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Meier Johannes - - 2005
In a clinical trial, the incidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation in breastfeeding mothers and transmission to their preterm infants were studied. Breast milk from 73 mothers as well as urine and tracheal and pharyngeal aspirates from their 89 infants were screened weekly for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA during the first 2 ...
Rønnestad Arild - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of and risk factors for late-onset septicemia (LOS) in a national cohort of extremely premature infants who received very early full human milk feeding. METHODS: A prospective study of all infants born in Norway in 1999 and 2000 with gestational age of <28 weeks or ...
Jochum F - - 2005
AIM: Various mechanisms of innate immunity and gastrointestinal integrity are potentially affected by soluble Fas (sFas) and sFas ligand (sFasL). Assuming that sFas and sFasL in milk reflect cellular events during lactogenesis, we aimed to assess the impact of premature parturition and duration of lactation on the concentrations of sFas ...
Dundar Nihal Olgac - - 2005
It has been shown that leptin is present in breast milk and human mammary epithelial cells are able to synthesize leptin. It has been suggested that leptin in human milk might be involved in the regulation of postnatal nutrition and growth. To investigate whether there is a relationship between leptin ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2005
This study reports the temporal pattern of milk output in 2 groups of lactating mothers during the first 6 weeks postpartum. A study aim was to examine if the average milk output for postpartum days 6 and 7 (baseline) predicts milk adequacy at week 6 postpartum. Mothers of preterm (< ...
Hong H C - - 2005
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was investigated in freshwater sediments and human breast milk collected from the Pearl River Delta, China. The average level of PCP in river sediments was 7.93 ng/g based on dry weight, ranging from 1.44 to 34.4 ng/g. As to the sediments from fishponds, samples from Zhongshan had the ...
Lovejoy C Owen - - 2005
The human fossil record is one of the most complete for any mammal. A basal ancestral species, Australopithecus afarensis, exhibits a well-preserved postcranium that permits reconstruction of important events in the evolution of our locomotor skeleton. When compared to those of living apes and humans, it provides insights into the ...
Newburg David S - - 2005
Breastfed infants have lower morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea than those fed artificially. This had been attributed primarily to the secretory antibodies and prebiotic factors in human milk. Oligosaccharides are the third largest component of human milk. They were initially considered to be functionless by-products of glycoprotein and glycolipid ...
Field Catherine J - - 2005
There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the diverse mixture of bioactive components in human milk that influence the immune status of infants by not only providing protection but also facilitating development, tolerance, and an appropriate inflammatory response. It could be suggested that milk is the communication vehicle ...
Rodriguez Nancy A - - 2005
Mother's milk provides protection from serious and costly morbidity for very-low-birth-weight infants (<1500 g), including enteral feeding intolerance, nosocomial infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, NICU and maternity nurses may be hesitant to encourage mothers to initiate lactation because of a reluctance to make mothers feel guilty or coerced. This article ...
Marlier Luc - - 2005
Behavioral responses of 3- to 4-day-old newborns to the odors of various human milk (HM) and formula milk (FM) were examined in paired-choice tests. When both stimuli were nonfamiliar, breast-fed, as well as bottle-fed, infants oriented their head and mouthed more vigorously to HM than to FM. When breast-fed infants ...
Berlin Cheston M - - 2005
There is continuing emphasis by many professionals and organizations on the importance of breastfeeding as optimal infant nutrition. Pediatricians are frequently asked about the safety of medications taken by the nursing mother and the risk to the infant. Most drugs and many chemicals will be transferred into milk. For a ...
Ando Yoshiya - - 2004
AIM: Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection occurs via mothers' milk during feeding. However, freeze-thaw processing can eliminate the infectivity of the mother's milk of HTLV-I carriers. METHODS: A long-term follow-up survey was conducted to investigate the HTLV-I infectivity of frozen-thawed mothers' milk among infants whose mothers were HTLV-I seropositive. ...
Hawthorne Keli M - - 2004
For full-term infants in the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding remains the nutritional standard for calcium intake. However, unsupplemented human milk does not meet the nutritional requirements for growth of the very-low-birthweight (<1500 g) infant. Methods for human milk fortification have been evaluated, and recent studies have demonstrated ...
Ralph Anna - - 2004
Two cases of maternal to child transmission of melioidosis are reported from Australia's tropical north. One infant died of overwhelming sepsis. Both lactating mothers had mastitis. In 1 case, Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from breast milk was identical on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with that in blood and cerebrospinal fluid isolates from ...
Ramalingam Lochana - - 2004
Early childhood caries is the currently accepted term used to describe dental caries occurring in infants and toddlers. It is a multifactorial, transmissible and infectious disease that has recently been under scrutiny in the literature. The microflora, substrate, saliva and host are key factors involved in the pathogenesis, together with ...
Kuma Akiko - - 2004
At birth the trans-placental nutrient supply is suddenly interrupted, and neonates face severe starvation until supply can be restored through milk nutrients. Here, we show that neonates adapt to this adverse circumstance by inducing autophagy. Autophagy is the primary means for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents within lysosomes. The level ...
Clarke Timothy - - 2004
Four milking regimes using automatic cluster removers (ACR) were tested over a 19-week period, from mid to late lactation. Each treatment group consisted of 16 slow-milking cows. The milking regimes used were: an ACR setting of 200 ml/min (Control); raised ACR setting from 200 to 500 in steps of 100 ...
Hale Thomas W - - 2004
The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of celecoxib into human milk. In one group of 3 breastfeeding patients on celecoxib at steady state, milk levels were determined at set intervals over 24 hours. Plasma levels were determined in 2 of their infants, age 17 and 22 ...
Hanna N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Human milk, which contains compounds beneficial to infants, is often expressed and stored before use. Changes in its antioxidant activity with storage have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To measure antioxidant activity of fresh, refrigerated (4 degrees C), and frozen human milk (-20 degrees C), stored for two to seven ...
Levine Barry - - 2004
A case is presented of a 10 month old male who went into cardiac arrest at a local store. The infant subsequently expired and was autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland. The only remarkable finding was the detection of oxycodone in the postmortem specimens; ...
de Silva A - - 2004
One of the reasons for advocating human milk (HM) feeding for preterm infants is the belief that this provides the infant with a degree of protection from infection. Providing fresh HM for such infants is challenging for mothers and staff, and consequently it is important that its benefits are rigorously ...
Ludvigsson J F - - 2004
AIM: To examine the risk of low birthweight (<2500 g, LBW), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm birth (gestational age <37 wk) in relation to milk intake. METHODS: Observational study in southeast Sweden. Questionnaires were used to collect data on milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birthweight from mother-infant pairs ...
Fituch C C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Despite the protective effects of human milk against necrotizing enterocolitis, the incidence is highest in the extremely premature infant, and only minimally decreased with feeding human milk. This suggests that certain protective agents may be lower in milk from mothers delivering extremely premature infants. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was ...
Hunt Curtiss D - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish the profile of boron metabolism in human milk. DESIGN: Lactating mothers of premature (PRT; n = 10, <2000 g birth weight, <37 wk gestation) and full-term (FT; n ...
Friel James K - - 2004
We hypothesized that early infancy would be a time of oxidative stress due to the difficulty of adapting to ambient oxygen. Therefore, we measured levels of products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes), antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), and ability to resist oxidative stress (ferric reducing ability of ...
Dechow C D - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations among body condition score (BCS), dairy form, milk yield, and days open in US Holsteins and investigate the potential of using BCS or dairy form evaluations as early indicators of days open. Dairy form and BCS obtained from the Holstein ...
Spatz Diane L - - 2004
Human milk is the preferred food for infants, including ill and preterm infants. Ensuring skilled and comprehensive breastfeeding support for these vulnerable infants requires a specialized approach. The author outlines 10 steps for promoting and protecting breastfeeding in vulnerable infants. The steps include providing the parents with information necessary to ...
Ng D K - - 2004
A screening programme for expressed breast milk (EBM) revealed the alarming fact that our study group had the highest rate of contamination ever reported. The programme started in July 2002 and involved a group of Chinese women whose premature babies were in the neonatal intensive care unit. EBM was considered ...
Loui Andrea - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) have high nutritional needs. Deficiencies of minerals, trace elements (especially zinc) may develop as a result of rapid growth, low body stores and low content of these substances in human milk We hypothesized that fortification of human milk might prevent deficiencies. METHODS: ...
Plante Lauren - - 2004
To measure the amount of pantoprazole in human milk following its oral administration to a breast-feeding mother and to estimate human exposure. One woman was studied over a 24-hour interval after oral administration of 40-mg pantoprazole. Serial plasma and milk samples were collected over 24 hours, and pantoprazole concentrations were ...
Morrow Ardythe L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal milk levels of 2-linked fucosylated oligosaccharide and prevention of diarrhea as a result of Campylobacter, caliciviruses, and diarrhea of all causes in breast-fed infants. STUDY DESIGN: Data and banked samples were analyzed from 93 breast-feeding mother-infant pairs who were prospectively studied during 1988-1991 ...
Behari Priya - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine a potential source of MRSA colonization and infection among preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using molecular analysis of breast milk samples. DESIGN: Case report, outbreak investigation. RESULTS: Preterm triplets were delivered at 26 weeks' gestation via cesarean section when routine active surveillance for ...
Lindemann P C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising ...
Lawrence Robert M - - 2004
Three viruses (CMV, HIV, and HTLV-I) frequently cause infection or disease as a result of breast-milk transmission. Reasonable guidelines have been pro-posed for when and how to avoid breast milk in the case of maternal infection. For other viruses, prophylactic immune therapy to protect the infant against all modes of ...
Jalla Sanju - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to compare zinc homeostasis in premature infants enterally fed with either preterm infant formula or fortified human milk; to examine interrelationships of variables of zinc homeostasis; and to examine the findings in relation to estimated zinc requirements of preterm infants. Zinc homeostasis was studied ...
Chan Carol F - - 2004
The excretion of naltrexone and its primary metabolite 6,beta-naltrexol in breast milk from a 30-year-old lactating opiate addict undergoing oral naltrexone pharmacotherapy (5 mg/d) was studied. Concentrations of naltrexone and 6,beta-naltrexol in serial milk and plasma samples taken over a 19.3-hour period of a dose interval at steady state were ...
Hawthorne K M - - 2004
Infants less than 1,500 g birth weight (very low birth weight, VLBW) are at risk for significant nutritional deficiencies. Enhancing nutritional care of these infants during their first months of life may have important short and long-term benefits. In this article we will consider several areas of recent research in ...
Bielicki J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the time-course of breast milk leptin levels between term and preterm pregnancy. DESIGN: Open longitudinal prospective randomised study. METHODS: RIA of leptin levels in milk from 33 mothers (term pregnancy: n=24; preterm: n=9) at three postpartum intervals: 2-3 days, 4-5 days and 6 weeks (intervals A, B ...
Updegrove Kim - - 2004
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the diagnoses for which donor human milk is regularly prescribed. The role of human milk in both prevention and treatment of NEC has long been recognized. Human milk, whether mother's own or donor, provides significant protection against many of the known risk factors of ...
Furman Lydia - - 2004
The effect of maternal milk feeding during the first 4 weeks of life on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months corrected age (CA) of singleton very low birth weight (VLBW) (< 1.5 kg) infants was examined. Ninety-eight VLBW infants born from January 1997 to February 1999 were followed to 20 months ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2004
This article contains two case reports that illustrate the difficulty two mothers experienced when they mechanically expressed their milk for their very preterm infants. Each of the mothers was enrolled in a separate research study and had previously undergone surgery for breast augmentation. Neither of the mothers was able to ...
Coppa Giovanni V - - 2004
The development of intestinal microflora in newborns is strictly related to the kind of feeding. Breast-fed infants, unlike the bottle-fed ones, have an intestinal ecosystem characterized by a strong prevalence of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Data available so far in the literature show that, among the numerous substances present in human ...
Ostrea Enrique M EM - - 2004
In general, drugs that are taken by a mother during pregnancy or after birth may be transferred to the fetus or the infant (through breast milk). Many factors are involved that determine the amount of drugs that are transferred and their potential effects on the fetus or infant. A careful ...
Miyazawa Reiko - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of anti-regurgitant milk (AR milk) with reduced concentration of locust bean gum (LBG) compared with the usual commercially available concentration of this thickener. METHODS: Thirty infants with daily regurgitation but no other medical problems were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Infants in group ...
Slusser Wendelin M - - 2004
The objective of this article is to study a barrier for breastfeeding women working full-time outside the home: breast milk expression in the workplace. Data are from a large corporation that provides employee benefits. Mothers express breast milk about twice a day when infants are 4 months old (x = ...
Togashi K - - 2004
A conversion formula was developed to convert the genetic covariance matrices of daily yields and of random regression coefficients between 305-d and 335-d production periods under a random regression test day model. Five selection criteria were compared in terms of genetic improvement in persistency and lactation milk: 1) lactation estimated ...
Cesa Stefania - - 2004
Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in infant milk formulas have been monitored by using an aqueous acid extraction method combined with the thiobarbituric acid method (TBA-test). Vegetable oils, with a remarkable content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are used to enrich the infant milk formulas. As PUFA are more susceptible to autoxidation, ...
McNamara Patrick J - - 2004
There are many benefits of breast-feeding both for the infant and for the mother. Nursing mothers who are also taking medications or exposed to environmental hazards may be confronted with a difficult choice to discontinue nursing or maternal medication or risk potential harm to the infant. Frequently, these decisions are ...
Hendriksz C J - - 2004
Undiluted goats milk should not be given to infants. High protein infant feeds are a forgotten cause of metabolic acidosis. The metabolic abnormalities associated with goat's milk ingestion can cause a clinical picture very similar to tyrosinaemia type 1.
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