Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1075
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Ng P C - - 2001
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral erythromycin as a prokinetic agent for the treatment of moderately severe gastrointestinal dysmotility in preterm very low birthweight infants. METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study in a tertiary referral centre of a university teaching hospital was conducted on 56 preterm ...
Imms C - - 2001
This review article uses the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP) as a theoretical framework to organize a discussion of the complexities of infant feeding when the infant has congenital heart disease (CHD). Literature from many fields indicates that feeding supports the physical, cognitive, and affective development of infants within ...
Chatoor I - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To delineate diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic feeding disorder (PTFD) of infancy and to differentiate PTFD from infantile anorexia (IA) via observation of feeding interactions. METHOD: Three groups of infants (aged 6-32 months) participated: PTFD (n = 30), IA (n = 30), and healthy eater controls (n = 30). The ...
Sudhakaran N - - 2001
Gastric intubation, by oral or nasal route is an essential procedure in the management of premature infants, for gastric aspiration and for feeding. Oesophageal perforation is a rare but important complication of this commonly performed procedure. An illustrative case is presented. Difficulty passing a tube into the stomach is the ...
Ruokojärvi P - - 2001
The effect of urea on PCDD/F formation in a pilot incinerator was studied by incinerating urea with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) at three concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%, of the fuel feed). A distinct reduction in both PCDD/F and chlorophenol concentrations could be noticed when urea was introduced into the system. ...
Waldstein D E - - 2001
Studies were conducted with the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and tebufenozide to determine the influence of various factors on the efficacy of this insecticide under field conditions. Larvae were exposed to apple foliage collected from commercial orchards at different intervals after insecticide applications. Mortality of neonates on actively growing ...
Lemons P K - - 2001
The ability to safely and efficiently feed by mouth is based on oral-motor competence, neurobehavioral organization, and gastrointestinal maturity. Although most infants successfully make the transition to oral feedings as they approach term gestation, infants who were very immature at birth have historically had the most difficulty achieving this milestone. ...
Mihatsch W A WA Department of Paediatrics, University of Ulm, - - 2001
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the timing of the first and last meconium and feeding tolerance in the very early enteral nutrition of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Forty-one ELBW infants were fed following a standardized protocol (day 3-14). At 48 h of age ...
Cairney P A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess mothers' perception of information given to them about bottle feeding. DESIGN: Survey, as part of a longitudinal study of professional support given to infant feeding mothers. Data were analysed from postal questionnaires completed at 34 weeks gestation and one month postnatally. SUBJECTS: Every woman over 16 years ...
McClure R J - - 2001
Trophic feeding is the practice of feeding minute volumes of enteral feeds in order to stimulate the development of the immature gastrointestinal tract of the preterm infant This paper reviews the randomized controlled studies that have examined the physiological and clinical responses to trophic feeding of the preterm infant. Trophic ...
Greer F R - - 2001
This article reviews the historical development of feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. It describes the early work determining the energy requirements of the preterm infant, the evolution of the use of human milk and its fortification for these infants, the development of special formulas for very-low-birth-weight infants ...
Thoyre S M - - 2001
PURPOSE: To describe the challenges mothers identify in bottle feeding their preterm infants prior to discharge from the NICU. DESIGN: Mothers bottle fed their infants in the NICU while being videotaped. Following the feeding, a semifocused interview was conducted with the mother using playback of the videotaped feeding to enhance ...
Raps A - - 2001
Phloem sap of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn expressing a truncated form of the B. thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ab, sap sucking aphids feeding on Bt corn and their honeydew were analysed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. Phloem sap of Bt and non-Bt corn was collected using a newly developed technique ...
Wang C - - 2001
Ventricular administration of urocortin (UCN) inhibits feeding, but specific site(s) of UCN action are unknown. In the current studies we examined the effect of UCN in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on feeding. We tested UCN administered into the PVN in several paradigms: deprivation-induced, nocturnal, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced feeding. ...
Clemente C - - 2001
AIM: To compare the feeding patterns and difficulties of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls. Information was gathered via parental questionnaires. METHODS: A matched case controlled study of 64 infants with CHD compared with 64 healthy controls. RESULTS: The main findings were: (1) Feeding patterns: mothers with ...
Chezem J - - 2001
Selecting an infant feeding method is one of the most important decisions a mother-to-be makes. Little information is available to characterize women who plan to use both formula and breast milk. In this study, 89 pregnant women indicated their anticipated feeding method and the sources and initiator of infant feeding ...
Kodadek M - - 2001
Special consideration should be given when counseling at-risk mothers. Although local health departments and offices for the Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) are teaching mothers about proper feeding practices, there is a large section of the population that does not qualify for government programs and does not have the ...
Lau C - - 2001
Two important aspects of the clinical feeding evaluation of infants are the assessment of their nonnutritive and nutritive sucking skills. Nonnutritive sucking is monitored routinely by using a gloved finger and nutritive sucking by observing infants' sucking while bottle feeding. This approach, however. provides only a subjective and descriptive evaluation. ...
Gewolb I H - - 2001
Twenty healthy preterm infants (gestational age 26 to 33 weeks, postmenstrual age [PMA] 32.1 to 39.6 weeks, postnatal age [PNA] 2.0 to 11.6 weeks) were studied weekly from initiation of bottle feeding until discharge, with simultaneous digital recordings of pharyngeal and nipple (teat) pressure and nasal thermistor and thoracic strain ...
Pinchasik D - - 2001
Advancements in medical technology have allowed for the survival of smaller, more premature infants, during the past several years. Infants as immature as 23 weeks gestational age and as small as 500 g, or even less, are now common sights in Neonatal Intensive Care Units throughout the United States. These ...
Pinelli J - - 2001
Non-nutritive sucking is used during gavage feeding and in the transition from gavage to breast/bottle feeding in preterm infants. The rationale for this intervention is that non-nutritive sucking facilitates the development of sucking behaviour and improves digestion of enteral feedings. Non-nutritive sucking has been considered to be a benign intervention, ...
Premji S - - 2001
Most premature infants less than 1500 grams birth weight must be fed initially by tube because of their inability to suck effectively, or to coordinate sucking, swallowing and breathing. Milk feedings can be given by tube either intermittently, typically over 10-20 minutes every two or three hours, or continuously, using ...
Ng E - - 2001
Functional immaturity of gastrointestinal motility predisposes preterm infants to feeding intolerance. Motilin, a gastrointestinal peptide, stimulates propagative contractile activity during phase III of the migratory motor complex in the interdigestive state. Erythromycin (EM) is a motilin agonist with prokinetic effect at low doses (1-3mg/kg). To evaluate the effectiveness of EM ...
Hoddinott Pat - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To look at how communication by health professionals about infant feeding is perceived by first time mothers. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Twenty-one white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their ...
Fisher G R - - 2000
Unionicola formosa is a symbiotic water mite that passes most of its life cycle in the mantle cavity of freshwater mussels. Although mites of this genus are often referred to as parasitic, little is known about their nutritional biology. A few species reportedly pierce the gill of a host mussel ...
Daley H K - - 2000
Nipple feeding of premature infants presents a challenge to neonatal nurses who are trying to prepare the infants for eventual discharge from the hospital. To determine what empirical evidence there was to support interventions that positively influence feeding performance and feeding efficiency a meta-analysis is presented. The effects of NPO, ...
Pinelli J - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine whether nonnutritive sucking (NNS) in preterm infants influences selected outcome variables. DESIGN: A systematic review, based on the Cochrane Collaboration format, of trials utilizing experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which NNS (by pacifier) was compared to no provision of NNS; related to naso/orogastric tube feedings, bottle feedings, ...
Henderson L - - 2000
To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Content analysis. Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. UK mass media. Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Overall, 235 references ...
Hafström M - - 2000
In the infant, sucking behaviour is one of the first coordinated muscular activities. It is under the control of the brainstem. In utero sucking is observed from 13 weeks' gestation. The healthy full-term newborn infant has a very stable rhythm of alternating bursts of sucking with pauses in between. The ...
Figueiras A N - - 2000
Adults and larvae of Triatoma infestans spend daylight hours assembled in shaded places. An assembling factor has been demonstrated in the excrement of this species. We analysed different aspects of the dynamics of the response of bugs. Recently fed insects do not aggregate around faeces. They start to show a ...
Dollberg S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that continuous gastric infusion (CGI) is better tolerated than intermittent gastric bolus (IGB) in small very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. DESIGN: Two-center, prospective, randomized, unmasked clinical trial. PATIENTS: 28 VLBW infants (birth weight <1250 g). A strict feeding protocol was followed. INTERVENTION: Patients were ...
Thoyre S M SM Department of Children's Health, School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7460, USA. - - 2000
To describe how mothers of preterm infants who are learning to nipple feed view their own and their infant's role in the feeding process. Descriptive, comparative study. Two neonatal intensive-care units (NICU) in the Midwest. A convenience sample of 22 mothers of very-low-birth-weight infants. Interviews were rated for mothers' level ...
Timmermans S - - 2000
Within the avian telencephalon, the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) contains higher order and multimodal integration areas. Using multiple regressions on 17 avian taxa, we show that an operational estimate of behavioral flexibility, the frequency of feeding innovation reports in ornithology journals, is most closely predicted by relative size of one ...
Pinnington L L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of bronchiolitis on feeding efficiency and respiratory integration. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 21 infants with bronchiolitis and 21 bottle-fed healthy infants who formed a comparison group. Repeat evaluations of half the bronchiolitis group were performed during recovery. During each feeding study we measured the duration ...
Boo N Y - - 2000
An observational study was carried out in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital to determine the risk factors associated with feed intolerance in very low birthweight (VLBW, <1501 g) infants given intermittent 3-hourly enteral feeds within 72h after birth. Feed intolerance developed in 85 (64.4 per cent) of 132 infants. Logistic ...
Patole S K - - 2000
The feeding regimen was standardised for a trial of erythromycin to reduce the time to reach full feeds (150 ml/kg/day) by 30% in neonates of < or = 32 weeks gestation. No significant improvement was noted in the primary outcome (median time: erythromycin 93.5 vs placebo 104 hours, p = ...
Donnenberg M S - - 2000
Enteric bacteria use a limited array of macromolecular systems to implement diverse pathogenic strategies. The cellular targets of several enteric virulence factors have recently been identified. The themes that have emerged from these studies include the exploitation of molecules that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and the activation of apoptotic pathways ...
Kurugöl Z - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding type and osmotic load on intravascular volume status. Ninety term, healthy infants 2 mo of age were included in the study. The breastfed and formula-fed groups each consisted of 45 infants. Echocardiographic examination was performed before and after ...
Lau C - - 2000
It is acknowledged that the difficulty many preterm infants have in feeding orally results from their immature sucking skills. However, little is known regarding the development of sucking in these infants. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the bottle-feeding performance of preterm infants is positively correlated with ...
Kearns P J - - 2000
Enteral feeding provides nutrients for patients who require endotracheal tubes and mechanical ventilation. There is a presumed increase in the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with tube feeding. This has stimulated the development of procedures for duodenal intubation and small intestinal (SI) feeding as primary prophylaxes to prevent VAP. To ...
Guldan G S - - 2000
Chinese studies indicate that the growth of rural infants and children lags behind that of their urban counterparts after 4 mo of age and that the gap is widening. However, the rural areas are home to >85% of China's 300 million children. Clearly, culturally appropriate rural complementary feeding interventions are ...
Veerappan S - - 2000
An elevated level of baseline parasympathetic activity was noted in a group of premature infants suffering from bradycardia during feeding. At approximately 34 wk post-conceptional age, the heart rates of 12 infants with feeding bradycardia (birth weight = 1539 +/- 279 g; gestational age = 31.0 +/- 1.6 wk) and ...
Hawdon J M - - 2000
The increased survival of sick and preterm neonates may be associated with long-term problems which must be recognised and managed if outcome is to be optimised. In a prospective study of 35 neonates (median gestational age at birth 34 weeks) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit over a 3-month ...
Moody G J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To evaluate feeding tolerance in premature infants immediately after the addition of human milk fortifier (HMF) to their expressed human milk diet. METHODS: Data on milk intake, feeding tolerance, and related assessments and growth milestones from a prospective study of feeding strategies in premature infants were analyzed. The database ...
Lau C - - 2000
An earlier study demonstrated that oral feeding of premature infants (<30 wk gestation) was enhanced when milk was delivered through a self-paced flow system. The aims of this study were to identify the principle(s) by which this occurred and to develop a practical method to implement the self-paced system in ...
Holditch-Davis D - - 2000
The interactions between mothers and premature infants during feeding and nonfeeding periods were explored. Twenty-nine premature infants and their mothers were observed interacting for 1 hour in their homes at 6 months corrected for prematurity. Mothers were more likely to engage in the following behaviors involving close contact during feeding: ...
Suess P E - - 2000
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a non-invasive indicator of vagal regulation of the heart, and heart period (HP) were monitored before, during, and after oral or gastric-tube bolus feedings in 32 preterm infants. Group 1 infants (n=15) were < or =30 weeks gestational age (GA) at birth (mean 28.3 weeks) and ...
Newell S J - - 2000
Clinical practice demands knowledge of gastrointestinal ontogeny and the factors that affect our ability to use enteral feeding in the micropremie. The decisions regarding milk type (when and how it should be given) are considered in the light of current physiologic and clinical evidence. Special considerations apply in the micropremie ...
- - 2000
The guidelines for young child feeding have been developed and prepared as a supportive-tool primarily for health personnel involved in the care of infants and children in Caribbean countries. The recommendations address some practical aspects of nutrition before, during and after pregnancy. These are: The benefits of breastfeeding and strategies ...
Kamitsuka M D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after implementing standardized feeding schedules. METHOD: This was a cohort study, which retrospectively reviewed the incidence of NEC for a 3-year period before implementing feeding schedules and prospectively evaluated the incidence of NEC for a 3-year period after implementing feeding schedules ...
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