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Results 401 - 450 of 1747
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Yigit Sule - - 2008
AIM: To determine whether a widely used fortifier affects gastric emptying in very low birth weight infants and whether the amount of fortifier added to breast milk makes a difference with regard to gastric emptying. METHODS: The study hypothesis was tested in a balanced crossover design. Gastric emptying was determined ...
Nishitani Shota - - 2009
We examined the effects of the odors from mother's milk, other mother's milk and formula milk on pain responses in newborns undergoing routine heelsticks. Forty-eight healthy infants were assigned to four groups, an own mother's breast milk odor group (Own MM), another mother's breast milk odor group (Other MM), a ...
Labiner-Wolfe Judith - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to describe the prevalence of any, occasional, and regular breast milk expression, mothers' reasons for expressing their milk, and sociodemographic factors associated with breast milk expression. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Breastfeeding mothers participating in the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II formed the cohort for these analyses, ...
Palou Andreu - - 2009
Breast milk is practically the only food ingested during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed to match the infant's nutritional needs. Epidemiological data suggest that breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding confers protection against several chronic diseases later on in life and, particularly, ...
Devanathan Gnanasekaran - - 2009
The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. ...
Chirico Gaetano - - 2008
The unfavorable effects of neonatal immunodeficiency are limited by some naturally occurring compensatory mechanisms, such as the introduction of protective and immunological components of human milk in the infant. Breast-feeding maintains the maternal-fetal immunological link after birth, may favor the transmission of immunocompetence from the mother to her infant, and ...
Bailey C S - - 2008
This report describes the presentation and clinical course of a 40-year-old woman who had an emergency admission for eclampsia. During routine investigations, she was found to have profound hypercalcaemia, the cause of which was identified as milk-alkali syndrome, caused by self-medication with antacid tablets for dyspepsia. Treatment with aggressive rehydration, ...
Omarsdottir Soley - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In Sweden preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks are fed maternal breastmilk or, if not available, donor breastmilk. Nutritional and immunological composition of human milk is affected by processing and storage procedures. Additionally, freezing of breastmilk may reduce cytomegalovirus transmission. The present recommendations for human milk use in Sweden ...
Rawal Pawan - - 2008
Colostrum is breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2-4 days. Colostrum is very important part of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones in mammals. This is the source of passive ...
Marriott Lynne D LD MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, - - 2009
To evaluate the relative validity of an FFQ for assessing nutrient intakes in 12-month-old infants. The FFQ was developed to assess the diets of infants born to women in the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a population-based survey of young women and their offspring. The energy and nutrient intakes obtained from ...
Tsipenyuk Yu M - - 2009
Complex situations related to the environment, as in the regions affected by the Chernobyl accident and regions in which nuclear weapons testing were undertaken, as in Semipalatinsk, could be reflected in the trace element content in mothers' milk. The evaluation of fractional transfer to milk of ingested or inhaled activity ...
Montgomery Dianne - - 2008
A program is developed to increase the use of breast milk during the first week, for patients<2 kg birth weight. This is termed the "BEST program," using the acronym "Breast milk Early Saves Trouble." An analysis of feeding practices and outcomes during the 12 months before versus the 12 months ...
Rödel Heiko G - - 2008
Birth mass can vary considerably among mammalian littermates. Heavier pups often show higher growth rates than their lighter siblings, which might positively affect fitness-relevant parameters during later life. Such a correlation between birth mass and pre-weaning growth within litters was confirmed by our study of wild-type and domestic European rabbits ...
Martin Melanie - - 2008
The potential of hypoallergenic (HA) infant milk formulas containing hydrolyzed milk proteins as main constituents to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro was investigated. Seven commercially available HA products designed for babies up to 4 months showed a potent inhibition of ACE in vitro, with IC 50 values ranging between ...
Bartol F F - - 2008
Epigenetic programs controlling development of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are influenced by the effects of naturally occurring bioactive agents on patterns of gene expression in FRT tissues during organizationally critical periods of foetal and perinatal life. Aberrations in such important cellular and molecular events, as may occur with exposure ...
Newport D Jeffrey - - 2008
Although lamotrigine use during pregnancy has substantially increased over the past decade secondary to accumulated reproductive safety data, systematic data on lamotrigine during breastfeeding remains sparse. We sought to characterize the determinants of lamotrigine concentrations in breast milk and nursing-infant plasma. Women who enrolled in a prospective investigation of perinatal ...
Peres Regina Celia Rocha - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cariogenicity of cows', human and infant formula milks, supplemented or not with fluoride, in rats. Sixty female Wistar rats were desalivated and infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715.Animals were divided into six groups: group 1, sterilised deionised distilled water (SDW; negative ...
Altzitzoglou T - - 2008
The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to ...
Sisk Paula M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high ...
Henriksen Christine - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid for human milk-fed preterm infants. The primary end point was cognitive development at 6 months of age. METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study among 141 infants with birth ...
Madadi Parvaz - - 2008
A 32-year-old lactating woman with open-angle glaucoma used timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops twice daily to her right eye for 6 months. Four milk samples were collected over a span of 6 days. Timolol maleate milk levels were examined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and found to be at ...
Vestergaard Else Marie - - 2008
We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation), preterm (28-37 wk ...
Palmer D J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Maternal dietary avoidance of egg has been recommended to treat egg allergy in breastfed infants. However, only one of three randomized controlled trials have produced evidence in favour of this recommendation. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess human milk ovalbumin (OVA) concentration after daily maternal ingestion of one cooked ...
Abballe Annalisa - - 2008
Breast milk monitoring studies of persistent and toxic environmental contaminants are of primary importance for carrying out an adequate risk assessment at the actual levels of human exposure and represent a major source of information on infant perinatal exposure. Milk specimens from mothers of the general population of the Venice ...
Tolstykh Evgenia I - - 2008
The Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) was contaminated as a result of radioactive releases by the Mayak plutonium production facility during 1949-1956. The persons born after the onset of the contamination have been identified as the "Techa River Offspring Cohort" (TROC). The TROC has the potential to provide direct data ...
Bertino E - - 2008
The benefits of human milk have been confirmed for preterm infants, due to its nutritional aspects and to its biologically active compounds. Oligosaccharides play an emerging leading role among these compounds. Mother's milk can sometimes be lacking for preterm infants; pasteurized donor milk represents therefore an important alternative. The aim ...
O'Connor Deborah L - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether mixing a multinutrient fortifier to approximately one half of the human milk fed each day for a finite period after discharge improves the nutrient intake and growth of predominantly human milk-fed low birth weight infants. We also assessed the ...
Tunc Turan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the present study were to measure the activity of chitotriosidase (ChT) in human milk, to record changes in enzyme activity over time and to determine whether there are differences in activity between the milk of mothers of full-term (FT) and premature (PT) infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...
Sala-Vila Aleix - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an important role in normal development of the brain and retina in the human. In utero, DHA is incorporated in the fetus, and its accretion continues throughout early postnatal life. Although human breast milk contains this fatty acid, several organizations recommend supplementing infant formulas with DHA ...
Wittig Sarah L - - 2008
Although a small minority in the United States, a number of adoptive mothers continue to seek information regarding the induction of lactation. Because of the level of support needed by these women to successfully induce lactation, it is necessary for nurses and other healthcare workers to gain a thorough understanding ...
Nightingale C - - 2008
The objective of this study was to evaluate a premium program for very high quality milk in a US cooperative. Data were available on a monthly basis from a large US milk cooperative from April 1998 through December 2005. The data set consisted of 36,930 observations representing producer-months. The actual ...
Ilett Kenneth F - - 2008
There are presently no published data on tramadol transfer into breast milk or on its effects in the breastfed infant. We have provided quantitative data on the absolute and relative infant doses of rac-tramadol and it rac-O-desmethyl metabolite for the breastfed infant. We have also demonstrated a novel sparse sampling ...
Abdulrazzaq Yousef M - - 2008
A wide variation in the composition of breast milk has been reported from various countries. This study was undertaken to determine the trace element content of breast milk and plasma in lactating women. Mothers of children 4 weeks to 80 weeks in age, were studied. Blood and breast milk from ...
Law Irwin - - 2008
The literature on placental and milk transfer of chloroquine and its major bioactive metabolite desethylchloroquine is sparse and incomplete. We have provided data on the transplacental transfer of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in Melanesian women (n = 19), measured transfer of these drugs into breast milk (n = 16) and estimated ...
Trapp Stefan - - 2008
Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) leads to high levels in human milk and high doses of POPs for nursing infants. This is currently not considered in chemical risk assessment. A coupled model for bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in breast-feeding mother and nursing infant was developed and tested for a ...
Geddes Donna T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which the breastfeeding infant removes milk from the breast is still controversial. It is unclear whether the infant uses predominantly intra-oral vacuum or a peristaltic action of the tongue to remove milk from the breast. The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to observe ...
Bose-O'Reilly Stephan - - 2008
Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through ...
Böttcher Malin Fagerås - - 2008
The immunological composition of breast milk differs between mothers. The reasons for these differences and the consequences for the breast-fed infants are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on the immunological composition of breast milk in relation to sensitization ...
Lai, Ching Tat
[Truncated abstract] Mothers who deliver prematurely often have a delay in lactogenesis II and subsequent milk supply. Furthermore, due to the inability of their babies to breastfeed immediately after birth, these mothers are 'pump dependent' during both initiation and establishment of lactation. Apparently, there are no evidence based guidelines for ...
Parish Anjali - - 2008
Nutrition for sick newborn infants, both term and preterm, has been evolving since the first published report of use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in an infant. The more preterm infants have posed an even greater challenge, because optimal timing for use of enteral nutrition is an additional factor for ...
Massart Francesco - - 2008
Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of ...
Smith-Norowitz Tamar A - - 2008
Breast milk is a complex fluid, rich in nutrients and non-nutritional bioactive components, including antimicrobial factors, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and anti-inflammatory substances. Although IgE is implicated in viral immunity, its role in breast milk in parvovirus B19 immunity has not been studied. Total immunoglobulin levels of IgE, IgG, and IgE anti-parvovirus ...
Henderson Jennifer J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The onset of copious milk secretion after birth is known as lactogenesis II. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preterm birth and antenatal corticosteroids on the timing of lactogenesis II after birth. METHODS: Women who had received antenatal betamethasone treatment and were expressing for ...
Hosea Blewett Heather J - - 2008
Breast-feeding is generally accepted as the optimal method of feeding infants. However, we have yet to fully understand the complex mixture of bioactive compounds contained in human milk. Epidemiological studies have indicated that breast-feeding is associated with health benefits in the infant for many immune-related conditions. Breast milk contains various ...
Lobo Evelyn D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize duloxetine pharmacokinetics in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and to estimate the duloxetine dose that an infant might consume if breastfed. METHODS: This open-label study included six healthy women aged 22-35 years who stopped nursing during and after ...
Milsom Stella R - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate the postpartum time course of changes in insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs). METHODS: Breast milk IGF-I and IGF-II and IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 levels were determined in 23 women with babies born at term, from day 4 until up to 9 months after ...
Sweet Linda - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand ...
German J Bruce - - 2008
Human milk contains a high concentration of diverse soluble oligosaccharides, carbohydrate polymers formed from a small number of monosaccharides. Novel methods combining liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry have identified approximately 200 unique oligosaccharides structures varying from 3 to 22 sugars. The increasing complexity of oligosaccharides follows the general ...
Barennes Hubert - - 2008
To investigate the use of Bear Brand coffee creamer as a food for infants and the impact on consumers of the logo of a cartoon baby bear held by its mother in the breastfeeding position. Interviews with paediatricians throughout the country and a national survey of potential consumers regarding their ...
Becker Genevieve E - - 2008
Breastfeeding is important for health. However, not all infants can feed at the breast and effective methods of expressing milk have not been adequately evaluated. To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, bacterial contamination of milk and cost implications of a range of methods of milk expression, including ...
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