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Results 501 - 550 of 1746
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Glynn Laura M - - 2007
The implications of the biologically active elements in breast milk for the breastfed infant are largely unknown. Animal models suggest that ingestion of glucocorticoids during the neonatal period influences fear behavior and modifies brain development. To determine the association between postnatal maternal cortisol levels and temperament in breastfed infants. The ...
Schanler Richard J - - 2007
The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psychosocial conditions. Significant effects on the recipient host, such as reduction in sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, have been reported ...
Manganaro Rosa - - 2007
Elevated breast milk (BM) Na concentration is regarded as responsible for elevated Na intake. To verify the clinical significance of milk Na concentration, we studied the relationship between BM Na+ concentration and infants' daily Na+ intake, infants' daily BM intake (DBMI) and percentage weight loss (%WL) in healthy newborn infants. ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2007
As part of a large, nonexperimental, prospective, longitudinal study, 94 pump-dependent mothers of a nonnursing preterm infant were queried via telephone at weeks 8 to 12 post-partum about their infant feeding method. At week 12, 44.6% provided own mother's milk, 26.6% provided own mother's milk + artificial milk, and 28.7% ...
Sau A - - 2007
Traditionally, women receiving azathioprine have been discouraged from breastfeeding because of theoretical potential risks of neonatal bone marrow suppression, susceptibility to infection, and pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to measure the concentration of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in breast milk of mothers receiving azathioprine and in the blood of their ...
LaKind Judy S - - 2007
Restrictions on releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) to the environment from industrial practices have resulted in an attendant decrease in levels of these compounds in the environment. Continued environmental monitoring and biomonitoring of PCDDs/Fs ensure that exposures do not increase unexpectedly or unnoticed. Perhaps the most highly ...
MA, Quigley
Background When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding ...
Henderson, Ginny
Background Maternal breast milk may contain less nutrients than artificial formula milk but may confer important non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.
Elmlinger Martin W - - 2007
Breast-fed preterm infants often show a better outcome, partly ascribed to the benefit of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBP). We compared IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 levels, measured by radioimmunoassays in milk samples from 30 mothers of preterm (<31 weeks) and from 19 mothers of term ...
Riva E - - 2007
If breast milk is not available during complementary feeding, 'follow-on' formula milk ensures a balanced intake of nutrients and is undoubtedly more suitable for infants than cows' milk. Formula milk provides a lower intake of proteins and saturated fats and a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fats, iron and zinc than ...
Clarke Sarah - - 2007
During the first 6 months of life a healthy infant receives all the nutrition they require from breastmilk or formula milk. As we all know, breastmilk provides more than just nutrition; it also provides many compounds important in supporting the development of a baby's immune system. However, from around 6 ...
Hapon María Belén - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The profound impairment in litter growth produced by untreated maternal hypothyroidism (HypoT) may be a consequence of maternal metabolic dysfunctions affecting lactation. In this work we studied the effects of HypoT on mammary and liver lipid metabolism and its consequences on milk quality. DESIGN: We studied the effects of ...
Duan Rui-Dong - - 2007
Intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (Alk-SMase) and neutral ceramidase may catalyze the hydrolysis of endogenous sphingomyelin (SM) and milk SM in human-milk fed infants. The enzymes generate sphingolipid metabolites that may influence gut maturation. Alk-SMase also inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) that is involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We examined ...
Bystrova Ksenia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are not many studies exploring parity differences in early lactation performance and the results obtained are fairly often contradictory. The present study investigated the effect of different maternity home practices in St. Petersburg, Russia, as well as of physiological breast engorgement and maternal mood, on milk production in ...
Morelli Lorenzo - - 2007
Microbiological risk in the first part of life is endowed with peculiar features when compared to the same risk in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to highlight these age-related traits. While pathogens harmful for neonates and infants have been reviewed, less attention has been paid to the role ...
Fernández-Sánchez Luisa Maria - - 2007
The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine iodine in human milk and infant formulas using ICP-MS. The milk samples were digested using an alkaline digestion (5% NH(3), 45 W, 2 min and 30s), and the method was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) BCR ...
Jyothi S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The supplementation of preterm infants with folic acid is routine practice in many neonatal units. However, the advent of preterm formula milks and breast milk fortifiers have increased folic acid intake. We measured red cell folate in preterm infants who received preterm formula milks and breast milk fortifiers to ...
Ballabio C - - 2007
Recent advances in the care of low-birth-weight and preterm neonates have stimulated research into the best dietetic program to improve their survival and short/long term outcome. Some components of human milk that cannot be included in artificial formulas may be critical for survival. Of these, immunoglobulins are important, and in ...
Lawson James S - - 2007
There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast ...
Henderson G - - 2007
Maternal breast milk may contain less nutrients than artificial formula milk but may confer important non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula milk compared with maternal breast milk on rate of growth and developmental outcomes in preterm or low birth ...
Henderson G - - 2007
Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following ...
Quigley M A - - 2007
When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding with ...
Heiman Howard - - 2007
Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. Although human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk might ...
Martín Rocío - - 2007
Breast milk has been shown to be an excellent and continuous source of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Our aim was to evaluate the dominant bacteria existing in breast milk of healthy women and the potential role of transit through the vagina in the acquisition of ...
Bartels P A - - 2007
To assess the safety risks to the fetus and neonate caused by maternal use of nicardipine in pre-eclamptic patients, we evaluated the placental transfer and the transfer to breast milk after maternal intravenous administration of nicardipine. In ten pre-eclamptic subjects, nicardipine concentrations of maternal blood (P) and both arterial and ...
Coppa G V - - 2006
The microbic colonization of human intestine begins at birth, when from a sterile state the newborn is exposed to an external environment rich in various bacterial species. The kind of delivery has an important influence on the composition of the intestinal flora in the first days of life. Thereafter, the ...
Galis Frietson - - 2006
Why do all mammals, except for sloths and manatees, have exactly seven cervical vertebrae? In other vertebrates and other regions, the vertebral number varies considerably. We investigated whether natural selection constrains the number of cervical vertebrae in humans. To this end, we determined the incidence of cervical ribs and other ...
Davies Mabel Charles - - 2006
Breast milk is important for the overall well-being of infants. Although lactation is relatively robust in the face of poor nutrition, the implication of poor nutrition on non-nutritive factors in breast milk is inconclusive. This study was designed to find associations between nutritional and immune factors in maternal blood and ...
Smith Joan R - - 2006
PURPOSE: To explore fathers' perceptions of behaviors used to support the provision of breast milk to hospitalized premature infants. SUBJECTS: Sixteen English-speaking fathers who, each were at least 15 years of age, had a hospitalized premature infant between 24 and 32 weeks gestation and a partner who had decided to ...
Elsayed Hesham F - - 2006
to study the effect of the postnatal administration of Ambroxol in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates at risk and on the severity of the disease in those neonates already suffering from it. the study was a randomized clinical trial performed on 120 preterm neonates admitted to ...
Schaller J P - - 2007
It remains a goal of pediatric nutrition to provide optimal nourishment for infants who are not fed human milk. Investigators have attempted to emulate the composition and functionality of human milk, the gold standard for infant nutrition. These efforts began with the analysis of milk components and continued with assessments ...
Moretti Myla E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical outcome of infants whose mothers were taking azathioprine while nursing and to quantify the transfer of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), its active metabolite, into breast milk. CASE SUMMARY: We report on a series of 4 patients treated with azathioprine while lactating. Breast milk samples were analyzed for ...
Kristensen Judith H - - 2006
The aim of this study was to describe the milk-plasma ratio and relative infant dose of gabapentin in a breastfeeding mother and to determine the well-being of her exposed infant. The mother-infant pair was studied over a 24-hour dose interval at steady state. Gabapentin concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid ...
Chao How-Ran - - 2007
In utero exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reduces the number of ovarian follicles in rat females and causes permanent effects on rat males. Little data have been gathered on the associations between PBDEs exposure and birth outcome and female menstruation characteristics in both epidemiological and animal studies. The aim ...
Heiman Howard - - 2006
Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. While human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk may ...
SzyrwiƄska Katarzyna - - 2007
The aim of our study was to obtain the data on the exposure of breast-fed infants to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Wielkopolska province (Poland). The levels of indicator PCBs, and selected OCPs, including two DDT metabolites (HCB, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha,beta,gamma-HCH) were determined ...
Rosipal Stefan - - 2006
This paper reports on two male infants with abnormally high levels of serum triacylglycerols (>15.00 mmol/l) and massive accumulation of chylomicrons. Pathological lipidograms were observed during breastfeeding only and were typical of a rare chylomicronaemia syndrome. Laboratory abnormalities were detected accidentally in the otherwise healthy infants. An unrecognized modulating factor ...
Gunz Philipp - - 2007
The occipital bun ("chignon") is cited widely as a Neanderthal derived trait. It encompasses the posterior projection/convexity of the occipital squama and is associated with lambdoid flattening on the parietal. A 'hemibun' in some Upper Paleolithic Europeans is thought by some authors to indicate interbreeding between Neanderthals and early modern ...
Soejima Takashi - - 2007
Latex immune agglutination method with a multipurpose auto-analyser (the automated latex assay) was validated for determination of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in various dairy products. Reproducibility-within-laboratory (intermediate precision) due to day for infant formula, UHT milk and yogurt supplemented with BLF at 50 mg/100 g for infant formula and UHT milk, ...
Kristensen J H - - 2007
To investigate the transfer of mirtazapine and desmethylmirtazapine into milk and to calculate dose to the infant via milk. Plasma and milk samples were obtained from eight breast-feeding women who were taking a median dose of 38 mg mirtazapine per day. Milk/plasma ratio (M/P) and infant doses were estimated by ...
Ilett Kenneth F - - 2007
To investigate dexamphetamine transfer into milk, infant doses and effects in the breast-fed infant. Four women taking dexamphetamine, and their infants were studied. The median maternal dexamphetamine dose was 18 mg day(-1) (range 15-45 mg day(-1)). Median (interquartile range) descriptors were 3.3 (2.2-4.8) for milk/plasma ratio, 21 microg kg(-1) day(-1) ...
Yang Seung-Hyun - - 2006
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) quickly attenuate or are killed during the freeze-drying process and storage. The effect of some natural polysaccharides, which are known as potent antitumor and immunomodulating substances, on the viability of the LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve, on freeze-drying and storage were investigated. Among the polysaccharides ...
Mete Emin - - 2006
A lower incidence of infection occurs among breast-fed babies because of the presence of antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects, but little is known about the antifungal effects to fungi other than Candida albicans. This study was undertaken to assess the antifungal effect of human milk to the fungi in the ...
Phipps A W - - 2006
The operation of the Mayak Production Association in the Southern Urals region of Russia, resulted in releases of large amounts of radioactive effluent into the Techa River during the period 1949-1956. The residents of the riverside communities were thus exposed to both external radiation, and internal radiation following ingestion of ...
Amir Lisa Helen - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Many breastfeeding women have concerns about their milk supply; 'not enough milk' is the most common reason women give for stopping breastfeeding, however their concern is often unwarranted. OBJECTIVE: The article describes the process of history taking and examination of mother and infant to determine if the mother's milk ...
Rampono Jonathan - - 2006
To investigate the transfer of escitalopram and its demethyl metabolite into milk, the absolute and relative infant doses via milk and to assess any unwanted effects in the breastfed infant. Multiple samples of blood and milk were obtained over a dose interval at steady state from eight women who were ...
Hyde, Jennie 1982-
Infants are born with naive immune systems, making them susceptible to a variety of infections. In order to protect the newborn infant it is important that mothers be able to pass protective IgA antibodies to their infants through breast milk. B cells that produce IgA enter the mammary tissue during ...
Arslanoglu S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inadequate nutrition leading to growth failure is common among premature infants. Although fortified breast milk (breast milk plus commercially prepared fortifier) is the preferred feeding, nutrient intakes achieved with fortified breast milk fall short of meeting nutrient needs. This is mainly due to inadequate protein content of fortifiers and ...
Marzotto Marta - - 2006
This study focuses on the potentiality of a putative probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei A, to survive gastrointestinal (GI) passage and modulate the resident microbiota of healthy infants. In a placebo-controlled study, 26 children aged 12-24 months received 100 g/day of either fermented milk containing strain A or pasteurized yogurt for ...
Bode Lars - - 2006
Human milk is often the sole dietary source for the first few months in life. It contains all the nutrients necessary for the infant to thrive, but also ingredients that may provide health benefits beyond those of traditional nutrients. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) comprise part of these functional ingredients; 1 ...
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