Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1076
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Kamitsuka M D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after implementing standardized feeding schedules. METHOD: This was a cohort study, which retrospectively reviewed the incidence of NEC for a 3-year period before implementing feeding schedules and prospectively evaluated the incidence of NEC for a 3-year period after implementing feeding schedules ...
Chen C H - - 2000
From July 1997 to June 1998, 25 preterm infants (birth weight < 1800 g) were included in a prospective study to compare the clinical effects of breast- and bottle-feeding. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature were recorded every minute for 20 minutes during feeding periods. Eighty pairs ...
Fomon S J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although the predominant beneficial effect of fluoride occurs locally in the mouth, the adverse effect, dental fluorosis, occurs by the systemic route. The caries attack rate in industrialized countries, including the United States and Canada, has decreased dramatically over the past 40 years. However, the prevalence of dental fluorosis ...
Langer J C - - 2000
Establishing enteral feeding in high-risk infants with significant gastroesophageal reflux is a difficult challenge. Some patients are considered at very high risk for fundoplication and gastrostomy due to unstable medical conditions, dense upper-abdominal adhesions due to previous surgical procedures, or unfavorable anatomy. We describe a less invasive operation that provides ...
Hill A S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Evidence that bottle-feeding is a stressor for inefficient preterm infant feeders is seen in untoward changes in the physiologic system and nutritive sucking patterns. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a therapeutic technique, oral support (cheek and jaw support), would influence the cardiopulmonary functions or nutritive sucking patterns of preterm infants ...
Martin-Prével Y - - 2000
The effects of the January 1994 devaluation of the African Financial Community (CFA) franc on the nutritional situation of the populations concerned has been little documented. We report in this article on two nutritional cross-sectional surveys that were conducted before and after this devaluation (1993 and 1996) in two districts ...
Lifschitz C H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the absorption of carbohydrate in particular from a lower (10 mL/kg(-1)) quantity than that previously tested, of white grape juice and pear juice after a single feeding and after ingestion twice daily for 2 weeks, and determine their respective effects on stool water content, in healthy infants. ...
Westfall U E - - 2000
Even with all the nutritional research conducted to date, it is not clear which enteral nutrition delivery and composition options are most physiologically sound. Glucocorticoid temporal patterns are reported to be shifted or disrupted with restricted feeding schedules, but because of intermittent sampling, temporal patterns have not been completely depicted. ...
Kennedy K A - - 2000
Enteral feedings in very-low-birth-weight or sick preterm infants are often delayed for several days or weeks after birth even though delayed enteral feeding could diminish the functional adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract and result in feeding intolerance later. Early initiation of feedings, if well-tolerated, may promote growth and shorten the ...
Tyson J E - - 2000
Because of concern that feedings may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants have received prolonged periods of parenteral nutrition without enteral feedings. Providing minimal enteral feedings during this period of parenteral nutrition was developed as a strategy to enhance feeding tolerance and decrease time to reach full ...
Pinelli J - - 2000
Non-nutritive sucking is used during gavage feeding and in the transition from gavage to breast/bottle feeding in preterm infants. The rationale for this intervention is that non-nutritive sucking facilitates the development of sucking behaviour and improves digestion of enteral feedings. Non-nutritive sucking has been considered to be a benign intervention, ...
Ng E - - 2000
Functional immaturity of gastointestinal motility predisposes preterm infants to feeding intolerance. Motilin, a gastrointestinal peptide, stimulates propagative contractile activity during phase III of the migratory motor complex in the interdigestive state. Erythromycin (EM) is a motilin agonist with prokinetic effect at low doses (1-3mg/kg). To evaluate the effectiveness of EM ...
Kennedy K A - - 2000
Very premature infants fed by gavage are unable to regulate their own enteral intake. Therefore the rate at which feedings are advanced must be determined by caregivers. While advancing feedings too rapidly may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, advancing feedings too slowly might result in undernutrition or prolonged hospital ...
Wan C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of different feeding frequencies on the speed of recovery from diarrhoea. METHODS: A randomised, non-blinded trial provided 0.452 MJ/kg/day as either 6 or 12 feeds of cows' milk each day to 262 hospitalised male infants aged 3-12 months with acute diarrhoea. Stool frequency, stool weight, ...
Törnhage C J - - 1999
The aim was to investigate whether kangaroo care (KC) with and without nasogastric tube feeding (NG) is tolerated by sick preterm infants during the first week of life. Seventeen infants with current or resolving illness received 1 h of KC. The study patients were originally recruited for a study on ...
Vazquez J L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Feeding difficulties in the newborn period are a common indication for an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series. OBJECTIVE: To review the radiological findings in infants with feeding-related difficulties, with no other medical problems, and to evaluate the role, if any, of the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (modified barium swallow, MBSW). MATERIALS ...
Howard C R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To prevent breastfeeding problems, cup-feeding has been recommended as a method of providing medically necessary supplemental feedings to breastfed infants. OBJECTIVES: To compare amounts ingested, administration time, and infant physiologic stability during cup-, bottle-, and breastfeeding. DESIGN/METHODS: A total of 98 term, healthy newborns were randomized to either cup-feeding ...
Kelmanson I A - - 1999
This study aimed to analyse a possible association between the use of a pacifier and particular behavioural features in 2-4-month-old infants as estimated by the means of the Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ). It comprised 192 randomly selected clinically healthy infants born in St Petersburg in 1997-1998. The mothers were ...
Bentley M - - 1999
The early introduction of non-milk foods among African-American infants has been well documented. Several studies report the addition of semi-solids as early as 1-2 weeks of age. This study investigated, through ethnographic, repeat indepth interviews with teen mothers and grandmothers of infants, the determinants of such feeding practices and the ...
Premji S S - - 1999
Cisapride has been used in the neonatal population as a first-line gastrointestinal prokinetic agent for managing feeding intolerance secondary to decreased gastrointestinal motility. Cisapride acts specifically at many levels of the gastrointestinal tract and has no central nervous system side effects. Recently, prolonged QT interval has been reported secondary to ...
Chen L C - - 1999
A 9-month-old female infant with intractable wheezing and frequent aspiration pneumonia was poor response to the usual treatment for respiratory disease. The barium swallow test revealed barium aspirating into trachea directly. Because of the high-risk nature for aspiration in the swallowing disorder infant, a nasogastric tube feeding therapy was prescribed. ...
Lebenthal A - - 1999
The primary factors in feeding premature infants are dependent on the development and maturation of digestion and absorption. The maturation of digestive and absorptive functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins in the young premature infant were determined in relation to availability of hydrolytic enzymes, such as lipases, proteases, ...
Klindt J - - 1999
The effect of prepubertal feed level on growth and reproductive development of gilts was investigated. At 13 wk. of age, white crossbred gilts were penned individually and assigned to the following treatments: Ad lib, ad libitum intake from 13 to 25 wk. of age (n = 64); Control, ad libitum ...
Basu R - - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: An increase in free radical activity has been observed in patients suffering from a variety of illnesses and has been correlated with disease severity. Free radical production is increased by the administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and may be linked to its adverse effects. Some of the complications ...
Barnett C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has been used to measure gastric emptying in preterm infants, but the reproducibility of the test has not been evaluated in this population. METHODS: Fifty-six paired breath test analyses were performed on 28 healthy preterm infants 1 to 5 days apart using the same ...
Narchi H - - 1999
To compare the incidence of feeding problems at the first feed between neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and those born without MSAF. A prospective observational study conducted over a one-year period. A level 2 neonatal unit. A total of 2828 neonates were studied, including 275 neonates with MSAF. ...
Ramage I J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of supplemental gastrostomy tube (g-tube) feeding in infants and children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Pediatric nephrology division of tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients undergoing g-tube insertion while receiving CPD were included in the study, and were subdivided, on ...
McDougle L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Persistent infant stridor, seal-like cough, and difficulty feeding can be the initial signs of right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery. This congenital cardiovascular abnormality results in the development of a vascular ring that encircles the trachea and esophagus. METHODS: A case report is presented that describes ...
Shaw W C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of squeezable and rigid feeding bottles for infants with clefts. DESIGN: Patients were randomly assigned at birth to feeding with a squeezable bottle (assisted feeding) or to feeding with a rigid bottle and were followed for 1 year. The data were analyzed on the basis ...
Mackie R I - - 1999
The gastrointestinal tract of a normal fetus is sterile. During the birth process and rapidly thereafter, microbes from the mother and surrounding environment colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the infant until a dense, complex microbiota develops. The succession of microbes colonizing the intestinal tract is most marked in early development, ...
Gupta A - - 1999
Cup feeding has been suggested as an alternative to bottle feeding to help promote breastfeeding by avoiding nipple confusion. To demonstrate the possibility and utility of cup feeding, records of 59 preterm and low birthweight babies (born before 37 weeks' gestation) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from ...
Mathisen B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in infants is commonly associated with feeding problems but has not been subject to systematic controlled study. We evaluated feeding, dietary, behavioural data obtained from systematic objective studies of six-month old infants with and without GORD. METHODS: Infants with GORD (defined by 24-h pH monitoring, ...
Shaker C S - - 1999
Many NICU infants present with complex issues that affect the transition to full nipple feeding. At a time when length of stay is critical, this transition can be facilitated by an individualized, developmentally supportive approach. The approach described in this article involves (1) observing the infant for behavioral cues of ...
Beecroft C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition is commonly given in the newborn period to premature infants or those with gastrointestinal disorders. Computer-assisted prescribing is widely used, with prescriptions for each patient being varied on a daily basis. It has previously been suggested that 'individualization' of feeds may have little clinical benefit whilst increasing ...
Durham M M - - 1999
This report describes a newborn infant girl who presented with abdominal distension and pneumoperitoneum. At operation, near total necrosis of the stomach was observed. The esophagus was ligated, the stomach resected. The baby was fed by an transpyloric feeding tube. At 8 weeks, an esophagojejunal anastomosis was performed with a ...
Narchi H - - 1999
We compared the incidence of complications from meconium-containing gastric fluid in a group of neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) who did not routinely have gastric lavage prior to feeds, versus a group who had elective gastric lavage before the first feed. In the first group, 275 neonates born ...
Pridham K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Although feedings that are organized on an ad lib basis (i.e., in response to infant cues of hunger and of satiation) could enhance an infant's self-regulatory capacities for feeding, ad lib feeding of fully nipple-fed premature infants in a special care nursery has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: To study ...
Schanler R J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Data on enteral feeding management of premature infants are limited and often not the subject of randomized clinical trials. Several small studies suggest benefits from the early initiation of feeding, but do not assess the combined effects of time of initiation of feeding, tube-feeding method, and type of milk ...
Malhotra N - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Some neonatal units are introducing use of cup and traditional feeding devices for feeding young infants although they have been not been evaluated objectively. Hence this controlled trial of the use of the bottle, cup and a traditional feeding device ('paladai') was undertaken in neonates. METHOD: The study comprised ...
Souza de Oliveira M - - 1999
Callithrix and Leontopithecus exhibit ecological differences that have implications for the patterns of infant care. In C. jacchus, which uses a small home range because it depends mainly on plant exudates, infants can forage independently early in their life. L. chrysomelas, which feeds mainly on fruits and insects, needs larger ...
Corbett K S - - 1999
An ethnographic field study design was used to explore infant feeding among 20 West Indian women on the island of St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. Two styles of infant feeding emerged from the data, "older style" and "contemporary style." Three patterns of combined breast and bottle feeding were identified: ...
McClure R J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of trophic feeding on gastric emptying and whole gut transit time in sick preterm infants. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, prospective study of 70 infants weighing less than 1750 g at birth, who were receiving ventilatory support, was performed. Group TF (33 infants) received trophic feeding ...
Bingham P M - - 1998
Disproportionate enlargement of the sylvian fissures (ESF) on MRI of an infant's CNS suggests underdevelopment of the cortical operculum. We reviewed charts of infants with isolated ESF. Conditions associated with ESF included feeding difficulties and facial dysmorphism (syndromic or nonsyndromic). There may be an embryologic link between growth of the ...
Lindgren C - - 1998
Sialadenitis is a rare disease in the newborn and the pathogenesis in this age group is not fully understood. We report five cases of neonatal sialadenitis in stable preterm, gavage-fed infants at 2 to 6 weeks postnatal age. The occurrence of sialadenitis was observed in temporal relation to changes in ...
Shulman R J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: We sought to ascertain whether the timing of feeding initiation affected the development of intestinal lactase activity and whether there are clinical ramifications of lower lactase activity. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants (26 to 30 weeks' gestation; n = 135) were randomly assigned to begin enteral feedings at either 4 ...
Stenson B J - - 1998
AIM: To determine the effect of erythromycin on the establishment of enteral feeding in ventilated infants < 31 weeks gestation. METHODS: Erythromycin was randomly allocated as an antimicrobial treatment for the first 7 days of life in 76 infants: 35 received erythromycin and 41 acted as controls. Feed toleration, time ...
Sumba A L - - 1998
Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi (South American origin) and T. congolense of Kilifi DNA type (Kenyan origin) was studied in laboratory mice using the African stable flies Stomoxys niger niger and S. taeniatus. Altogether, 355 flies were interrupted after feeding on infected blood and then transferred immediately to an uninfected ...
Shulman R J - - 1998
To determine the effects of age, feeding regimen, and antenatal glucocorticoids on intestinal permeability, preterm infants (n = 132) were stratified by gestational age and by diet (mothers' own milk versus preterm formula), and assigned randomly to one of four feeding regimens: early-continuous, early-bolus, standard-continuous, and standard-bolus. At 10, 28, ...
Baker D H - - 1998
One hundred and sixteen crossbred male chicks were used in two battery trials to establish the biological efficacy and toxicity of D-allothreonine (D-allo-Thr) relative to L-Thr. In the efficacy trial, graded doses of D-allo-Thr or L-Thr were added to a Thr-deficient (0.24% L-Thr) chemically defined diet and fed to chicks ...
Chatoor I - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This study has three objectives: (1) to delineate the diagnostic criteria for infantile anorexia, including the onset of persistent food refusal during the infant's transition to spoon- and self-feeding, acute and/or chronic malnutrition, parental concern about the infant's poor food intake, and mother-infant conflict, talk, and distraction during feeding; ...
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