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Results 601 - 650 of 1747
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Spatz Diane L - - 2006
Human milk is the preferred form of nutrition for all infants including those born preterm or otherwise ill. However, without the commitment of knowledgeable healthcare providers to ensure success during mother-infant separation, many infants fail to receive their mother's own milk. Care of the mother-infant dyad during infant illness requires ...
Gardiner Sharon J - - 2006
To determine the milk-to-plasma (M/P) concentration ratio of celecoxib, and estimate likely infant exposure. Blood and milk were sampled for 48 h after oral administration of celecoxib 200 mg to six lactating volunteers. The M/P ratio was derived from the area under the concentration-time curves (0-infinity) and the infant 'dose' ...
Ustundag Bilal - - 2005
It has been well documented that human milk contains several immunomodulator components which are important during infant period when the newborn's immune system is still under development. In this study, we aim at examining levels of cytokines, zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in milk from mothers of premature and mature ...
Gastelum Dawn Terashita - - 2005
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly common in neonatal intensive care units and can lead to severe outcomes. Baby C, of a set of quadruplets, died of MRSA sepsis. The surviving siblings were colonized with MRSA. Expressed breast milk was fed to all infants; tested breast milk samples were ...
Gilboa-Garber Nechama - - 2005
Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and ...
Kerrey Benjamin T - - 2006
Symptomatic disease due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been increasingly recognized in low birth weight (LBW) premature infants. Breast milk has been identified as a potential source for these infections. At approximately 60 days of life a LBW, premature infant was diagnosed with HCMV sepsis syndrome, prompting further investigation of ...
Yang Naiqing - - 2006
A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from local supermarkets of Dalian, Tianjin and Shanghai in China and analyzed for the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor and cis-nonachlor) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ...
Ettinger Adrienne S - - 2006
The authors studied 367 women who were breastfeeding their infants in Mexico City, Mexico, between 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effect of cumulative lead exposure, breastfeeding practices, and calcium intake on breast milk lead levels over the course of lactation. Maternal blood and breast milk lead levels were measured ...
Geraghty Sheela R - - 2005
Rates of breastfeeding are increasing, but the methods by which human milk is fed to infants is not well described. Using a retrospective survey design, the authors collected information about infant feeding from mothers of term, preterm, singleton, and multiple-gestation infants (n=346). Human milk feeding methods were characterized as solely ...
Riordan Jan - - 2005
The authors tested indicators of effective breastfeeding to identify those that provide reliable estimates of human milk intake. Human milk intake of 82 full-term infants was measured by test weights before and after feeding and compared with commonly used breastfeeding indicators: rooting, length of time before latch-on, latch-on, suckle, observable ...
Agostoni Carlo C Department of Paediatrics, University of Milan, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy. - - 2005
The content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in human milk has been connected with infant growth and developmental indices. The LC-PUFA content of human milk usually reflects the dietary habits of mothers, so questions have been raised regarding the possibility of enriching maternal diet with LC-PUFAs during lactation (or ...
Xiang Mingyan M Centre for Biosciences Research, School of Science, University of Greenwich, Kent, UK. - - 2005
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients required for the optimal growth and development of infants, particularly of the brain and retina. It is important for exclusively breastfed infants to receive milk of a correct balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we compared the ...
Fenton Suzanne E - - 2005
Human milk is a unique biological matrix that can be used to estimate exposures in both the mother and the breastfed infant. In addition, the presence of environmental chemicals in human milk may act as a sentinel for exposures to a broader population. Several factors play a role in determining ...
LaKind Judy S - - 2005
Biomonitoring data can, under certain conditions, be used to describe potential risks to human health (for example, blood lead levels used to determine children's neurodevelopmental risk). At present, there are very few chemical exposures at low levels for which sufficient data exist to state with confidence the link between levels ...
Wang Richard Y - - 2005
Concerns regarding human milk in our society are diverse, ranging from the presence of environmental chemicals to the health of breastfed infants and the economic value of breastfeeding to society. The panel convened for the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals in the United States, ...
Hassan Ahmed M - - 2006
Ochratoxin A (OTA) constitutes a real human threat. Its presence in human milk has previously been reported in different countries. This study is the first Egyptian report on the presence of OTA in both mothers' milk and infants' sera, addressing its correlation with infants' kidney functions, which was not previously ...
Fewtrell M S MS Childhood Nutrition Reserach Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK. - - 2006
Human milk has considerable short and long term benefits for preterm infants, but mothers may experience difficulties in expressing breast milk for infants too immature or sick to breast feed. Oxytocin has been used to assist breast feeding and milk expression, but few data are available to support this intervention ...
Zhao Huiwu - - 2005
Ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT) is a prefoldinlike protein that has been suggested to be involved in human tumorigenesis. Here, we have found that UXT is overexpressed in a number of human tumor tissues but not in the matching normal tissues. We demonstrate that UXT is located in human centrosomes and ...
Hunt Curtiss D - - 2005
Because boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans, the aim of the present work was to determine the profile of boron metabolism in human milk during the first 4 mo of lactation. The concentration of boron and other minerals was determined in ...
Yu Victor Y H - - 2005
Extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants secondary to suboptimal nutrition is a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Evidence is emerging that early growth deficits have long-term adverse effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The parenteral route of feeding is essential to maintain nutritional integrity before successful ...
Araújo Edílson D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine and to compare the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A in samples of colostrum and milk of mothers of term and preterm neonates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The levels of secretory immunoglobulin A of 10 mothers of term neonates and 10 mothers of preterm neonates were determined from 5 ...
Bowen William H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood ...
Schanler Richard J - - 2005
Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. However, nutritional concerns arise because the quantity of nutrients in human milk may not meet ...
Santiago Myla S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. OBJECTIVE: We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing ...
Telang Sucheta - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth of resident aerobic mesophilic flora and added Enterobacter sakazakii in fresh, unfortified human milk; fresh human milk fortified with two commercial powdered fortifiers differing in iron content; and infant formula prepared from powder. SUBJECTS: Eight mothers provided preterm breast milk samples. METHODS: Breast milk samples ...
Zanardo Vincenzo - - 2005
Tobacco smoke is immunotoxic, but the effect of smoking on the immunologic function of the mammary gland of mothers who smoke cigarettes ("smoker mothers") has not been studied. Our objective was to test, in smoker mothers, the colostral and transitional milk concentrations of interleukin-(IL)1alpha. The immunomodulators beta-endorphin and leptin were ...
Alam Ashfaqul A International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, - - 2005
It has previously been shown that passage of Vibrio cholerae through the human intestine imparts a transient hyperinfectious phenotype that may contribute to the epidemic spread of cholera. The mechanism underlying this human-passaged hyperinfectivity is incompletely understood, in part due to inherent difficulties in recovering and studying organisms that are ...
Saarela Timo - - 2005
AIM: To study the macronutrient and energy contents of human milk fractions during the first 6 mo of lactation. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 483 milk samples, including 52 pairs of fore- and hindmilk samples from 20 mothers, 253 samples from 53 donor mothers and 126 samples from 36 mothers ...
Hoppu Ulla - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Breast milk fatty acids may have immunomodulatory properties related to the development of atopic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the breast milk fatty acid composition on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in high-risk infants. METHODS: Mothers with atopic disease were recruited ...
Hart Sybil L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether natural variations in decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in breast milk would relate to infant neurobehavioral outcomes at the newborn stage following equivocal findings on infant and toddler outcomes of exposure to DHA in formula and breast milk. METHODS: Breast milk samples from N = 20 mothers ...
Kiviranta Hannu - - 2005
We measured adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 420 general Finns living in southern Finland. The mean (median) concentrations of WHO(PCDD/F)-TEQ and WHO(PCB)-TEQ were 29.0 (24.1) and 20.7 (16.7) pg g-1 fat, respectively. The concentrations clearly correlated with age. Expressing the concentrations as ...
da Costa Sérgio L - - 2005
Human milk is the best source of nourishment for the newborn because of its incomparable balanced nutrition and psychological benefits to the infant's development. Dental fillings containing metallic Hg are the primary source of inorganic Hg contamination of humans. We studied Hg concentrations in the breast milk of mothers during ...
Schanler Richard J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Compared with preterm formula (PF), mother's milk (MM) is associated with lower rates of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among premature infants. Because not all mothers of premature infants produce sufficient milk to supply their infants throughout hospitalization, we reasoned that pasteurized donor human milk (DM) would ...
Niblock Mary M - - 2005
Because the piglet is frequently used as a model for developmental disorders of the medullary serotonergic (5-HT) system in the human infant, this review compares the topography and developmental profile of selected 5-HT markers between humans in the first year of life and piglets in the first 60 days of ...
Reilly John J - - 2005
The present study aimed to evaluate evidence on metabolisable energy consumption and pattern of consumption with age in infants in the developed world who were exclusively breast-fed, at around the time of introducing complementary feeding. We carried out a systematic review aimed at answering three questions: how much milk is ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2005
Lactating mothers of preterm infants who are pump-dependent are at high risk for difficulty maintaining an adequate milk supply. This article reports the naturally occurring volume of milk removed from the breast by mechanical expression over time for 81 mothers of nonnursing preterm infants from 4 tertiary care centers in ...
Huyghebaert Nathalie - - 2005
Layering of recombinant hIL-10 producing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis Thy12) on inert carriers is a promising technique for the preparation of a multi-particulate formulation of viable, hIL-10 producing L. lactis. To improve viability after layering and storage, L. lactis Thy12 was layered in different matrices (10% skim milk and/or 2.5, ...
Gardiner Sharon J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the milk-to-plasma (M/P) concentration ratio of rofecoxib in lactating mothers and estimate likely infant exposure. METHODS: Rofecoxib 25 mg was given to six lactating women at weaning. Blood and milk were sampled up to 72 h post-dose for determination of rofecoxib concentrations. M/P ratios were derived from ...
Michalski M C - - 2005
Only a few results are available on the size of human milk fat globules (MFG), despite its significance regarding fat digestion in the infant, and no data are available at <24 h postpartum (PP). We measured the MFG size distribution in colostrum and transitional human milk in comparison with fat ...
Ursinyova Monika - - 2005
The objective of this study was to investigate Cd, Pb, and Hg levels in the breast milk of 158 lactating healthy women who were not occupationally exposed and living in eight environmentally different polluted locations of the Slovak Republic. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters, ...
Briggs Gerald G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin is excreted into breast milk and whether this exposure adversely affects the blood glucose of nursing infants. METHODS: Seven women were started on metformin 500 mg twice daily on the first day after cesarean delivery. Breastfeeding was started at the same time. Two women were ...
Erkkola Maijaliisa M Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Nutrition Unit, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, - - 2005
To assess whether the maternal consumption of milk and milk products affects development of cow's milk (CM) antibodies in infants. A randomized pilot trial using food frequency questionnaires (mothers) and food records (infants). Families with a newborn infant with increased HLA-DQB1-conferred risk of type 1 diabetes and at least one ...
Morrow Ardythe L - - 2005
Breast-feeding is a highly effective strategy for preventing morbidity and mortality in infancy. The human-milk glycans, which include oligosaccharides in their free and conjugated forms, constitute a major and an innate immunologic mechanism by which human milk protects breast-fed infants against infections. The glycans found in human milk function as ...
Isaacs Charles E - - 2005
Breast-feeding can reduce the incidence and the severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in the suckling neonate by providing additional protective factors to the infant's mucosal surfaces. Human milk provides protection against a broad array of infectious agents through redundancy. Protective factors in milk can target multiple early steps in ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2005
This study examined potential primary mediators, such as intended length to breastfeed, maternal education, income, and infant gestation, and secondary mediators, such as early frequency of breast stimulation, early milk output, and supplementation with artificial milks that may influence milk output in mothers of preterm and term infants the first ...
Tajimi Morihiro - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To observe how PCDD/F and Co-PCB concentrations in breast milk relate to infant birthweights in Tokyo, Japan. STUDY DESIGN: Breast milk samples were collected from 240 mothers (aged 25-34years old) residing in Tokyo to measure the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs; 14 congeners), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs; 15 congeners), and ...
Chuang Chih-Kuang - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Although the nutritional value of human milk has been thoroughly studied, few reports describing its free amino acid (FAA) content have been published. Although infant formulas are designed to approximate the nutrient composition of human milk, the content and concentration of free amino acids are unknown. We compared the ...
Rattaz Cécile - - 2005
We assessed the effectiveness of an odor (familiar or unfamiliar) in soothing healthy full-term newborns undergoing a routine heel stick. Forty-four breast-fed newborns were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Before the heel stick, Group 1 was naturally familiarized with their mother's milk odor, Group 2 was familiarized with ...
Chien Ling-Chu - - 2006
Infant exposure to lead through breast milk is of special concern because breast milk is considered the best food source for infants under 6 months. In this study, a total of the mothers provided colostrum samples once in the early postpartum period, but only 16 of them provided breast milk ...
Ettyang G A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the practice of breast-feeding infants is common. Records documenting the intake of breast milk amongst infants are limited. This study evaluated the association between maternal body composition and the intake of breast milk in infants from the pastoral communities within Pokot, Kenya. METHODS: The study was ...
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