Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1071
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Lagalante Anthony F - - 2006
The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal ...
Karthik Sivaramakrishnan Venkatesh - - 2006
Carotenemia in infancy is a relatively rare but benign condition, invariably of dietary origin, that can be confused with jaundice. It is characterized by an abnormal yellowish orange pigmentation of the skin, most prominently seen in the palms, soles, and naso-labial folds. Infant feeding patterns have shown an increasing trend ...
Chaudhari Sudha - - 2006
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) allows us to meet a neonates requirement for growth and development when their size or condition precludes enteral feeding. Although feeding through the gastrointestinal tract is the preferred route for nutritional management, there are specific conditions where PN as an adjunctive or sole therapy is necessary. In ...
Reid Julie - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the natural history of feeding skills in babies with clefts and identify risk factors and predictors of poor feeding. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two babies with clefts were examined at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 14 months of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feeding ability, oral motor function, and feeding efficiency ...
Aly H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose oral erythromycin to treat feeding intolerance in preterm infants. DESIGN: This study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on 60 premature infants suffering from feeding intolerance. Thirty infants were given oral erythromycin 1 mg/kg every 8 h and 30 infants were given ...
Kelly Bronwen N - - 2007
This longitudinal study assessed the coordination of nutritive and non-nutritive swallowing with breathing in 10 healthy term infants from birth to 1 year of age. Swallows were classified into five respiratory-phase categories: mid-inspiration (II), mid-expiration (EE), inspiratory-expiratory cusp (IE), expiratory-inspiratory cusp (EI), and mid-pause (P). Breathing-swallowing coordination differed markedly between ...
Shimizu Toshiaki - - 2006
AIM: Glicentin, an active component of enteroglucagon, is considered to have a significant trophic action on the intestinal mucosa. We examined the effects of extremely early enteral feedings on the postnatal and postprandial changes in plasma glicentin levels in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: We measured the plasma glicentin concentrations before ...
Ramirez Alex - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether osmolality, volume, or energy density affects gastric emptying rate (GE); whether simultaneously decreasing osmolality and increasing volume accelerates GE; and whether GE is related to any clinical and/or demographic characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: GE was measured using the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test in 17 infants of 25 ...
Pickler R H - - 2006
The purposes of this analysis were to determine how select characteristics of nutritive sucking (number of sucks, sucks/burst, and sucks/minute) change over time and to examine the effect of select factors (morbidity, maturity, prefeeding behavior state, and feeding experience) on those changes. A longitudinal, non-experimental study was conducted in a ...
Rocha Adriana Duarte - - 2007
To assess if sensory-motor-oral stimulation and non-nutritive sucking gavage feeding enhances the oral feeding performance of preterm infants born between 26 and 32 weeks of gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: Very low birthweight infants (n=98) were randomized into a experimental and control group. Preterm infants in the experimental group received sensory-motor-oral ...
Rees, L; ; lrees@telkomsa.co.za
Infants are born with a natural immune system from their mothers. The effectiveness of this natural immune system drops significantly over the first two months, until after 8 weeks infants begin to build up their own immune resistance to pathogenic diseases. However, during this time, their immune resistance is very ...
Byrne Kathryn R - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical to realizing increasing benefits of enteral nutrition are techniques for feeding tube placement. Feeding tubes can be placed by bedside, endoscopic, fluoroscopic, and surgical methods. This review encompasses noteworthy studies on endoscopic approaches to enteral feeding published from January 2005 to the present. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies ...
Doherty Tanya - - 2006
This study examined the challenges that HIV-positive women face at different stages of early infant feeding using a longitudinal, qualitative design. The study explored factors influencing infant-feeding decision-making and behavior of HIV-positive mothers and identified characteristics of women and their environments that contributed to success in maintaining exclusivity of their ...
Kim Hoikyung - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii has been reported to form biofilms, but environmental conditions affecting attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces have not been described. We did a study to determine the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral ...
Goldfield Eugene C - - 2006
This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, ...
Pridham Karen - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about premature infants' feeding skill development and the contribution to it of biologic and environmental conditions. AIMS: Explore the level and variation in feeding skill performance through the first post-term year and examine the contribution to performance of infant neonatal condition and rate of weight gain ...
Kubota Shunichi - - 2006
Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated with regard to its efficacy against workers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by using three laboratory tests. In the no-choice feeding test, the mortality of bistrifluron-treated worker termites was significantly higher than that of termites exposed to the same concentrations of hexaflumuron (e.g., ...
Dratva Julia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The importance of adequate complementary feeding of infants is increasingly acknowledged. Little is known of the actual complementary feeding practices in Switzerland. AIM: To report the prevalence of adequate timing of complementary feeding, comparing the compliance to Swiss and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and to investigate factors influencing ...
Nützel Alexander - - 2006
The size of early ontogenetic shells (protoconchs) of ancient benthic molluscs suggests that feeding larvae occurred at about 490 myr (approximately, transition from Cambrian to Ordovician). Most studied Ordovician protoconchs were smaller than Cambrian ones, indicating smaller Ordovician eggs and hatchlings. This suggests substitution of nutritious reserve matter such as ...
Mihatsch Walter A - - 2006
AIM: To investigate whether a mixture of prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides (GosFos; referring to galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides) would improve feeding tolerance in preterm infants on full enteral formula feeding. We hypothesized that GosFos would: (1) reduce stool viscosity and (2) accelerate gastrointestinal transport. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled double-blind trial 20 preterm ...
Eggink B Hannie - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In the past decade, the preferred method of closure of gastroschisis at our institution has been staged reduction using a silo with repair on an elective basis (SR) rather than primary surgical closure (PC). We performed a 20-year case review of infants with gastroschisis at a university hospital to ...
Khashu Minesh - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Light exposure of TPN generates peroxides which induce vasoconstriction. Mesenteric vasoconstriction may affect feeding tolerance. Since photo-protection of TPN decreases peroxide generation, we hypothesized that shielding TPN from light may improve the establishment of minimal enteral nutrition in preterm infants. METHODS: Infants were randomized to TPN being light exposed ...
Furber Christine M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: to discover the views of midwives in relation to baby feeding. DESIGN AND METHOD: qualitative using grounded theory. Data collection used in-depth interviews with 30 midwives who volunteered to participate. Field notes of the interaction between the researcher and participant were also recorded as data. The constant comparison process ...
Cirgin Ellett Marsha L - - 2006
Thirty-six parents of colicky infants participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted via the Internet. Parents recorded a baseline state-of-arousal diary for 3 days using their usual feeding methods, and then they used six study-provided bottles for 2 weeks while recording a second state-of-arousal diary. Infants being fed with ...
McCann Margaret F - - 2006
In its recently adopted Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding, the World Health Assembly called for urgent action in addressing the barriers to optimal feeding practices. This paper examines mothers' concerns about milk insufficiency as a major contributor to suboptimal infant feeding decisions, using survey data from peri-urban ...
Furman Lydia - - 2006
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT, Matthews, 1993) to assess breastfeeding in very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1.5 kg) infants. Thirty-four mothers of singleton VLBW infants completed the IBFAT and underwent a standardized feeding observation at 35 weeks ...
Nuntnarumit Pracha - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of oral erythromycin (EM) for feeding intolerance in preterm infants < 35 weeks gestation. STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, preterm infants with feeding intolerance were randomly allocated to a treatment group given EM ethyl succinate 10 mg/kg every 6 hours ...
Burdette Hillary L - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between maternal infant-feeding style and adiposity in childhood and to determine whether feeding style explains any of the association between maternal obesity and childhood adiposity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Cincinnati metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 313 preschool children; 80% were white and 20% ...
Barney Cindy K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Feeding intolerance is a common problem in neonates; in some cases it may be related to atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa. In these infants, feeding tolerance might improve after oral administration of enterocyte growth factors in a sterile, isotonic, noncaloric solution patterned after human amniotic fluid. STUDY ...
Myers Clayton T - - 2006
The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in ...
Pickler Rita H - - 2006
This study examined the relationship between the number of sucks in the first nutritive suck burst and feeding outcomes in preterm infants. The relationships of morbidity, maturity, and feeding experience to the number of sucks in the first suck burst were also examined. A non-experimental study of 95 preterm infants ...
Farrow Claire - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal core beliefs, self-esteem, psychopathologic symptoms, and postnatal infant temperament to the prediction of infant feeding difficulties. METHOD: Ninety-nine women completed questionnaires assessing their core beliefs, psychopathology, and self-esteem during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. At 6 months, ...
Grimes J L - - 2006
Three experiments, which included 4 broiler flocks, were conducted to examine the usefulness of a novel bedding material for rearing broilers. The control bedding was pine shavings. The novel bedding, aGroChips (AC), was a chopped material made from cotton lint waste, gypsum, and old newsprint using a proprietary paper manufacturing ...
Domeneghini C - - 2006
The correct functional development of the gastrointestinal tract is of special importance during the neonatal and weaning phases of reared piglets. Nutrition is obviously a critical determinant in the growth of the gut in the young swine. The mucosal epithelium of the small intestine is reputed anatomically and functionally immature ...
Gray David Sheridan - - 2006
To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and ...
Amory J R - - 2006
The prevalence and severity of gastric ulcers were investigated in a sample of 50 slaughter pigs from each of 16 commercial farms in the uk. The mean prevalence of ulcers was 19.1 per cent and the mean (se) severity score on the 16 farms was 2.2 (0.15) on a scale ...
Purkait M K - - 2006
Surfactant-based separation of toxic eosin dye is studied to estimate the potential of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) using cetyl(hexadecyl) pyridinium chloride (CPC) as the cationic surfactant. The optimum feed CPC concentration is found from the experimental results of pure CPC solution in a batch cell. It is in the range ...
Galler Janina R - - 2006
Maternal feeding attitudes, maternal moods and infant feeding practices during the first 6 months postpartum were assessed in 226 healthy, well-nourished Barbadian mother-infant dyads. Factor analysis of the feeding attitudes questionnaire resulted in six independent factors. The belief that breastfeeding was better than bottle-feeding was associated with higher family income, ...
Heinig M Jane - - 2006
Focus groups were used to examine relationships among maternal beliefs, feeding intentions, and infant-feeding behaviors among 65 Women, Infants and Children-eligible (28 English-speaking and 37 Spanish-speaking) mothers. Participants shared common beliefs that breast-feeding was beneficial; nevertheless, many believed that early introduction of formula and solid foods was unavoidable in certain ...
Jones Trevor - - 2006
We present the first ever reported observations of a hunting African crowned eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus being killed by a primate, in the Udzungwa Mountains of south-central Tanzania. An adult female eagle launched an attack on a young Sanje mangabey Cercocebus sanjei who was feeding in a tree, but was intercepted ...
Blumenfeld Hugh - - 2006
Recent studies suggest that premature neonates exposed to music have reduced symptoms of stress, faster weight gain, and shorter neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. This pilot study attempted to measure contingent effects of mothers' singing during feedings. Mothers sang to their babies during 2 of 4 feedings on 2 ...
Leshabari Sebalda C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids) by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. METHODS: ...
Faulkner A L - - 2006
We present data on feeding patterns in Avahi laniger and compare these data to temporal variations in leaf chemistry. Because A. laniger is one of the smallest folivorous primates and has a monogastric stomach, we hypothesized that this lemur would display behavioural adaptations to a leaf-based diet by scheduling feeding ...
Al-Jassir M S - - 2006
We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 4872 mothers (mostly Saudi) to study infant feeding patterns. Information was collected about their feeding practices with their youngest child using pre-tested questionnaires. About four-fifths of the mothers had received health education about breastfeeding, most often from medical staff; younger mothers tended to ...
Tosh K - - 2006
Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding ...
Drenckpohl Douglas - - 2005
Feeding intolerance is a common problem in infants who have had multiple or extensive resections of their small bowel. Chronic malabsorption and diarrhea are common side effects that inhibit the advancement of enteral feedings and prolong dependence on parenteral nutrition (PN). Poor growth, recurrent central line infections, cholestasis, and osteopenia ...
Filippi Luca - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Placement of a feeding tube may be associated with various complications, including iatrogenic pharyngo-oesophageal perforation. AIM: To determine the incidence of pharyngo-oesophageal perforation secondary to the use of polyvinyl feeding tubes in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, we conducted a retrospective study over a 3(1/2)-y period. METHODS: All ...
M?ller-Egloff Susanne - - 2005
AIM: To determine whether infants with compromised fetomaternal circulation, but not yet critically threatened by absent end-diastolic flow velocities in the umbilical arteries, are at a risk for feeding problems. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, enteral feeding and clinical data were compared between infants with decreased prenatal end-diastolic umbilical ...
Milliken Garrett W - - 2005
Sixteen sifakas (11 Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, 2 Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi form majori, and 3 Propithecus tattersalli) were videotaped as they fed on leaves in an arboreal context. The hand used to feed and the hand used to maintain postural stability was coded. For each subject, the lateral bias of the ...
Erlanson-Albertsson Charlotte C Department of Experimental Medicine, Biomedical Centre (BMC), University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. - - 2005
Feeding is vital for survival. The brain has strong hunger and reward mechanisms that ensure optimal food intake for adequate nutrition. The drive for feeding is particularly strong in humans whose large brains require large energy support. This starts immediately after birth; the newborn child being able to taste sucrose ...
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