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Results 701 - 750 of 1747
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Hendriksz C J - - 2004
Undiluted goats milk should not be given to infants. High protein infant feeds are a forgotten cause of metabolic acidosis. The metabolic abnormalities associated with goat's milk ingestion can cause a clinical picture very similar to tyrosinaemia type 1.
Betzold Christine M - - 2004
Lactogenesis II is the onset of copious milk production (i.e., the milk "coming in"), which usually occurs between 30 to 40 hours postpartum. When lactogenesis II fails to occur or is delayed, it may be due to a number of underlying hormonal or non-hormonal conditions. Of the various hormonal etiologies, ...
Haas J S - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess potential infant exposure to bupropion and its active metabolites in breast milk such as would occur during treatment to prevent post-partum relapse to tobacco use, and to compare the concentrations of bupropion in urine and saliva with plasma and breast milk. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study, outpatient ...
Shoji H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Human milk contains many kinds of antioxidant and is considered to prevent diseases mediated by oxygen free radicals in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. AIMS: To examine the antioxidant effects of breast milk in VLBW infants by determining urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion, which is known to be a non-invasive ...
Imataka G - - 2004
We describe vitamin D deficiency rickets in an infant nursed with soybean milk (not specifically designed for infants) instead of cow's milk-based infant formula. Symptoms included irritability and carpopedal spasm when crying. The infant's condition improved with nutrition by vitamin-enriched cow's milk-based infant formula, oral administration 1 alpha-hydroxy vitamin D3 ...
Papathakis P C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the nutritional adequacy and feasibility of breastmilk replacement options recommended by WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. The study aim was to explore suitability of the 2001 feeding recommendations for infants of HIV-infected mothers for a rural region in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa specifically with respect to adequacy of micronutrients ...
Meier Paula P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based breastfeeding program (Rush Mothers' Milk Club) for mothers and their very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of hospital records for 207 eligible VLBW infants cared for in a 52-bed urban neonatal intensive-care unit for a 24-month period in 1997-1998. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: ...
Akisu Ciler - - 2004
AIM: Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. METHODS: Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. ...
Ramsay Donna T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Currently, the methods for assessing milk ejection in women include serial sampling of plasma oxytocin and measurement of intraductal pressure, both of which are invasive and may induce stress. We hypothesized that milk ejection would cause an increase in milk-duct diameter that could be observed noninvasively with ultrasound, and ...
Tully Mary Rose - - 2004
Donor milk has been used to successfully treat a number of medical conditions in infants. This article highlights 3 such success stories describing the use of human milk in cases of velocardiofacial syndrome, very-low-birth weight, and failure to thrive. In 2002, more than 300 infants and young children and 15 ...
Martín-Sosa Samuel - - 2004
The objectives of this work were to study the FA composition of milk gangliosides, as well as to gain further insight into the characterization of human milk gangliosides. The potential capacity of human milk gangliosides to adhere to human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC-strains) was also studied. Human milk gangliosides were ...
Skinner Jean D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe transitions and patterns in infants' and toddlers' beverage intakes, with focus on nonmilk beverages. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone to obtain a 24-hour dietary recall of infants' and toddlers' food intakes, as reported by mothers or other primary caregivers. SUBJECTS: A nationwide sample of ...
Cleary Thomas G - - 2004
The survival of a nonimmune infant faced with a new pathogen depends in part on an array of specific and nonspecific human milk factors. Human milk protects via multiple redundant strategies. It targets shared virulence mechanisms to provide cross protection. By interfering with fundamental processes such as attachment to glycoconjugates, ...
Agarwal Ramesh - - 2004
This study was conducted to test the effect of fortification with human milk fortifier (HMF), low birth weight (LBW) formula and coconut oil, initially and upon subsequent storage, on the osmolality of preterm breast milk. Milk samples (n = 48) were collected from mothers (n = 25) delivered at 34 ...
German Rebecca Z - - 2004
The volume transported into the valleculae by the rhythmic tongue movements of suckling is considered the prime factor for initiating pharyngeal swallowing (the movement of milk out of the valleculae and through the pharynx to the esophagus). This study addressed the impact of variation in two factors on sucking (oral ...
Diehl-Jones William L - - 2004
In humans, growth and development continues until early adulthood when bone, muscle, and nervous tissue reaches final stages of maturity. Adequate levels of nutritional intake and utilization are critical to optimize ongoing growth. The goal of nutritional therapy for premature or ill neonates has been to provide sufficient nutrients to ...
Walker W Allan - - 2004
In this review, evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that human milk provides a link between the mother and her newborn infant in the extrauterine environment in a manner similar to the placental link between mother and fetus in utero. In addition, breastfeeding helps prevent age-related diseases affecting the ...
Takekuma Mikiko - - 2004
From 1998 to 2000, the dioxin levels were measured in the milk of 299 mothers who lived in Saitama prefecture, Japan. Factors that influenced the dioxin levels were investigated based on a questionnaire given to the milk donors at that time. It was found that the dioxin levels in the ...
Miranda María - - 2004
Breastfeeding and human milk are widely accepted as optimal for human infants' nutrition. Nowadays lifestyle often makes it difficult to maintain or even initiate human lactation. This situation is mostly related to the workload of women away from home. New approaches are needed to enable maternal lactation under these circumstances. ...
Jewell V C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye where they are believed to protect it against oxidative and light damage. The amounts of these carotenoids consumed by premature infants are not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to measure these ...
Tarcan Aylin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It is well known that breast-feeding protects the newborn from infectious diseases. This is especially important for very low birth weight preterm infants, whose immune systems are immature. In this study we investigated how a milk fortifier and replacement formula affected lymphocyte subsets in preterm infants. METHOD: The study ...
Kuschel C A - - 2004
For term infants, human milk provides adequate nutrition to facilitate growth, as well as potential beneficial effects on immunity and the maternal-infant emotional state. However, the role of human milk in premature infants is less well defined as it contains insufficient quantities of some nutrients to meet the estimated needs ...
Hamprecht Klaus - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is reactivated in nearly every seropositive breastfeeding mother during lactation [Lancet 357 (2001) 513]. Conventional tissue culture (TC) and low-speed centrifugation-enhanced microtiter culture methods are not able to detect HCMV from milk during all stages of lactation. OBJECTIVES: Development of a sensitive and quantitative microculture technique ...
Lubetzky Ronit - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We compared energy expenditure (EE) of preterm infants fed their mother's milk versus preterm infant formula. Study design A prospective, randomized crossover study of 13 healthy, appropriate weight for gestational age, gavage-fed, preterm infants. Before the study and according to our feeding protocol, infants uniformly received alternate feeds of ...
Newburg David S - - 2004
To test the hypothesis that human milk fucosyloligosaccharides are part of an innate immune system, we addressed whether their expression (1) depends on maternal genotype and (2) protects breastfed infants from pathogens. Thus the relationship between maternal Lewis blood group type and milk oligosaccharide expression and between variable oligosaccharide expression ...
Osterlund Pamela - - 2004
The precise role of leukocytes and mediators in human milk is still unresolved. Eosinophils are uncommonly detected in human milk and their presence has previously been associated with maternal atopy and development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. The purpose of this study was to examine the ...
Silk A S - - 2003
The effectiveness of monthly removal of hair surrounding teats on the reduction of teat skin surface bacteria, and the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI), was studied for 10 months in a dairy farm. A split udder design was used where hair was removed on one side, left or right, with ...
Oddy Wendy H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Cytokines secreted in human milk might play important roles in newborn health and in the development of infant immune responses. We investigated the relationship of the concentration and dose of cytokines in human milk to infant wheeze at 1 year of age. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether ...
Truitt S T - - 2003
Contraception choices may be limited for lactating women due to concerns about hormonal effects on quality and quantity of milk, passage of hormones to the infant and infant growth. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to determine the effect of hormonal contraception on lactation. We sought all ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2003
We describe beverage intakes during the transition stage of infant nutrition. Mean daily intakes of infant formula, cow's milk, combined juice and juice drinks, water, and other beverages estimated from a beverage frequency questionnaire were analyzed cross-sectionally at ages six through 24 months (n=701). Most children (97%) consumed human milk, ...
Marini A - - 2003
Prolonged administration of probiotic in preterm babies induce a rise of specific IgA and IgM antibodies against probiotic. This fact explains why presence of living germs in stools almost disappeared in spite of continuous administration. However some positive influences were observed: decreased ratio of aerobic/anaerobic. Increased ratio of gram +/gram ...
Bender D A - - 2003
Infants and young children require vitamins and minerals not only to replace losses through metabolic turnover, but also to increase body reserves as they grow. For infants up to six months of age it is generally assumed that breast milk provides adequate intakes, and average breast milk composition provides the ...
Abdulrazzaq Yousef M - - 2003
A study was undertaken to determine whether breast-milk of mothers from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) contained aflatoxins. One hundred and forty lactating mothers, 55 who had delivered premature infants (<2500 g, </=37 wk gestational age) and 85 who had full-term infants, agreed to participate in the study. Breast-milk was ...
Leung Alexander Kc - - 2003
Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased ...
Feldman Ruth - - 2003
Eighty-six premature infants were tested to examine the effects of maternal breast milk on infant development. Infants were classified by breast-milk consumption during the hospitalization period (M = 57.4 days) into three groups: those receiving minimal (<25% of nutrition), intermediate (25-75%), and substantial (>75%) amounts of breast milk. Infants in ...
Chierici R - - 2003
It is now generally accepted that the microbiota of the human gut may influence health and well-being. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important microorganisms associated with these beneficial effects and the elevated bifidobacterial count may be one of the greatest advantages that breastfed infants have over infants fed with ...
Jeffery B S - - 2003
One of the challenges facing the development of programs to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV in developing countries remains the problem of infant feeding. One of the alternative feeding methods under investigation for infants of HIV-infected mothers is heat treatment of expressed breastmilk by Pretoria Pasteurization. The objective ...
Sharp M J - - 2003
Metabolic bone disease (MBD) in the newborn predominantly affects preterm infants. The risk of MBD is inversely proportional to gestational age and birthweight, and directly related to postnatal complications. Poor bone mineralization has been shown in 55% of infants born at less than 1000 g. Optimal nutrition for very preterm ...
Eklund Gunilla - - 2003
The solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in infant foods, three cereal- and milk-based diets and two ready-to-use baby dishes, were studied after in vitro digestion and by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The solubility of Cd after in vitro digestion varied between diets; liver casserole had the highest solubility ...
Lesman-Movshovich E - - 2003
Milk composition exhibits species-specific differences depending on genetic, evolutionary, and environmental factors. In addition, commercial milk preparations are also changed by industrial manipulations, including severe heat processing. Cow milk, used as human food, provides important nutrients but lacks some essential components that are present in raw human milk. The present ...
Ferreira I M P L V O - - 2003
The composition of fourteen infant formulae and six follow-up milks with regard to their free amino acids (including taurine), free nucleotides, orotic acid, and free and total l-carnitine content was studied. The levels found were compared with the limits established in European legislation and with the composition of human and ...
Pozler Oldrich - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The non-invasive (13)C-octanoic acid breath test ((13)C-OABT) has recently been used to monitor gastric emptying. We evaluated (13)C-OABT as a method for assessing gastric emptying in relation to the amount of milk ingested in preterm neonates during their first days of life. METHODS: The (13)C-OABT was performed in 16 ...
Agostoni C - - 2003
Fats are the only dietary agents possibly modulating the individual membrane composition, which otherwise is "genetically" determined. In infancy, human milk represents the first natural source of fats. Although the fat intake of breastfed infants is quantitatively and qualitatively unique, it is not known to what extent their varying requirements ...
Borgert Christopher J - - 2003
The two primary sources of nutrition for infants are human milk and infant formula. Both contain an array of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that may act through many separate hormonal mechanisms. The safety of infant nutrition sources has been questioned based on the possibility that exogenous chemicals may exert adverse ...
Jeppesen D - - 2003
AIM: To examine the size of the thymus in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and to study the effects of feeding by human donor milk on the size of the thymus in these infants. METHODS: The absolute and relative thymic size was assessed by sonography as thymic index (Ti), ...
Moretti Myla E - - 2003
Lithium is a drug of choice for the management of bipolar disorder, a disease frequently affecting women in their childbearing years. Unfortunately, this drug has typically been contraindicated in nursing women. Data in humans are limited with respect to the use of this drug in lactating women, and early reports ...
Nagayama Junya - - 2003
Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), which has been considered an index to the synthetic and sharp genotoxic and clastogenic potencies, was examined by using the infant lymphocytes postnatal of around ten months, in order to evaluate the genotoxic or clastogenic potency of exposures to PCBs and dioxins through the ...
Scott Julius Xavier - - 2003
The advantages of breastfeedng to both the mother and infant are well recognised. In rare instances if breasteding is inadequate or if the sodium content bast milk is high, malnutrition and hypernatraemia can result. A 15 days old exclusively breastfed baby presented with inadequate weight gain. On evaluation, he was ...
Rocquelin G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the role of human milk n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in term infant growth in two African urban populations. DESIGN: Observational study. Weight gains at 5 months of age and dietary habits were compared between Congolese infants (n=102) and Burkinabè infants (n=101). Socio-economic status and ...
Shehadeh N - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if human milk insulin (HMI) concentrations are affected by gestational age and postnatal age. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational study carried out in a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Insulin concentrations were determined in human milk of 90 parturient mothers who delivered between 30 and 41 ...
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