Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1073
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Enriquez A - - 1998
AIM: To assess the efficacy of cisapride in reducing the time required to establish enteral feeds in preterm infants. METHODS: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted of 34 infants of < or = 32 weeks of gestation, assigned to receive either cisapride 0.2 mg/kg/dose four times daily ...
Marlier L L Laboratoire de Psychophysique Sensorielle CNRS EP 618, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, - - 1998
The head-orientation response of 2- and 4-day-old bottle-feeding neonates was studied in paired-choice odor tests. Three tests were conducted at Days 2 and 4 after birth to assess the development of the relative response between two salient odors from the prenatal and postnatal environments: (a) amniotic fluid (AF) versus formula ...
Galler J R - - 1998
This longitudinal study was designed to examine reciprocal relationships between feeding practices and infant growth over the first 6 mo of life. The following three hypotheses were tested: 1) early feeding practices predict later infant growth; 2) early infant growth predicts later feeding practices; and 3) these relationships occur after ...
Byrne M W - - 1998
In a purposive sample of HIV-exposed infants, Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training (NCAST) Feeding Scale measurements of caregiver-infant interaction during one feeding occasion in a clinic demonstrated both strengths and weaknesses in the interaction. Twelve dyads included 6 birth mothers, 2 biological fathers, 3 foster mothers, and 1 kinship guardian, ...
Summers A P - - 1998
Studies of aquatic prey capture in vertebrates have demonstrated remarkable convergence in kinematics between diverse vertebrate taxa. When feeding in water, most vertebrates employ large-amplitude hyoid depression to expand the oral cavity and suck in water along with the prey. In contrast, vertebrates feeding on land exhibit little or no ...
de Ville K - - 1998
It is unknown whether it is better to feed preterm infants intragastrically by bolus or continuous infusion. This study compared the effect of 2 feeding rates on antral and duodenal motor responses and gastric emptying. Continuous perfusion manometry with a low-compliance machine was performed in 22 infants given feedings at ...
Linder N - - 1998
This prospective study was designed to assess the value of a simple clinical test, a "feeding test", on the outcome of head lag among term neonates. Of 5718 infants who were examined before their morning meal, 67 had moderate to severe head lag in the absence of predisposing risk factors ...
Gremse D A - - 1998
The term failure to imbibe is proposed to describe infants with failure to thrive due to poor feeding. Feeding assessment was performed in 128 patients: 43 healthy controls, 53 diseased controls, 12 with nonorganic failure to thrive, and 20 with failure to imbibe. Infants with failure to imbibe required a ...
Madec F - - 1998
A cohort study was carried out in France about postweaning digestive disorders in the piglet. One hundred and six farrow-to-finish farms were involved. In each of them, a batch of contemporary piglets was considered. A total of 12,034 piglets were ear-notched, evaluated during the suckling phase and weighed at weaning, ...
Prahlow J A - - 1998
Complications occurring with jejunostomy feeding tubes are common and sometimes life-threatening. We describe a case of peristalsis-induced intraluminal antegrade migration of a jejunostomy tube's distal end with concomitant retrograde movement of the small bowel over the tube, which was first discovered at autopsy. This ultimately resulted in the jejunostomy feedings ...
Rahi J S - - 1998
A survey of a sample of UK paediatricians was carried out to identify the practices and determine the training of those involved in routine surveillance examinations to detect ophthalmic disorders in infants. The findings indicate important variation in current practices and raise concerns about both undergraduate and postgraduate training in ...
Clausen P H - - 1998
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to identify the origin of vertebrate blood in the guts of 29 245 wild-caught flies of eleven Glossina species from various ecological zones of Africa. Depending on the quality of the bloodmeal samples, 62.8% of the samples were identified and could be assigned ...
Waterland R A - - 1998
To measure infant nutritive sucking reproducibly, nipple flow resistance must be controlled. Previous investigators have accomplished this with flow-limiting venturis, which has two limitations: flow resistance is highly dependent on fluid viscosity and older infants often reject the venturi nipple. This report describes the validation of calibrated-orifice nipples for the ...
Chen C Y - - 1998
Purple clams, Hiatula diphos Linnaeus, are filter-feeding bivalves and maculated ivory shells. Babylonia areolata Link are carnivorous gastropods. Both shellfishes are popular seafood delicacies among the Taiwanese. Hiatula diphos were forced to contain gonyautoxins (GTXs) in this research by feeding them with cells of Alexandrium minutum Halim, a toxic dinoflagellate ...
Schrank W - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Although introducing freely flowing formula into the infant's mouth is a common feeding practice, its effect on feeding behavior is largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of free flow of formula from the nipple on infant feeding activity (sucking, swallowing, ingestion rate) and documented potential adverse behaviors such as ...
Rowan N J - - 1998
Reconstituted infant milk formulas are considered a food class of high risk because of the susceptibility of the infant population to enteric bacterial pathogens, severe response to enterotoxins, and increased mortality. Twenty infant feeding bottles, contaminated with different levels of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus, were subjected in triplicate to a variety ...
Morais T B - - 1998
Reported are the results of a study in São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles prepared in urban households of low (LSE) and high (HSE) socioeconomic groups, involving 100 and 32 mothers of infants, respectively. Samples of the lacteal contents of the ...
Okada Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with a risk of septicaemia. This may be caused by impairment of immune function related to PN. The authors investigated the effects of the addition of enteral feedings to PN on the immune status of human newborn infants. METHODS: Ten surgical infants (age less ...
James M - - 1998
Try to tailor your advice to the individual family. Keep it simple and practical. Find out who is going, where and whether the family has any particular health needs. Encourage the family to plan ahead, finding out as much as they can about facilities for young children at their destination. ...
Brown S - - 1998
Clinicians in several countries have expressed concerns about possible adverse effects of shortening obstetric length of stay. A population-based survey of 1366 mothers who gave birth in Victoria, Australia, in 1993 was used to investigate social and obstetric characteristics of mothers discharged home 'early', and to assess whether shorter stays ...
Meyer-Rochow V B - - 1998
Activity rhythms in groups of captive beach beetles (Chaerodes trachyscelides White) have been recorded in an actograph over a period of 29 days. Under constant illumination and when no sand was provided for the beetles to burrow in abnormal behaviour occurred. With sand and in constant darkness a strictly nocturnal ...
Middleton J R - - 1997
A 4-month-old, 6.8-kg, castrated male pygmy goat was examined for recurrent episodic fever and red urine of 7 days' duration. A second, 3-month-old, 7-kg, intact female pygmy goat was presented for similar clinical signs. The red discoloration of the urine in each case was determined to be due to hemolysis ...
Chung M A - - 1997
Galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disorder in which the individual is unable to metabolize lactose. In the newborn, classic galactosemia presents with symptoms of severe feeding intolerance, malnutrition, and rapid organ damage. Without immediate treatment, the infant will almost certainly succumb to rampant disease or sepsis. Through increased clinical awareness, ...
Neu J - - 1997
Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral ...
Frongillo E A EA - - 1997
When complementary foods should be introduced in the diets of infants in poor environments remains controversial. Resolution has been hampered by inadequate study designs. A study in Honduras has demonstrated an experimental design assessing multiple infant and maternal outcomes and provides information for planning sample size and accounting for dropouts ...
Rogers I S - - 1997
Breastfeeding suppresses ovarian activity resulting in amenorrhea and infertility. The frequency of breastfeeds and their duration appear to be important in maintaining amenorrhea--and night-time sucking appears to be particularly crucial. Supplementary feeding may affect fertility by altering suckling behaviour, but the evidence is confusing as to whether feeding supplements reduces ...
Premji S S - - 1997
A systematic computerized search of all databases was performed to review the scientific evidence in support of the efficacy of cisapride in reducing feeding intolerance in premature infants. Reference lists from these articles were used to identify relevant scientific literature to address important aspects of the use of cisapride. Three ...
Bhosale N A - - 1997
A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted at Immunoprophylaxis Clinic at Govt. Medical College, Nagpur. Mothers of 217 children were interviewed for infant feeding practices. In 62.67% of children, breast-feeding was initiated within 24 hrs. after birth. About 22% mother used prelacteal feed and 70% mothers preferred demand feeding. Prominent ...
Akintorin S M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that very low birth weight infants fed by continuous nasogastric gavage (CNG) would achieve full enteral feedings (100 kcal/kg/d) at an earlier postnatal age and have less feeding intolerance (FI) than infants fed by intermittent bolus gavage (IBG). METHODS: Eighty infants were stratified by birth ...
Lin H C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: During tube feeding, it is a common practice to check gastric residual volume frequently for indications of pathologic impairment of gastric emptying. The volume threshold standards for holding feedings are applied nonselectively, disregarding slowing of gastric emptying by nutrient-triggered intestinogastric inhibitory feedback. We developed a computer simulation model considering ...
Schumaker T T - - 1997
Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) amblus Chamberlin 1920 specimens were collected from a seagull (Larus spp.) nest in northern Chile. This reports the occurrence of this species outside Peru. The biology of 79 specimens reared under laboratory conditions at 27 degrees C, 75-80% RH, and total darkness was determined. A 13% mortality rate ...
Morton R E - - 1997
Feeding problems are common in Rett syndrome in which there are characteristic oropharyngeal abnormalities. This study investigated the ways in which individuals regulated their respiration accordingly, and how this affected their overall feeding ability. Respiration during feeding was studied in 28 individuals, recording nasal airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and ...
Ryan K - - 1997
By outlining infant feeding trends and the essential characteristics of support groups, this paper reveals how important such groups and their development have been in shaping the history of infant feeding in twentieth-century New Zealand. The paper draws, in particular, on the histories, growth, and influence of the Royal New ...
Kuehl J - - 1997
Cup feeding is gaining increased recognition as an alternative method of feeding infants breast milk. For the term infant, cup feeding is suggested when the mother is unavailable to put the infant to breast. In the preterm population, cup feeding may be initiated before the preterm infant is ready to ...
Hanlon M B - - 1997
The maturation of deglutition apnoea time was investigated in 42 bottle-fed preterm infants, 28 to 37 weeks gestation, and in 29 normal term infants as a comparison group. Deglutition apnoea times reduced as infants matured, as did the number and length of episodes of multiple-swallow deglutition apnoea. The maturation appears ...
McCain G C - - 1997
The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of behavioral state activity during nipple feeding on feeding success for a group of 20 preterm infants. The infants, fed per hospital policy at scheduled three-hour intervals, were observed during four early nipple feedings. Nine of the 20 infants were ...
Pendlebury J - - 1997
We report a case of ambulatory endoscopic gastrostomy feeding via a low profile button device using a portable feeding pump. This provided successful nutritional support to a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction who became pregnant while on gastrostomy feeding. She successfully completed her pregnancy with nutritional support through the gastrostomy. ...
Wang L Y - - 1997
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early enteral feeding in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants without parenteral nutrition. Weight gain, feeding intolerance, nosocomial infection rate and a postnatal growth curve were recorded for 61 VLBW premature infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive ...
Pickler R H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the bottle-feeding histories of preterm infants and determine physical indices related to and predictive of bottle-feeding initiation and progression. DESIGN: Ex post facto. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 40 preterm infants without concomitant cardiac, gastrointestinal, or cognitive impairment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postconceptional age ...
Fragaszy D M - - 1997
This study examined the behavioral mechanisms that support transfer of food from adults to infants in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Two captive groups of capuchins were presented with abundant quantities of unshelled pecans or commercial pellets. Five of 11 infant subjects could not open the nuts. A variety of tolerated ...
Carlos M A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To study the pattern of gastric emptying in very premature infants and to determine whether there are changes with postnatal age and the ability to tolerate feedings. METHODS: Sequential ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral cross-sectional area were obtained in 32 infants (mean gestational age, 26 +/- 1 weeks) ...
Bishop N J - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Aluminum, a contaminant of commercial intravenous-feeding solutions, is potentially neurotoxic. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to intravenous aluminum on the neurologic development of infants born prematurely. METHODS: We randomly assigned 227 premature infants with gestational ages of less than 34 weeks and birth weights of less than ...
Shiao S Y - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of continuous and intermittent sucking on breathing and sucking during oral feedings in very-low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental, within-subjects design with random assignment. Infants were observed twice in 1 day, once with a nasogastric tube and once without, in random order. SETTING: A Midwestern university-affiliated ...
Poets C F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of bottle feeding, as compared to two methods of gavage feeding, on apnoea, bradycardia and oxygen desaturation frequency. PATIENTS: Thirty preterm infants breathing room air; gestational age 28.6 +/- 2.1 weeks at birth and 34 +/- 1.4 weeks at study (mean +/- SD). METHODS: Nine-hour ...
Mathisen B A - - 1997
Oral motor function and feeding problems have received little attention in infants with myelomeningocele (MMC). We compared objective video assessments of oral motor skills, diet and feeding function of 20 infants (aged 6 months) with MMC, with data from 20, age, gender, and socioeconomically matched healthy infants using the Feeding ...
Flaherty B - - 1997
Lithium carbonate is used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Because of its widespread use, many women of childbearing age are taking lithium carbonate, which belongs to the US FDA Category D. Administration during pregnancy can result in fetal toxicity. A 17-y-old female with pre-eclampsia and a history of manic ...
Kriss V M - - 1997
PURPOSE: To evaluate the short-term gastric effects of prostaglandin therapy in neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographs of nine neonates with congenital heart disease who received prostaglandins during the 1st week of life. Eighteen matched control infants (nine healthy neonates and nine infants with noncyanotic congenital ...
Rowan N J - - 1997
Twenty-four pasteurized infant feeds, prepared in a Glasgow hospital, were examined microbiologically. All produced a satisfactory total aerobic mesophilic count of < or = 1.0 x 10(4) cfu/g (mean 6.3 x 10(1) cfu/g) within 1 h of preparation. Bacillus cereus was detected in two infant feeds immediately after preparation and ...
Chabali R - - 1997
Emergency physicians often deal with diagnostically elusive cases that may present repeatedly over the course of illness. The infant presented here had a chronic history, prompting multiple physician contacts for initially seemingly common problems. Assessing the patient's progression of symptoms over time and eliciting a brief developmental history in the ...
Lau C - - 1997
To gain a better understanding of the development of sucking behavior in low birth weight infants, the aims of this study were as follows: (1) to assess these infants' oral feeding performance when milk delivery was unrestricted, as routinely administered in nurseries, versus restricted when milk flow occurred only when ...
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