Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 1073
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Saha Kuntal K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommend a global strategy for feeding infants and young children for proper nutrition and health. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of following current infant feeding recommendations on the growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. ...
Ozer Esra Arun - - 2009
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a hormone produced primarily in the distal intestine, stimulated by enteral nutrients, and playing diverse roles in the intestinal adaptation and growth. We aimed to investigate whether GLP-2 may play a role in the development of feeding intolerance which is a common problem in preterm ...
Baudon Jean-Jacques - - 2009
In infants with facial malformation, dysphagia is frequent and can lead to respiratory and nutritional complications whatever the phenotype. The aim of our study was to assess the severity and mechanisms of dysphagia in infants with facial malformations in order to guide therapeutic management. Forty-two newborn infants with dysphagia and ...
Mesas Burgos Carmen - - 2008
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by a state of malabsorption following extensive resection of the small bowel, resulting in insufficient nutritive supply requiring artificial nutrition with long-term parenteral nutrition. Here we present an illustrative case report of a premature infant born with gastroschisis and SBS, who was treated with ...
Poore M - - 2008
To determine whether NTrainer patterned orocutaneous therapy affects preterm infants' non-nutritive suck and/or oral feeding success. Thirty-one preterm infants (mean gestational age 29.3 weeks) who demonstrated minimal non-nutritive suck output and delayed transition to oral feeds at 34 weeks post-menstrual age. NTrainer treatment was provided to 21 infants. The NTrainer ...
Parish A - - 2008
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a common emergency that carries high morbidity and mortality for extremely low birth weight infants. To date there have been no multicenter randomized controlled trials to evaluate different feeding strategies and NEC. Clinicians must weigh their experience against small amounts of data in deciding the best ...
Sankar M Jeeva - - 2008
Optimal feeding of low birth weight (LBW) infants improves their immediate survival and subsequent growth and development. Being a heterogeneous group comprising term and preterm neonates, their feeding abilities, fluid and nutritional requirements are quite different from normal birth weight infants. A practical approach to feeding a LBW infant including ...
Spangler Amy K - - 2008
Marble/ball models are often used to represent newborn stomach capacity; however, their accuracy has not been determined. The objective of this review was to analyze data on newborn stomach capacity and determine whether marble/ball models serve as accurate representations. A literature search yielded limited data, most emanating from the early ...
Golonka Naomi R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To promote the appropriate and early development of the suck and swallow mechanism, we instituted a "sham" feeding protocol in infants undergoing delayed primary repair of an esophageal atresia anomaly. METHODS: Four patients who were born with esophageal atresia required delayed repair and were sham fed before surgical correction. ...
Vice Frank L - - 2008
Because patterns of integration of respiration into rhythmic suck-swallow efforts are highly variable, we examined the vagaries of respiratory efforts as they evolve from the first tentative attempts at integration through more complex rhythmic interactions, with a focus on several strategies in which breathing and suck-swallow are coordinated. Thirty-four preterm ...
Rüdiger Mario - - 2008
AIM: Immaturity is associated with problems in enteral nutrition of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Different time intervals between single feedings are used; however, no data are available to show a benefit of either regime. METHODS: In January 2001 enteral feeding regime was changed from 2-h to 3-h intervals. ...
Lees F - - 2008
Analyses of a unique database containing sea lice records over an 11 year period provide evidence of changing infestation patterns in Scotland. The data, collected from more than 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms, indicate that both species of sea lice commonly found in Scotland, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, have ...
Stapleton Helen - - 2008
Debates about infant-feeding methods have intensified in recent years with increasing pressures on women living in industrialized nations to breastfeed their infants. This paper, based on a qualitative study of 16 childbearing women with a pre-existing eating disorder living in the north of England, examines participants' motivations for, and understandings ...
Aly Salah Mesalhy - - 2008
The probiotic activity of two bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) was evaluated by its effect on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), beside its protective effect against challenge infections. Furthermore, their in-vitro inhibitory activity was evaluated. The in-vitro antimicrobial assay showed that Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus ...
Frank D - - 2008
Knowledge of the advantages of breastfeeding, the disadvantages of bottle feeding and the Papua New Guinean legislation to protect breastfeeding was determined in a comparative study of nulliparous and parous women attending the Antenatal Clinic of Port Moresby General Hospital. A high proportion (40%) of both groups had had experience ...
Mishra Satish - - 2008
Although parenteral nutrition has been used widely in the management of sick very low birth weight infants, a smooth transition to the enteral route is most desirable. Trophic feeding is the practice of feeding small volume of enteral feeds in order to stimulate the development of the immature gastrointestinal tract ...
Coutsoudis Anna - - 2008
The release of the new WHO guidelines on HIV and infant feeding, in a global context of widespread impoverishment, requires countries to re-examine their infant-feeding policies in relation to broader socioeconomic issues. This widening scope is necessitated by compelling new reports on the scale of global underdevelopment in developing countries. ...
Renfrew Mary J - - 2008
AIM: To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of different methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. DESIGN: Systematic review of studies from developed countries on the effectiveness of methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. A brief telephone ...
Ramirez-Romero R - - 2008
Genetically modified Bt crops are increasingly used worldwide but side effects and especially sublethal effects on beneficial insects remain poorly studied. Honey bees are beneficial insects for natural and cultivated ecosystems through pollination. The goal of the present study was to assess potential effects of two concentrations of Cry1Ab protein ...
Sahin Figen - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Teething is a developmental process and occurs over a broad chronological age range. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pattern and growth parameters on teething time of healthy infants. METHODS: A total of 1200 term newborn infants followed up in Gazi University ...
Lambkin Trevor A - - 2008
Factors that influence the localized abundance and distribution of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), in litter of two compacted earth-floor broiler houses in subtropical Australia were studied using various experimental manipulations. Numbers of lesser mealworms substantially increased inside caged areas and under uncaged empty feed pans placed in open areas ...
Arslanoglu Sertac - - 2008
In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was evaluated in preterm infants, in terms of its potential impact on fat absorption, advancement of enteral feeding, development of cholestasis, growth, nutritional status, and metabolic status. Although fecal fat excretion slightly decreased and achievement of ...
Mosqueda E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To gather information regarding the efficacy of early minimal enteral nutrition on overall feeding tolerance in extremely low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the early use of minimal enteral nutrition in extremely low birth weight infants from day 2 to day 7 vs control ...
da Costa S P - - 2008
Preterm infants often have difficulties in learning how to suckle from the breast or how to drink from a bottle. As yet, it is unclear whether this is part of their prematurity or whether it is caused by neurological problems. Is it possible to decide on the basis of how ...
Hausman Bernice L - - 2008
This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay ...
Delaney Amy L - - 2008
The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal ...
Abouelfettoh Amel M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have demonstrated beneficial breastfeeding outcomes when cup feeding rather than bottle feeding was used for feeding preterm infants, cup feeding has not been implemented in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of using cup feeding as an exclusive method of ...
da Costa Saakje P - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Sucking problems in preterm infants can be specified by means of visual observation. The Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) is the visual observation method most commonly used to assess the non-nutritive sucking (NNS) and nutritive sucking (NS) skills of infants up to approximately 8 weeks postterm. During the first ...
Bassichetto Katia Cristina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated infant and young child feeding counseling course for transforming the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians and nutritionists working for the municipal health system of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A randomized intervention study enrolling 29 professionals in the intervention group and 27 ...
Mullassery Dhanya - - 2008
The diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), although traditionally clinical, is now increasingly dependent on radiological corroboration. The rate of negative exploration in IHPS has been reported as 4%. The purpose of our study was to look at elements of supportive clinical evidence leading to positive diagnosis, and to ...
McGuire William - - 2008
The major modifiable risk factors for necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants relate to enteral feeding regimens. Observational studies suggest that conservative feeding regimens such as delaying the introduction of enteral feeds or slowly advancing feed volumes reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis To determine the effect of ...
Collins Carmel T - - 2008
Preterm infants start milk feeds by gavage tube. As they mature, sucking feeds are gradually introduced. Women who choose to breast feed their preterm infant are not always available and an alternative approach to feeding is needed. Most commonly, milk (expressed breast milk or formula) is given by bottle. There ...
Crompton Alfred W - - 2008
Although backward folding of the epiglottis is one of the signal events of the mammalian adult swallow, the epiglottis does not fold during the infant swallow. How this functional change occurs is unknown, but we hypothesize that a change in swallow mechanism occurs with maturation, prior to weaning. Using videofluoroscopy, ...
Sugiura Katsuaki - - 2008
With the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of an administrative guidance on the use of ruminant meat-and-bone meal in ruminant feed, effective from April 1996 to September 2001, we developed a model to simulate the evolution of the BSE epidemic and to estimate the BSE multiplication factor (K) in the ...
Menon G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of morphine therapy and other factors on the attainment of full enteral feeds and on acquired gastrointestinal pathology in preterm infants. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis from a randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: 16 neonatal intensive care units in USA, Sweden, France and UK. PATIENTS: 898 ...
Bacheré N - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe and evaluate the impact of very early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care on the evolution and care of infants presenting with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: 19 infants diagnosed with PWS before the second month of life were followed by a multidisciplinary team. Median age at the time of ...
Amaizu N - - 2008
Safe and successful oral feeding requires proper maturation of sucking, swallowing and respiration. We hypothesized that oral feeding difficulties result from different temporal development of the musculatures implicated in these functions. Sixteen medically stable preterm infants (26 to 29 weeks gestation, GA) were recruited. Specific feeding skills were monitored as ...
Howe Tsu-Hsin - - 2007
We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) in healthy preterm infants. Feeding records of 147 infants (71 males, 76 females; gestational age [GA] <or= 36 wks), taken from the day bottle-feeding was initiated to the day the infants were discharged, were used to ...
Thomas Jessica A - - 2007
Prolonged use of gavage feedings is common in premature infants who have not yet acquired suck, swallow, and breathing coordination. Preterm infants must be developmentally mature to orally feed successfully. Als' Synactive Theory of Development offers a conceptual framework to facilitate understanding of how premature infants dynamically differentiate to attain ...
Rees Lesley - - 2008
The number of infants requiring chronic dialysis is small and has remained stable over the last decade. The majority have structural abnormalities of the urinary tract and over 50% are diagnosed antenatally. Mortality rate is high, particularly in infants with comorbidity, but has been improving. Management presents many challenges: as ...
Bhide A - - 2007
A small pilot study to compare the use of infant feeding tubes (IFT) for endometrial biopsy compared with the standard Pipelle tubes was calculated. We assessed patients' pain scores and the number of successful samples obtained. This study highlights that an IFT may be more comfortable for the patient and ...
Kaparaju Prasad - - 2008
The effect of mixing on anaerobic digestion of manure was evaluated in lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments at 55 degrees C. The effect of continuous (control), minimal (mixing for 10 min prior to extraction/feeding) and intermittent mixing (withholding mixing for 2h prior to extraction/feeding) on methane production was investigated in three ...
Jonfia-Essien W A - - 2007
New hybrid types of cocoa beans are attractive to insects in storage, however some of the insects feed little, if at all, on these beans compared to those of the traditional type (mixed genotypes). Based on a sniffing test using GCMS, differences in flavour volatiles in these types of beans ...
Leander Brian S - - 2007
Euglenids comprise a group of single-celled eukaryotes with diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. The level of morphological diversity present in this group provides an excellent system for demonstrating evolutionary transformations in morphological characters. This diversity also provides compelling evidence for major events in eukaryote evolution, such as ...
Wong Kin-Sun - - 2007
A one-month-old male infant was referred because of noisy breathing sounds, feeding difficulty and shortness of breath. A lateral radiography of the neck showed abnormal soft tissue mass at tongue base. While waiting for a scheduled bronchoscopic examination, respiratory distress and noisy breathing sounds disappeared after nasogastric suctioning. Dramatic improvement ...
van der Schoor Sophie R D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Threonine is an essential amino acid that is abundantly present in intestinally produced glycoproteins. Animal studies show that intestinal first-pass threonine metabolism is high, particularly during a restricted enteral protein intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to quantify intestinal first-pass threonine metabolism in preterm infants during full ...
Drover John W - - 2007
Feeding into the small bowel is often recommended to improve nutrient delivery for critically ill patients, and thus improve outcome and reduce complications associated with enteral feeding. Risks and benefits of gastric feeding, use of motility agents, postpyloric feeding, and obtaining small bowel access are discussed here. Randomized clinical trials ...
Simmer Karen - - 2007
Very preterm infants frequently develop growth failure while in neonatal units. Guidelines for protein and energy requirements have recently been revised to consider the fetal reference related to lean body mass and protein gain, rather than weight gain, with revised protein intakes up to 4.4 g/kg/day at 26 to 30 ...
Hodges Eric A - - 2008
Caregiver responsiveness to infant hunger and fullness cues is thought to play a role in the development of overweight during infancy, but this aspect of infant feeding has received little study. This research used a qualitative approach to understand aspects of feeding responsiveness involving maternal perception and interpretation of infant ...
Howe Tsu-Hsin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A great deal of attention has focused on understanding preterm infant feeding behaviors and on strategies to support the preterm infant during this period; however, comprehensive descriptions of the feeding behavior of preterm infants that incorporate an examination of multiple subsystem levels are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine various physical ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >