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Results 701 - 750 of 1071
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Piwoz E G - - 1995
Feeding patterns of 131 low income Peruvian infants were assessed by 1574 single-day studies (12-h observations plus 12-h recall) of dietary intake and by mothers' monthly reports of usual feeding practices to determine whether feeding pattern classification depends on the assessment method used. Results suggest that single-day studies produce a ...
Hammerman C - - 1995
In instrumented infants, 'normal' feeding occasionally causes respiratory changes, however, the extent of 'acceptable' oxygen desaturation is undocumented. We studied O2 saturation in healthy full-term neonates under totally natural feeding conditions unencumbered by any mechanical devices. Infants' O2 saturation was monitored continuously for 10 min of nutritive sucking and for ...
Neal P - - 1995
Individual babies may differ considerably in the way in which feeds can be introduced, the problems they encounter while this is going on, their final feed requirements and the need for supplementation. Sucking and swallowing reflexes are poorly developed before 32-34 weeks' gestation. Respiratory illness is probably the main reason ...
Gibson L - - 1995
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test a strategy for improving patient's retention of discharge teaching. METHODOLOGY: A pretest-posttest experimental design was used. Forty postpartum women were randomly assigned to a group. All subjects received infant feeding instruction until they reached criterion on the Infant Feeding Questionnaire. The ...
Troche B - - 1995
Critically ill premature infants requiring mechanical ventilation and an umbilical artery catheter usually do not receive enteral feedings during the acute phase of their illness. We studied the safety and benefit of early minimal enteral feedings during this time in a prospective, controlled, and randomized study. Twenty-nine infants were randomly ...
Morgan J - - 1995
Midwives are the most important advisers on infant feeding methods. Advice on infant feeding needs to be given early. Advice on maintenance of lactation is essential. Supportive hospital surroundings are important. Change from one formula to another mirrors the change from breast to bottle. Research is needed into mothers' reasons ...
Dumont R C - - 1994
The neuromuscular apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract develops early in gestation, but normal patterns of innervation and contractile activity are not achieved until near birth. This article reviews the ontogeny of gastrointestinal neuromuscular anatomy and the development of coordinated peristaltic function in the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. This ...
Feyerabend B - - 1994
The isthmo-optic system is less developed in birds feeding-on-the-wing, than in pecking avians. This was suggested previously. By intraocular horseradish peroxidase applications, we studied the central origin of this retino-petal system in thrush, haw finch, swift and swallow. Our data support the assumption on a correlation between feeding habits and ...
Siddell E P - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To describe criteria used to determine readiness for oral feedings in stable, preterm infants. DESIGN: A 25-item survey questionnaire was mailed to hospitals having level II or level III NICUs. SETTING: Nurseries identified in the 1987 National Perinatal Directory (576 in all) as level II or level III NICUs. ...
Vidon N - - 1994
Nasogastric feeding is a safe and inexpensive procedure used in various conditions to provide artificial nutritional support. However, the effects of increasing energy load of nutrients during continuous enteral nutrition on gastric physiology, biliopancreatic secretions and intestinal absorption of nutrients are unknown. A nutrient solution (1 kcal/ml, 15% proteins, 30% ...
Carmon M - - 1994
Enteral feeding by a jejunostomy tube is a reliable and cost-effective method for both long- and short-term nutritional support in selected patients, although a high complication rate has been reported in some series. The authors report on jejunal perforation in an infant, caused by a kinked jejunostomy tube, and emphasize ...
Piwoz E G - - 1994
Data from a longitudinal study of 153 low-income Peruvian infants were used to examine (i) whether infant characteristics such as appetite, illness and past growth performance are related to subsequent changes in their feeding practices (e.g. addition of non-human milks, solid foods, weaning), and (ii) whether this relationship depends on ...
Macagno F - - 1994
Among techniques of enteral feeding, gastric bolus feeding still appears to be the method of choice for most newborn babies because it is both practical and inexpensive. Unstable preterm infants and those with severe respiratory diseases or with delayed gastric emptying time may not tolerate intermittent gastric feedings and may ...
Freetly H C - - 1994
The objective of this study was to determine whether chronic nutritional treatment influences progesterone (P4) metabolism by splanchnic tissues and to develop a mathematical model of P4 metabolism in ewes. Five ovariectomized (ovx), multiparous ewes were assigned to a high feed intake and five multiparous ovx ewes were assigned to ...
Barr R G - - 1994
To determine whether a single intra-oral administration of sucrose would calm infants and elicit mouthing and hand-mouth contact, crying newborn and six-week-old infants were given sucrose solution before one feed and sterile water before another in a cross-over trial. Six-week-old infants were also given sucrose and water after feeding. For ...
Einarsson-Backes L M - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of oral support on feeding efficiency in preterm infants who were identified by the medical team as poor feeders. Thirteen premature infants between 34 and 40 weeks' postconceptional age were selected from a group of infants at Children's Hospital and ...
Glass R P - - 1994
A comprehensive assessment of feeding performance of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) includes not only the traditional approaches of evaluating oral motor control and sensory responses but also evaluation of other factors. Infant feeding is a highly complex and integrated process involving numerous body systems. A global ...
Minard G - - 1994
Nutritional support is a vital part of the therapy of most hospitalized patients. Early initiation, particularly via the enteral route, has a significant effect on septic complications in a wide variety of patients. Early enteral feeding may also attenuate the hypercatabolic response that follows burn injury, although the evidence is ...
Davey A M - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the frequency of feeding problems and necrotizing enterocolitis between a group of premature infants who received early enteral feedings while low umbilical artery catheters (LUACs) were in place, and a ...
Wang P A - - 1994
The time for passage of the first stool and urine was studied in 111 infants who weighed less than 1500 g at birth. Delayed passage of the first stool (greater than 24 h) was noted in 25 (22.5%) infants of this group, including 7 cases (6.3%) in whom the delay ...
Blair R M - - 1994
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering feed and detecting estrous behavior by computer-controlled equipment in a nonconfinement environment. In Exp. 1, gilts were assigned to treatment when detected pregnant by ultrasound at 30 to 35 d after artificial insemination. They were assigned to ...
Apple R D - - 1994
In barely more than half a century, between the 1880s and the 1940s, infant feeding practices changed dramatically in the United States. In the nineteenth century, breastfeeding predominated, though alternatives were used in some cases. By the mid-twentieth century, the consensus of health care personnel and the general public supported ...
Jacoby E R - - 1994
The effectiveness of two educational intervention programmes in promoting infant feeding practices was assessed among mothers of small children attending a hospital's Oral Rehydration Unit in Peru. One group of mothers received 5 min of counselling and a recipe pamphlet. The other group received the same counselling plus a 20-min ...
Kinneer M D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To rank factors considered important by neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) nurses in identifying hunger in infants weighing 1,800 g or less, to rank factors considered important in making decisions about nipple feeding such infants, to determine whether the two rankings varied among hospitals, and to identify the caregiver with ...
Nowak A J - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether real-time ultrasonography can be used to directly visualize artificial nipples in vivo while an infant is sucking, to compare deformation differences of the artificial nipple with the human nipple during sucking, and to compare the suck mechanism used by the infant with four types of artificial ...
Machado C S - - 1994
Intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (IEL % enterocytes) were carried out in histological samples of jejunal, ileal and appendiceal mucosa of 39 neonates, aged from birth to 28 days. Correlations between IEL counts and developmental factors, namely gestational age, birth weight and intrauterine growth, as well as neonatal infections or feeding state ...
Dungy C I - - 1994
To achieve the goal of Healthy People 2000 of increasing the rate and duration of breast-feeding in the United States, it is important to determine how maternal attitudes influence choice of infant feeding method. This study of postpartum women explores the extent to which maternal attitudes concerning process (how the ...
Millar M R - - 1993
The objectives of this study were to determine whether or not the probiotic Lactobacillus GG can colonise the immature bowel of premature infants and if so, does colonisation result in a reduction of the size of the bowel reservoir of nosocomial pathogens such as enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, yeasts or staphylococci, and ...
Ewer A K - - 1993
The pathophysiological significance of fetal echogenic gut (FEG) is unknown. Our aim was prospectively to evaluate FEG in infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and absent umbilical artery end diastolic flow velocities. Over a 15 month period, nine infants with FEG met these criteria. Nine infants who, on antenatal assessment, ...
Suchecki D - - 1993
Twenty-four hours of maternal separation results in increased secretion of ACTH and corticosterone (CORT), suggesting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by some aspect of maternal behavior. Previous results indicate that feeding plays a role in maintaining low levels of CORT in 12-day-old pups. In Experiment 1 basal and stress ...
Sahu A - - 1993
Neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior is multifactorial, involving a variety of peripheral and central signals. Neuropeptides, catecholamines, and serotonin constitute the signals of the feeding circuitry acting primarily in the brain, especially at the hypothalamic level. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the recent progress made in ...
Voss S - - 1993
A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall ...
Dellert S F - - 1993
Resistance to oral feedings occurring during the course of chronic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infants has received little attention in the literature. Accordingly, we reviewed the clinical courses of 600 infants of < 24 months of age with GER seen over an 8-year period to determine the prevalence and course ...
Newell S J - - 1993
The study of gastric emptying in the preterm infant has been hampered by the absence of a suitable, valid technique. We have evaluated gastric antral clearance using serial ultrasonic measurement of the antral cross sectional area (ACSA). The study was easy to perform, providing successful results in 15 of 17 ...
Mathus-Vliegen E M - - 1993
In an attempt to combine successful distal feeding tube positioning and a more prolonged stay without interfering with tube patency and feeding regimens, commercially available 105-cm polyurethane feeding tubes were compared with experimental tubes 125 cm and 145 cm long. The technique for endoscopic positioning at the bedside of the ...
Rosenfeld P - - 1993
Basal and stress-induced corticosterone release in the infant rat has been shown to be inhibited by some aspect of maternal care. The following studies examined specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. In Experiments 1 and 2, 12-day-old pups remained with their dam but were either prevented ...
Timms B J - - 1993
This study was designed to determine whether increased respiratory drive induced by inhalation of carbon dioxide would alter the reflex and voluntary components of feeding. For 10 preterm infants (mean +/- SD: postconceptional age at study, 34 +/- 2 weeks; weight, 2.1 +/- 0.2 kg), four trials of nutritive feeding ...
Berseth C L - - 1993
Low-compliance perfusion manometry and clinical outcome were used to assess the chronic effects of feeding on functional maturation of the preterm intestine in 32 infants. During the first postnatal week, 16 infants received a small volume of formula to supplement their routine parenteral nutrition (24 ml.kg-1.day-1), and 16 received an ...
Kelly M - - 1993
Recent experience of emergency relief operations in middle-income countries has shown that infant feeding issues can greatly complicate attempts to protect infant health. The two main problems are: how to protect and support breastfeeding in communities where it is no longer the norm and how to assist artificially fed infants ...
Kowitz A A - - 1993
Although conventional wisdom suggests that paediatric dentistry was not practised until the early twentieth century it was in fact recorded in much earlier times. The authors detail many authors and books from previous centuries concerned with weaning, infant feeding, remedies for teething pains and eruption. Further details include the early ...
Guldan G S - - 1993
To understand some of the factors involved in weaning and growth faltering in rural China, a cross-sectional positive deviance study was undertaken among 389 rural 4-12-month-old infants from two townships of a county in Sichuan. The infants' mothers were interviewed about their child-feeding practices and other sociodemographic information, and anthropometric ...
Pickler R H - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of nonnutritive sucking on the physiologic and behavioral stress reactions of preterm infants at early bottle feedings and to examine the effect of nonnutritive sucking on the feeding performance of preterm infants at early bottle feedings. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental with a matched sample. SETTING: A level ...
O'Donoghue J M - - 1993
Several reports have suggested that there is an increasing incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). We examined the incidence of IHPS in a stable population in the West of Ireland over a ten year period (1981-1990). During the 10 years of the study the number of live births per ...
Blondheim O - - 1993
To compare the effects of intermittent and continuous feedings on pulmonary function, we studied 24 very low birth weight neonates (mean +/- SD: birth weight, 1.2 +/- 0.3 kg; gestational age, 30.5 +/- 1.1 weeks) at 2 to 4 weeks of age. All infants had a previous diagnosis of respiratory ...
Nour S - - 1993
Gastric emptying in a group of 49 vomiting infants with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) was investigated using applied potential tomography. Fourteen asymptomatic infants were also studied as a control group. A Dioralyte test feed (25 ml/kg/feed) was used for all the studies. The infants with IHPS were investigated before ...
Hundt G A - - 1993
This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both ...
Ramsay M - - 1993
In this article the authors propose that non-organic failure to thrive (FTT) is a growth failure secondary to feeding-skills disorder, and that this disorder is neurophysiological in origin. The symptoms of feeding-skills disorder were suggestive of an oral sensorimotor impairment which is usually present from birth or early life, but ...
Cosminsky S - - 1993
This paper reports preliminary results from a study of child feeding practices in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Although Zimbabwe has relatively low infant mortality rates, it still has high child malnutrition rates. Several factors, including sex roles and relations between the sexes, access to resources, food costs and availability, ...
Lindsay S W - - 1993
During experimental hut trials to assess the efficacy of insecticide-treated bednets against malaria mosquitoes, we observed that human subjects varied consistently in their attractiveness to mosquitoes. Attractiveness was assessed by estimating the numbers of wild Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquitoes entering a hut in which a man was sleeping, and the ...
Pridham K F - - 1993
To examine the influence of an infant's physical condition on nipple-feeding practices and the contribution of the infant's age at complete nipple feeding to dietary intake and somatic growth outcomes. A retrospective, correlational study. Two Level III nurseries. Records of 55 preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The infant's intake of ...
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