Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1073
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Ramsay Maria - - 2002
This prospective study examined the relation of neonatal sucking to later feeding, postnatal growth, maternal postpartum depression, and feeding practices. Healthy infants of at least 37 weeks gestational age were recruited. At 1 week of age, a strain-gage device was attached to the infant's cheeks during sucking to identify sucking ...
Harris Caroline A - - 2002
Organochlorine pesticides are highly lipophilic and stable resulting both in their persistence in the environment and their tendency to pass up the food chain. Residues of these compounds are detectable in breastmilk and have been monitored since the 1950s. Samples can be collected using non-invasive techniques and the results are ...
Ramji Siddarth - - 2002
There is sufficient evidence at present to support early enteral feeding of low birth weight (LBW) neonates, including those who are sick or very preterm (< 30 weeks). Trophic feeding with human milk initiated within 48 hours of birth at 10-15 ml/kg/day improves later tolerance to graded increment of enteral ...
Shulman R J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine in a pilot study whether enteral administration of insulin to preterm infants (26-29 weeks of gestational age) would enhance gastrointestinal development and reduce feed intolerance without adverse effects. DESIGN: Eight preterm infants were given 4 U/kg/day insulin enterally from 4 to 28 days of age. Lactase activity ...
Patel S B - - 2002
Management following the repair of oesophageal atresia (OA) with tracheooesophageal fistula (TOF) in the past included the routine use of an intercostal chest drain, a gastrostomy, or a transanastomotic tube (TAT) for enteral nutrition and a routine contrast swallow (CS) before oral feeds. There has been a trend towards simplification ...
Mihatsch Walter A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the mean gastric residual volume (GRV) and green gastric residuals (GR) themselves are significant predictors of feeding intolerance in the early enteral feeding advancement in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants. DESIGN: Ninety-nine ELBW infants were fed following a standardized protocol (day 3--14). At ...
Ryan Claire - - 2002
This article compares the feeding practices of healthy infants reported by their mothers in studies spanning two decades. Nutrient intakes are largely adequate and feeding practices are changing to meet recommendations, but breast-feeding rates do not meet public health guidelines.
James Laura P - - 2002
A variety of drugs are used in the neonatal nursery for the management of feeding intolerance, gastroesophageal reflux, and acid-related disease. Although the pharmacokinetics of some of these drugs have been described in infants and older children, further data are needed, particularly for preterm infants. No data are available characterizing ...
Premji Shahirose S - - 2002
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for the nutritional management of premature infants are limited. This project focused on the development of a research-based enteral feeding CPG for infants of < 1,500 g. The CPG was based on an extensive literature review and developed through a process of consensus decision making by ...
Premji Shahirose S - - 2002
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for the nutritional management of infants weighing < 1,500 g. SUBJECTS: Infants weighing < 1,500 g (n = 200) admitted to the NICU who had no major congenital anomalies were enrolled. DESIGN AND METHODS: A before-and-after matched cohort ...
White-Traut Rosemary C - - 2002
This study determined whether an auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular intervention (ATVV) reduced the length of hospitalization of 37 preterm infants by increasing the proportion of alert behavioral states, thereby improving their feeding progression. Participants comprised 12 infants born between 23 and 26 weeks' gestation with normal head ultrasounds and ...
Ho A M-H - - 2002
There is increasing interest in the use of cuffed paediatric tracheal tubes, these tubes have a number of advantages and disadvantages. One disadvantage is the decreased margin of safety associated with the use of cuffed tracheal tubes. When using an uncuffed tube, the margin of safety is approximately the length ...
Dowling Donna A - - 2002
Cup-feeding is recommended for breastfed preterm infants to avoid artificial nipples. However, the oral mechanisms used in cup-feeding, or its safety and efficacy, have not been described. The authors measured sipping, breathing, SaO2, and volume of intake during 15 cup-feeding sessions for 8 infants (mean gestational age at birth was ...
Kassing Dee - - 2002
Babies may need supplementation due to difficulty breastfeeding. Others must be fed by alternative feeding methods because they are separated from mothers who have returned to employment or school. Recognizing that mothers and caregivers are often not comfortable using other alternative feeding devices, the author endeavored to develop a method ...
Nagaoka H - - 2002
The performance of the submerged membrane separation activated sludge process with intermittent aeration was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment by changing organic loading rate and intermittent aeration cycle. A rectangular PVC tank was used as an aeration tank, in which a flat-sheet type Micro-Filtration membrane made of poly-olefin with ...
Becerra M - - 2002
This multicentre randomized study compared a continuous gastric drip (CGD) with intravenous (i.v.) fluid administration. Healthy newborns with birthweight from 1501 to 2000 g whose physician ordered i.v. fluids were randomized before the 2nd hour of life to CGD or i.v. fluids. The major outcome variable was the need for ...
Lehtonen Johannes - - 2002
The human infant's neurophysiological responses to feeding are poorly understood. We found recently a significant increase of EEG amplitude in the newborn during nutritive feeding, but not during pacifier sucking. In this study, we report EEG responses to feeding in 13 infants at the ages of 3 and 6 months. ...
Qureshi Misbah A - - 2002
To quantify parameters of rhythmic suckle feeding in healthy term infants and to assess developmental changes during the first month of life, we recorded pharyngeal and nipple pressure in 16 infants at 1 to 4 days of age and again at 1 month. Over the first month of life in ...
Mentro Anne M - - 2002
The phenomenon of infant responsiveness to the caregiver during feeding interactions has been of interest to researchers for many years, because of its associated implications for child growth and development. Although many studies have examined feeding responsiveness in caregiver-infant dyads, it is infrequently and inconsistently defined in the literature. The ...
Genzel-Boroviczény Orsolya - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIM: We have previously shown that infants receiving total parenteral nutrition have low apolipoprotein AI levels which are associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) class distributions as in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. This study investigates the influence of early enteral feedings on apolipoprotein AI and HDL subclasses. METHODS: Apolipoprotein AI and HDL ...
McClure R J - - 2002
A randomized, controlled, prospective study of 80 preterm infants of birthweight less than 1750 g requiring ventilatory support was performed. While ventilatory support was required group TF (39 infants) received trophic feeding (0.5-1 ml h(-1)) along with parenteral nutrition, whereas group C (41 infants) received parenteral nutrition alone. When ventilatory ...
Huang R C - - 2002
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in newborn infants. A common first line management is the use of feed thickeners. In newborn infants with GOR, to evaluate the use of feed thickeners in reducing signs and symptoms of GOR, acid episodes on pH monitoring and histological evidence of oesophagitis. We searched ...
McGuire W - - 2002
Enteral feeding tubes for preterm infants may be placed in the stomach (gastric tube feeding) or in the upper small bowel (transpyloric tube feeding). There are potential advantages and disadvantages to both routes. In preterm infants who require enteral tube feeding, does feeding via the transpyloric route versus the gastric ...
Abhyankar A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: A degree of feed intolerance after neonatal abdominal surgery is common but in an otherwise well baby enteral feeding usually is continued at the highest tolerated level. However, the presence of rectal bleeding, pneumatosis intestinalis, or portal vein gas seen on plain abdominal x-rays suggest the possibility of postoperative ...
Brar G - - 2001
This study was designed to determine whether respiratory mechanics in stable, very low birth weight infants changed after replacing intermittent feeds with continuous feeding. We measured static respiratory system compliance, respiratory system resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), and tidal volume immediately before feeds and at 20, 60, and 120 min ...
Behle R W - - 2001
Application of insecticide at a reduced rate with a cucurbitacin-based feeding stimulant is a viable alternative to a broadcast insecticide application for control of adult western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, LeConte. Because of the small amount of material applied, it is conceivable that a high density of beetles could ...
Kelly D W - - 2001
Much progress has been made in describing how it is, in a mechanistic sense, that some vertebrate hosts (species or individuals) are bitten more than others, principally because of their odour or appearance. Little attention has been paid to why, in an evolutionary sense, these particular animals are bitten. Irrespective ...
Agarwal R - - 2001
Although parenteral nutrition has been used widely in the management of sick very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, a smooth transition to the enteral route is most desirable. Animal studies have shown that long periods of starvation are associated with mucosal atrophy and reduction of enzymatic activity. Studies have shown ...
Barnett C P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of cisapride on gastric emptying and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) symptoms in preterm infants with feed intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen preterm infants (gestational age 24-35 weeks) with feed intolerance were enrolled in the study. Infants were randomized to receive 7 days of cisapride 0.2 mg/kg four times ...
Newman L A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: There has been an increase in infant swallowing disorders as a result of improved survival for infants born prematurely or with life-threatening medical disorders. These infants often have multiple health issues and an increased risk of respiratory complications. However, there is little understanding of the biomechanics of infant swallowing ...
Kendall K A - - 2001
Videofluoroscopic swallow studies were performed on 60 normal adult volunteers. Swallowing variables were measured during swallows of a 3-cm3 paste bolus and a 3-mL liquid bolus and were compared to identify changes in swallow gesture displacement and timing, as well as changes in bolus movement timing. The study revealed that ...
Somme S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic esophagogastric fundoplication is an effective treatment for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although its role in the very young is still largely undetermined. We review our surgical outcome in infants with severe GERD, comparing laparoscopic (LNF) with open (ONF) Nissen fundoplication. METHODS: This study reviewed 55 consecutive Nissen ...
Berseth C L - - 2001
As more very immature preterm infants survive, provision of enteral feedings has become a major focus of concern. Although many aspects of gastrointestinal function are immature in the preterm infant, the ability of the preterm neonate to process and absorb enteral nutrients appears to be adequate enough to sustain nutritional ...
Bethke J A - - 2001
Homalodisca coagulata (Say) is a recent introduction to California. It is known to spread a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisberg, Mandelco-Paul & Brenner that induces oleander leaf scorch disease in oleander, Nerium oleander L. Oleander leaf scorch is lethal to oleander and threatens to decimate ...
Evans R A - - 2001
This two-part article presents feeding strategies for the NICU population over the first several weeks of life. It focuses primarily on the theory and approach to feeding extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, but also addresses some issues pertinent to larger, ill infants. The premise for these recommendations is that ...
Storer N P - - 2001
Transgenic varieties of field corn that express the CrylAb B. thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in ear tissue present the potential of reducing ear feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and for reducing the size of populations of the insect infesting other host crops. Life history parameters of H. ...
Schlein Y - - 2001
The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi transmits Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, in vast regions of the Old World. In addition to blood, the sand flies feed on plants. In a study of this diet, we observed that one night of feeding on branches of Solanum jasminoides, Ricinus communis, or ...
Thureen P J - - 2001
Increasingly, neonatologists are realizing that current feeding practices for preterm infants are insufficient to produce reasonable rates of growth, and earlier and larger quantities of both parenteral and enteral feeding should be provided to these infants. Unfortunately, there is very little outcome data to recommend any particular nutritional strategy to ...
Rojahn A - - 2001
Establishing enteral feeding in the very low birth weight infant as soon as possible after birth has been shown to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous lines. Human milk can be administered either as a continuous infusion or as intermittent boluses. The aim of this study was to ...
Fielden L J - - 2001
Respiratory gas exchange was measured in various developmental stages of the flea Xenopsylla conformis mycerini (Rothschild, 1904) originating from the central Negev in Israel. Gas exchange in fleas was measured using a flow-through respirometry system that monitored CO2 emission. Lowest metabolic rates were found in the cocooned stage, which included ...
Marinelli K A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety of cupfeeding, an alternative feeding method, to bottlefeeding, the current standard of artificial feeding in the United States, in preterm infants whose mothers intend to breastfeed. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective, randomized crossover study, 56 infants <or=34 weeks at birth, whose mothers indicated a desire ...
McCain G C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that healthy preterm infants randomly assigned to a semi-demand feeding protocol would require fewer days to attain oral feeding and have a satisfactory weight gain compared with control infants receiving standard care. STUDY DESIGN: In 2 neonatal intensive care nurseries, 81 infants 32 to < ...
Pridham K F - - 2001
AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine the difference the attunement of a mother's working model of feeding to her infant makes for her positive feeding affect and behaviour, accounting for infant and mother conditions. BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: The concept of a mother's working model of feeding is derived from ...
Oei J - - 2001
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of erythromycin, a motilin agonist, in promoting enteral feed tolerance in preterm infants of < or = 32 wk gestation. Eligible infants were randomized to receive either low-dose (2.5 mg kg(-1) per dose 6 hourly) oral erythromycin ethylsuccinate or placebo ...
Cohen M - - 2001
This study examined the effects of sucking on a pacifier immediately before feeding on cardiovascular responses to feeding. Twenty-eight bottle-feeding infants were studied at 12 to 40 hr of age. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made during three periods: Period 1-while infants rested in their cribs before a ...
Borrel A - - 2001
The preparation and dissemination of policy statements are necessary but insufficient to prevent the inappropriate use of infant-feeding products in emergencies. The widespread failure of humanitarian agencies operating in the Balkan crisis to act in accordance with international policies and recommendations provides a recent example of the failure to translate ...
Mizuno K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Term infants are able to develop sucking behavior after birth. However, the requirements for this development have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether an oral-feed practice is necessary for the development of sucking behavior and whether non-nutritive sucking could support the development of ...
Seal A - - 2001
Recent crises in regions where exclusive breastfeeding is not the norm have highlighted the importance of effective policies and guidelines on infant feeding in emergencies. In 1993, UNICEF compiled a collection of policy and guideline documents relating to the feeding of infants in emergency situations. In June 2000 Save the ...
Ng P C - - 2001
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral erythromycin as a prokinetic agent for the treatment of moderately severe gastrointestinal dysmotility in preterm very low birthweight infants. METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study in a tertiary referral centre of a university teaching hospital was conducted on 56 preterm ...
Imms C - - 2001
This review article uses the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP) as a theoretical framework to organize a discussion of the complexities of infant feeding when the infant has congenital heart disease (CHD). Literature from many fields indicates that feeding supports the physical, cognitive, and affective development of infants within ...
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