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Chabali R - - 1997
Emergency physicians often deal with diagnostically elusive cases that may present repeatedly over the course of illness. The infant presented here had a chronic history, prompting multiple physician contacts for initially seemingly common problems. Assessing the patient's progression of symptoms over time and eliciting a brief developmental history in the ...
Lau C - - 1997
To gain a better understanding of the development of sucking behavior in low birth weight infants, the aims of this study were as follows: (1) to assess these infants' oral feeding performance when milk delivery was unrestricted, as routinely administered in nurseries, versus restricted when milk flow occurred only when ...
Rochat P - - 1997
Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) activities were recorded in preterm infants born at gestational age 32 weeks or less during nasogastric feedings. Six infants on intermittent nasogastric feeding schedules were tested with a pacifier in their mouth for three 5-minute periods (before, during, and after gavage feeding). Analysis of the recordings revealed ...
Comrie J D - - 1997
This paper reviews current literature on feeding and swallowing of the premature and high-risk infant. If addresses issues of maturation and organization that affect feeding abilities. Evaluation issues including instrumental evaluations (e.g., cervical auscultation, modified barium swallow studies) are discussed. Finally, common problems seen in this population are described along ...
Underwood S - - 1997
It is a well-established fact that nutrition is central to the growth and development of all infants. Yet it has been observed that health care professionals are frequently unfamiliar with the most typical infant feeding practices of the clients within the communities they attempt to serve. This observation was apparent ...
Aono S - - 1997
Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the blubber of minke whale and its diet collected from the Antarctic and the North Pacific Oceans. Residue levels of these compounds (except HCB) in minke whale from the Antarctic were ...
Keith K A - - 1997
The choice of an infant feeding method is a poorly understood phenomenon. In all societies women are the infant feeders, regardless of the method of infant feeding. How women decide on an infant feeding method is not known; the decision making is complex and frequently unconscious. A qualitative study using ...
Trenouth M J - - 1996
A questionnaire evaluation was undertaken of feeding methods used by the mothers of 25 neonates with cleft lip and/or palate. Most parents had problems feeding their babies, both with the quantity of food taken and especially with the time taken to feed; even after a period of 2 months over ...
Arvedson J C - - 1996
Dysphagia in infants and children is usually only one part of a broad spectrum of complex medical, health, and developmental problems. As etiologies vary, so do prognoses. Increased survival rates of infants in recent years have been accompanied by an increased prevalence of neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and structural impairments that can ...
Makumi J N - - 1996
Glossina longipennis were recorded visiting and engorging on cattle in an enclosure and on a single ox in a crush using transparent electrocuting nets in an incomplete ring. Of the total flies caught, 3-6% of males and 5-6% of females in the total catches were engorged (a feeding success rate ...
Marik P E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of enteral tube feedings on the measurement of gastric intramucosal pH. DESIGN: Interventional study. SETTING: Two intensive care units of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty hemodynamically stable patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, with a nasogastric tonometer in situ, in whom enteral feeding was initiated. INTERVENTIONS: ...
al Tawil Y - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Continuous perfusion manometry was performed in 93 preterm and 14 term infants, none of whom had ever been fed enterally, to determine whether duodenal motor responses to bolus feeding differ in preterm and term infants. STUDY DESIGN: Motor activity was recorded for 6 hours: 4 hours before and 2 ...
McClure R J - - 1996
In 1987 and 1994 all UK regional neonatal intensive care units were questioned about their feeding policies for the ventilated preterm infant. Between 1987 and 1994 there was an increase in the use of milk feeds (59 versus 71%), fortified breast milk (5 versus 72%) and low birthweight formula (41 ...
Bhatnagar S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs incurred on infant feeding between the mothers who exclusively breastfed their infants and those who introduced supplements up to 6 months of age. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow up. SETTING: Urban slums of south Delhi. METHODS: One hundred normal mother infant pairs fulfilling the prelaid criteria were ...
Ahmed F U - - 1996
This study was carried out with a view to finding out factors influencing prelacteal feeding and its relation to establishment of lactation in rural Bangladesh. 420 mothers in early post-partum period were interviewed at home. Prelacteal feeding was given to 77% of the babies, and honey was given to 72% ...
Kwauk S T - - 1996
The key to short-term enteral feeding in patients with gastroparesis is to deliver the nutrition beyond the pylorus. Endoscopic assisted methods allow the precise placement of the feeding tube to the small bowel. However, the main difficulty in association with these procedures is feeding-tube migration into the stomach during the ...
Mattes R D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of sweet taste stimulation in augmenting the reported growth-enhancing effects of nonnutritive sucking in preterm infants who are gavage-fed. DESIGN: Random assignment of preterm infants to receive stimulation by one of three methods during each feeding until totally orally fed. SETTING: Hospital intensive-care and infant ...
Haider R - - 1996
Young infants admitted to hospital for diarrhoea were studied to identify and understand the reasons for early complementary feeding and to examine its effect on nutritional status. Of 132 infants, 71 percent were being breastfed, 24 percent had already stopped, and 5 percent had never been breastfed. Complementary feeds were ...
Reau N R - - 1996
To fill information gaps, predominantly non-Hispanic white parents in five Chicago-area pediatric offices were surveyed concerning infant (n = 130) and toddler (n = 151) feeding times and behaviors. Feeding time distributions did not differ by age. Percentiles (in minutes) were: 10th, 9.4; 50th, 17.7; and 90th, 29.3. The most ...
Pickler R H - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nonnutritive sucking (NNS) on behavioral organization and feeding performance in preterm infants. Thirteen preterm infants were observed at four bottle-feedings, two of which involved treatment with prefeeding NNS. NNS had a positive effect on oxygen saturation and behavior state, ...
Shiao S Y - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the desaturation events with the presence and absence of a nasogastric tube during an entire oral feeding in 20 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental, random assignment. SETTING: Midwestern, university-affiliated, tertiary neonatal medical center. PATIENTS: Twenty VLBW infants without severe neurologic problems or physical ...
Lemons P K - - 1996
Premature infants present a nutritional challenge to the health care provider for a variety of reasons: reduced gastric capacity, poorly integrated intestinal motility, limited digestive capabilities, neurobehavioral immaturity and limited ability to take feedings by mouth. There is often a prolonged need for oro-gastric/nasogastric supplementation until nipple feedings can commence. ...
Gaebler C P - - 1996
This study examined the effects of stroking and a perioral and intraoral prefeeding stimulation program on healthy, growing, preterm infants in a Level II special care nursery. Only infants without cardiac, gastrointestinal, or central nervous system problems were included in the study. Two groups of nine randomly assigned, medically stable ...
Hoghton M A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of infants who are dehydrated as a result of acute gastroenteritis is to administer oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Traditionally, food has been withdrawn for 24-48 h, but there is no conclusive evidence that this is of any real benefit to the patient. Immediate modified feeding, in which ...
Kaltenthaler E C - - 1996
Faecal indicator bacteria have been used to measure levels of hygiene in a variety of settings. This paper describes a study in northern Botswana which used the isolation of faecal indicator bacteria in combination with other quantitative and qualitative techniques to gain information regarding hygiene behaviour. The microbiological samples included, ...
Ramsay M - - 1996
This study is the first to demonstrate an association between neonatal and later sucking ability, clinical signs of feeding ability and maternal feeding practices. Of 49 infants followed to a mean age of six weeks, 20 had some feeding problems (compensatory group), based on changes in feeding practices by their ...
Pickett J A - - 1996
Developments in the exploitation of mosquito olfaction are traced, in collaborative studies with various groups, from the first identification of a mosquito pheromone through to a discussion of non-host avoidance. The characterization of the oviposition pheromone for mosquitoes in the genus Culex, e.g. Culex quinquefasciatus, as a novel chiral lactone ...
Byard R W - - 1995
Two 4 week old infants are reported who suffered apparent life threatening events (ALTE) while being cradled in adult arms. The events, which could be reproduced under controlled circumstances, were not associated with any struggling by the infants. Alteration of infant holding practices in both cases resulted in cessation of ...
Chapman M E - - 1995
The performance of broilers reared in floor pens and given monensin in the feed at 121 ppm was compared with that of birds given no drug. Feed intake and BW gain of medicated birds was significantly lower than that of unmedicated birds from 0 to 22 d of age. Feed ...
Ni Y H - - 1995
After a trial of 1 month of nasogastric tube feeding, three infants (aged 5-14 mo) underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) to enable long-term enteral feeding. The Ponsky-pull technique was employed for PEG insertion. In two patients, the procedure was complicated by superficial wound infection at the cutaneous exists of the ...
Bergström E - - 1995
Total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were analysed in 879 14- and 17-year-old healthy adolescents (477 boys and 402 girls), and related to family history of cardiovascular disease, ...
Nanulescu M - - 1995
We compared early versus late re-feeding in the management of acute diarrhoea in the first year of life. In the study group (73 groups) breast feeding was resumed or early re-feeding was performed in non-breast-fed infants, so that the feeding regimen used prior to the onset of the disease was ...
Bean S A - - 1995
Newborn infants with severe autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease often receive minimal intervention because poor respiratory and renal outcomes are anticipated. We describe two patients whose respiratory failure was successfully treated with aggressive intervention. Massive kidneys restricted gastrointestinal capacity and limited feedings. Uninephrectomy allowed adequate enteral feedings and preserved sufficient ...
Elias M - - 1995
Predation potentiality of a biological control agent, the guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata (= Lebistes reticulatus), was studied over the mosquito larvae under laboratory conditions. The third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito were used as prey. The average consumption rate was 41.0 per day per fish. The female fish was ...
Mizuno K - - 1995
The effect of body position before and after tube feeding was evaluated in six extremely immature infants who were being mechanically ventilated because of chronic lung disease. Their mean birthweight and gestational age were 722.7 g (range, 540 to 994) and 24.9 weeks (range, 23.9 to 26.0), respectively. This study ...
Weber T R - - 1995
Sepsis secondary to bacterial translocation is common in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Although early feeding is advocated to enhance adaptation in SBS, the effects of feeding on sepsis in SBS patients have not been examined. Twenty-one infants and children (aged 2 months to 3 years) with SBS (< ...
Farber S D - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an angled-bottle feeding system is more effective than a straight-bottle feeding system in facilitating the medically recommended semiupright infant posture and to determine whether an angled bottle promotes improved ergonomic alignment and comfort for the feeder. STUDY DESIGN: On two consecutive days, 23 pairs of parent-infant ...
Tully S B - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bottle feeding with the infant in the supine position is related to entry of milk into the middle ear, thereby predisposing the infant to otitis media. STUDY DESIGN: Ninety children, aged 7 to 24 months, who were free of respiratory infection and had normal tympanograms initially, ...
Neifert M - - 1995
The purposes of this article are to introduce a formal definition of nipple confusion and to propose various hypotheses concerning its cause. The term nipple confusion refers to an infant's difficulty in achieving the correct oral configuration, latching technique, and suckling pattern necessary for successful breast-feeding after bottle feeding or ...
Clevenger F W - - 1995
Enteral nutrition has become the preferred route of nutrient administration. Because of vigorous attempts to deliver nutrient enterally in expanded patient groups, many different locations for enteral access have been advocated along with a variety of methods related to rate and pattern of delivery. Because all modes of delivery are ...
Majak W - - 1995
Results from two decades (1973-1993) of bloat research at Kamloops are reviewed. The trials were conducted with groups of ruminally fistulated cattle either grazing or fed daily fresh-cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa) herbage. Studies were conducted during the growing season (May to September) and in the fall (October and November). The ...
Alkalay A L - - 1995
To avoid long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), three premature infants with extensive bowel resections were fed high volume enteral infusates (HVEI). Following surgery an elemental hypo-osmolar gastric infusate was initiated. The infants were weaned of PN and were subsequently maintained on HVEI feeding. Rather than using the volume of the ileostomy ...
Verma M - - 1995
Attitudes of 2500 urban college girls from Ludhiana city, aged 15 to 20 years were assessed towards infant feeding using a standardized Likert Scale (r = 0.82). The influence of subject opted in college and the presence of a child less than 3 years in the family on the attitudes ...
Bottei K - - 1995
This paper reports a project that identified and validated a nursing diagnosis for the problem of ineffective infant feeding behaviors--feeding dysfunction. Three validation phases were used for development of the diagnosis. During the first phase the literature review provided information about the problem, the etiologies, and the defining characteristics. Phase ...
Pereira G R - - 1995
In summary, the nutritional care of extremely premature babies includes special attention to glucose homeostasis and fluid and electrolyte balance in the immediate postnatal period. Parenteral nutrition should be started routinely on the 2nd or 3rd day of life, if the infant is metabolically stable, and continued until the infant ...
Shiao S Y - - 1995
Eighteen very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who met study criteria were observed during routinely scheduled feedings, twice in one day, once with a nasogastric (NG) tube and once without, in random order. Breathing and sucking measurements were compared with and without NG tube placement. During the prefeed period, minute ventilation and tidal ...
Berseth C L - - 1995
The provision of early minimal enteral nutrition to the metabolically stable premature infant appears to result in multiple nutritional benefits and in a minimal risk of complications. Whereas benefits can be achieved with feeding volumes ranging from 0.1 to 4 mL/kg, future studies will need to address the responses of ...
Vice F L - - 1995
Pharyngeal swallows during infant suckle-feeding are associated with a characteristic sequence of sounds audible by stethoscope or by an accelerometer or microphone held over the larynx. In rhythmically feeding term-born neonates, the delineating acoustic elements are discrete sounds which precede and succeed pharyngeal swallows. Digital signal processing shows similarities in ...
McCain G C - - 1995
Transition of preterm infants from enteral to nipple feeding is a necessary milestone for hospital discharge. This study tested the efficacy of one potential intervention to facilitate the transition process. Ten minutes of nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and a control condition were administered randomly before first nipple feedings. The sample consisted ...
Morgan J - - 1995
A survey of infant feeding practices reveals that many of the current government recommendations are not being adopted by parents. Jane Morgan and Jacqueline Stordy describe the study findings. The publication of the 1994 Coma report on infant weaning should provide a timely opportunity for health visitors to take the ...
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