the rabbit as an infant ...
Voorthuis Alexandra - - 2013
Children vary hugely in how demanding of their caregivers they are. This creates differences in demands on parents during observation, making the comparison of sensitivity between parents difficult. It would therefore be of interest to create standard situations in which all caregivers are faced with the same level of demand. ...
Chang Brent A - - 2013
We report a 1month old infant with a spontaneously knotted nasogastric tube. Attempted removal of the nasogastric tube was unsuccessful, prompting further investigation. Plain radiographs revealed a large, multi-looped knot impacted in the nasopharynx and oropharynx. The tube was subsequently removed through the mouth under general anesthesia without complication, revealing ...
Farney Kimberly D - - 2013
Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (NCPAP) is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Aerosolized medications such as inhaled steroids and beta-agonists are commonly administered in-line through NCPAP, especially to infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that aerosol delivery to the lungs via variable flow NCPAP in an in ...
Dellimore Kiran - - 2013
Optimizing chest compression (CC) performance during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical to improving survival outcomes since current clinical protocols often achieve only a fraction of the native cardiovascular perfusion. This study presents the development of a diagnostic tool to unobtrusively measure the CC depth and force during neonatal CPR ...
Cohen-Wolkowiez Michael - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data of metronidazole in premature infants has led to various dosing recommendations. Surrogate efficacy targets for metronidazole are ill-defined and therefore aimed to exceed minimum inhibitory concentration of organisms responsible for intra-abdominal infections. METHODS:: We evaluated the PK of metronidazole using plasma and dried blood spot ...
Lew Seok - - 2013
In infants, the fontanels and sutures as well as conductivity of the skull influence the volume currents accompanying primary currents generated by active neurons and thus the associated electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. We used a finite element method (FEM) to construct a realistic model of the head of ...
Luque Veronica - - 2013
: The estimation of dietary intake remains a challenge in human nutritional studies. In infants, the use of food diaries (FDs) is a suitable method already validated; however, this method is not exempt from error. In formula-fed infants, dilution of powdered formulas may produce errors. Our aim was to develop ...
Ball Gareth G Centre for the Developing Brain, Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2013
Early neuroimaging may provide a surrogate marker for brain development and outcome after preterm birth. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) is an advanced Diffusion Tensor Image (DTI) analysis technique that is sensitive to the effects of prematurity and may provide a quantitative marker for neuroprotection following perinatal brain injury or preterm ...
Martin Philip Stephen - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality remain high following infant cardiac arrest. Optimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is therefore imperative. OBJECTIVE: Comparison of two-thumb (TT) and two-finger (TF) infant chest compression technique compliance with international recommendations. DESIGN: Randomised cross-over experimental study. METHODS: Twenty-two certified Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) instructors performed 2 min ...
Valcke Mathieu - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of interindividual differences in hepatic first-pass effect (FPE) on the magnitude of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) for ingested toxicants. This factor aims at replacing a default value of 3.2 used in non-cancer risk assessment. Coupled with Monte Carlo ...
Chitkara Ritu - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare a novel neonatal resuscitation cart (NRC) to a generic code cart (GCC). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, controlled, crossover trial was performed to compare the utility of the NRC with the GCC during simulated deliveries of extremely low birthweight infants and infants with gastroschisis. Fifteen subjects participated. ...
Donoghue Aaron J - - 2012
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine whether videolaryngoscopy results in a higher prevalence of first-attempt intubation success and improved glottic visualization than direct laryngoscopy when performed by pediatric emergency medicine providers in simulated patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at a single institution. Fellows and faculty in pediatric emergency medicine were ...
Ramani Manimaran M Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, - - 2013
Extremely premature infants are often exposed to supra-physiologic concentrations of oxygen, and frequently have hypoxemic episodes. These preterm infants are at high risk (~40%) for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) even in the absence of obvious intracranial pathology such as intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. The etiology for NDI has not been ...
Mammarella Nicola - - 2012
Two studies examined the effects of different socio-affective factors on risk driving behaviour. In Experiment 1, 87 adult drivers we asked to play a computer-based driving game after being exposed to a series of images that depicted infants, police or neutral information (control condition). In Experiment 2 we tested a ...
Cohen Gary G Department of Neonatal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. - - 2012
A resumption of, and escalation in, breathing efforts (hyperpnoea) reflexively accelerates heart rate (HR) and may facilitate cardiac and circulatory recovery from apnoea. We analysed whether this mechanism can produce a sustained rise in HR (tachycardia) when a sleeping infant is confronted by mild, rapidly worsening asphyxia, simulating apnoea. Twenty-seven ...
Goracy Iwona - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong predictor of various heart diseases. We examine the association between the G(-6)A AGT, I/D ACE, A1166C AGTR1, T(-344)C CYP 11β2, A538G MR and A10631G REN polymorphisms and LVM and blood pressure in newborn infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 211 healthy ...
Yıldırım Zeynep Hoşbay - - 2012
The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman's criteria ...
Wang Ya-Chen - - 2012
To evaluate the effects on neonatal outcomes between very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm newborns with and without maternal use of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of VLBW premature infants who were admitted to Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between 1999 and 2008. A total of 256 infants were enrolled in ...
Imasawa Toshiyuki - - 2012
BACKGROUND: An ecological study is a useful epidemiologic tool for public health surveillance and establishment of a new hypothesis. Here, we used an ecological study to analyze the association between birth weight and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: We performed ecological regression analysis by using data obtained from the national ...
Clark Steven L - - 2012
The death of a mother during or after childbirth is one of the most tragic events in medicine. We have identified 10 specific recurrent errors that account for a disproportionate share of maternal deaths, primarily related to pulmonary embolism, severe preeclampsia, cardiac disease, and postpartum hemorrhage. Attention to these principles ...
Schuurhof Annemieke - - 2012
Severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection ranges widely. To what extent the local immune response is involved in RSV disease pathogenesis and which markers of this response are critical in determining disease severity is still a matter of debate. The local immune response was studied in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) ...
Jetton Jennifer G - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children and adults. Neonates remain an understudied group, although previous evidence suggests that this association holds true for them as well. RECENT FINDINGS: Attention to the issue of neonatal AKI is ...
Bergstrom Kendra Gail - - 2012
Atopic dermatitis is increasing in prevalence throughout the developed world, in parallel with asthma and hay fever. The reasons for the increase remain unclear. As a practical question, it is valuable to understand which interventions might decrease risk for childhood atopic disease. Prospective studies among infants and children are challenging ...
Nagarakanti S - - 2012
Disorders relating to short gestation and low birth weight are among the leading causes of death and disability in infants. About 25% of pre-term low birth weight (PLBW) cases occur without even a suspected risk factor. Of all PLBW cases, 18.2% may be attributable to periodontitis ( Offenbacher et al. ...
Alberts Jeffrey R - - 2012
Understanding the developmental origins of congenital capabilities such as sucking is fundamental knowledge that can contribute to improving the clinical management of early feeding and facilitate the onset of oral ingestion. We describe analyses in rats showing that sensory stimulation in utero and during birth establishes the newborn's sucking responses ...
Volonaki Eleni - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Lower threshold and widening indications for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy has resulted in significant increase in the numbers of endoscopic procedures performed in infants. Despite this, knowledge of gastrointestinal mucosal findings in this age group is limited and data on the clinical usefulness of endoscopy are lacking. METHODS:: All children ...
Machaira Maria - - 2011
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology presenting typically in infants and young children. We report a rare case of incomplete KD in a 15 months' old male infant presenting with symptoms mimicking retropharyngeal abscess and intermittent fever.
Reece E Albert - - 2011
Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, which has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the developed world. Many of these birth defects can be attributed to pre-existing, or pregestational, diabetes in pregnancy, which significantly increases a mother's risk of having a ...
Slidsborg Carina - - 2011
ObjectivesTo investigate inter-reader agreement on five severity levels of central vascular changes (none, mild, moderate, severe pre-plus disease, plus disease) and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to see whether an unintended shift in indication for treatment occurred.MethodsFour international ROP readers participated. Before the grading of the photographs, the ...
Clifford Vanessa - - 2011
There have been significant reductions in early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) disease following implementation of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) policies. Nevertheless, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in Australia and New Zealand resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly among preterm infants. In the United States, ...
Kandasamy Yogavijayan - - 2011
Abstract Background: In utero insults that result in low-birth-weight (LBW) infants are now recognized risk factors for the development of vascular-related diseases in adulthood. Microcirculatory pathologies are believed to form a mechanistic link between fetal insult and the manifestation of illness in adulthood. Objectives: The challenge has been to investigate ...
Hoarau Gautier - - 2011
We report two severe cases of infant botulism diagnosed at Grenoble University Hospital, France, respectively in 2006 and 2009. Both cases were characterized by a delay in diagnosis, severe neurological manifestations and extended period of hospitalization in intensive care unit, but a complete recovery. Infant botulism is a rare but ...
Brenner Joel I - - 2011
Congenital cardiac disease is the most common birth defect, occurring in approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Congenital cardiac defects have associations, whether with gender, race, or specific chromosomal abnormalities, potentially allowing grouping of defects to be studied in an effort to develop an understanding of aetiological factors. The Baltimore-Washington ...
Tolsma Kristi Washburn - - 2011
To explore whether early or late and presumed or definite neonatal bacteremia are associated with an increased risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We evaluated 1059 infants born before week 28 of gestation for ROP. Infants were classified as having early (postnatal week 1) or late (weeks 2-4) definite ...
Talati Ajay J - - 2011
To review the infants at risk for congenital syphilis (CS) and determine the optimal use of evaluations such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, and long bone radiography studies. A retrospective chart review of all of the infants at risk for CS from January 1997 ...
Sudhagoni Ramu G - - 2011
There are conflicting reports on the influence of lean and fat mass on bone accrual during childhood. No infant's studies have been reported that describe the influence of changes in body composition with changes in bone accrual during the first year of life. The objective of this research was to ...
Chaves Sandra S - - 2011
Objective:To describe varicella disease in infants since implementation of the varicella vaccination program in the United States.Patients and Methods:From 1995 to 2008, demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic data on cases of varicella in infants were collected prospectively through a community-based active surveillance project. We examined disease patterns for infants in 2 ...
Celik Istemi Han - - 2011
Surfactant replacement therapy is the main treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of other diseases causing neonatal respiratory diseases such as pulmonary hemorrhage, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, pulmonary edema or acute lung injury resulting a secondary surfactant deficiency ...
Kanter Ronald J - - 2012
Brugada syndrome is a potentially serious channelopathy that usually presents in adulthood and has only rarely been described in infancy. In the absence of metabolic or structural cardiac disease, rapid ventricular tachycardia (>200 bpm) and primary cardiac conduction disease are uncommon in infancy. We hypothesized that infants having rapid ventricular ...
Sorrentino Stefania - - 2011
We studied the prevalence and degree of tumor cell infiltration (TCI) in bone marrow (BM) aspirates of 89 infants with stage 4/4 S neuroblastoma and correlated them with MYCN gene status and patient outcome. TCI was scored 0, +, ++, and +++, the last corresponding to an infiltration greater than ...
Baker Kimberly - - 2012
Objective.  Infants with critical congenital heart disease (CHD) can have genetic and other extracardiac malformations, which add to the short- and long-term risk of morbidity and perhaps mortality. We sought to examine our center's practice of screening for extracardiac anomalies and to determine the yield of these tests among specific ...
Mora Stefano - - 2011
The use of combined antiretroviral agents during pregnancy is important to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antiretroviral treatment (ARV) is associated with reduced bone mass and altered bone metabolism in HIV-infected patients. There are no data regarding the effect of ARV exposure during pregnancy on newborns and ...
Casteels Ingele - - 2012
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, ...
Okada Emiko - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown effects of prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on infants in the general environmental levels. Laboratory animal studies have shown that exposure to PFOS and PFOA is associated with immunotoxic effects. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between maternal PFOS and PFOA levels ...
Kirkegaard Ida - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) in relation to admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and neonatal disease. METHODS: A total of 9450 singleton pregnant women who attended the prenatal screening program at Aarhus University Hospital between January 2005 and ...
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