Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1746
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Singh Neera - - 2008
Isoniazid is the most widely used first line antituberculosis drug. It is considered safe during lactation, but limited data are available on the transfer of isoniazid from circulation to milk in lactating women, which can provide an assessment of extent of exposure to the nursling. The study documents the transfer ...
Polder A - - 2008
This study presents for the first time temporal changes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Russian human breast milk samples. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in samples from three locations in the North West of Russia in 2000-2002 (n=42), were compared to corresponding levels measured in 1993-1996 ...
Schanler Richard J - - 2007
Significant benefits to infant host defense, sensory-neural development, gastrointestinal maturation, and some aspects of nutritional status are observed when premature infants are fed their mothers' own milk. A reduction in infection-related morbidity in human milk-fed premature infants has been reported in nearly 1 dozen descriptive, and a few quasirandomized, studies ...
Goldman Armond S - - 2007
The concept of the immune system in human milk emerged in the 1970s from clinical and laboratory observations made between the late 18th through the mid-20th centuries. The discovery of living leukocytes in human milk in 1970 was the final link to the chain of evidence that culminated in the ...
Chan Gary M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of a human breastmilk-derived fortifier on the antibacterial activity of milk obtained from lactating mothers delivering prematurely with the effects of a powdered fortifier on the same milk. STUDY DESIGN: Human milk samples were obtained after the first week of postnatal life from 10 lactating ...
Martín R - - 2007
AIMS: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptically collected from ...
Peng Y M - - 2007
AIM: To compare the fatty acid (FA) pattern in early and mature breast milk with that in plasma phospholipids of cord blood and breast-fed infants. METHODS: Forty-five mother-infant pairs from western Shanghai were studied. All infants, born at term with normal weight and length, were examined at birth and days ...
Weinstein Karen J - - 2008
Paleoanthropologists have long noted the unique "hyper-barrel-shaped" Neandertal thorax as inferred from fragmentary ribs, clavicles, and sterna. Yet scholars disagree whether the Neandertal thorax represents an adaptation to cold climates or elevated activity levels. Given the difficulties of reconstructing overall chest shape from isolated and fragmentary thoracic skeletal elements, it ...
González-Martín I - - 2007
In the present work we studied the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology employing a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe (with a 5 cm x 5 cm quartz window) for the analysis of the percentage of milk (cow's, ewe's and goat's) used in the elaboration of cheeses with different ripening ...
Grönlund M-M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The sources and the impact of maternal bacteria on the initial inoculum of the intestinal microflora of newborn infants remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal breast-milk and fecal bifidobacteria and infants' fecal bifidobacteria. METHODS: Sixty-one mother-infant pairs were included, special emphasis being placed on the maternal ...
Charpak N - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Describing preterm breast milk evolution and composition according to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in a cohort of mothers cared for in an ambulatory Kangaroo Mother Care Program (KMCP) in a developing country. METHODS: A cohort involving 113 mothers who delivered 'healthy' preterms adequate for GA was ...
Lara-Villoslada Federico - - 2007
Breast milk is the best food for the neonate because it provides a unique combination of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins that ensures the correct growth and development of the infant. In addition, it also contains bioactive compounds responsible for a wide range of beneficial effects such as the ...
Espinosa Rosa María - - 2007
Research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) began with the characterisation of their chemical structures and is now focused on the elucidation of their biological roles. Previously, biological effects could only be investigated with fractions or structures isolated from breast milk; consequently, clinical observations were limited to comparisons between outcomes from ...
Vohr Betty R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We previously reported beneficial effects of breast milk ingestion by infants with extremely low birth weight in the NICU on developmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age. The objective of this study was to determine whether these effects of breast milk in infants with extremely low birth weight persisted ...
Owino Victor O VO Center for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom. - - 2007
Malnutrition in late infancy in developing countries may result from poor-quality complementary foods that displace breast milk. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of fortified complementary blends of different energy densities on growth, hemoglobin concentrations, and breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants. Infants were randomly ...
Shao Xiuping - - 2007
Recently, several new human coronaviruses have been identified. To define the seroepidemiology of group I human coronaviruses. A recombinant protein enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on portions of the nucleocapsid protein of group I human coronaviruses was developed and was used to screen serum from 243 children and young ...
Völkel W - - 2008
Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Because of their global occurrence in different environmental media, their persistence and their potential to bioaccumulate in organisms they are of toxicological and public concern. In the present ...
Fält Anette - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is often required for asthmatic nursing women. Data on the transfer of inhaled corticosteroids from plasma to breast milk and the subsequent exposure of the breast-feeding infant has been unavailable. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess budesonide concentrations in milk and plasma of asthmatic nursing ...
Bryan Dani-Louise - - 2007
Although epidemiological evidence is generally supportive of a causal association between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis during infancy and the development of persistent wheeze/asthma, if not allergy, the mechanism by which this occurs and an explanation for why all children do not succumb remains to be elucidated. Breast feeding has ...
Costa Lucio G - - 2007
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet ...
Andersson Y - - 2007
AIM: A randomized study was conducted to evaluate whether pasteurized milk (Holder pasteurization 62.5 degrees C, 30 min) reduces fat absorption and growth in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants (825-1325 g) born with gestational age < or =30 weeks were randomized into two groups, of which one started with pasteurized ...
Johnson-Restrepo Boris - - 2007
Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, and HCB) were measured in human breast milk samples collected across Massachusetts, USA, in 2004. Seventeen PBDE congeners were found in the samples, ranging in concentration from 0.06 to 1910 ng g(-1) lipid wt. BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE), BDE-99 ...
Doege Corinna - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of high volume intake of mother's milk fortified (FMM) with an individualized supplementation of minerals and protein on tolerance, short-term somatic growth, serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and total plasma protein in healthy preterm infants below 28 weeks ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2007
As part of a large nonexperimental, prospective, longitudinal study, 97 breast-feeding mothers of healthy term singleton infants were queried via telephone at weeks 8-12 postpartum about their infant feeding method. At week 12, 71.1% of them provided mother's milk (MM), 16.5% provided artificial milk (AM) and MM, and 12.4% provided ...
Heller Cherrie D - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to analyze the association between human milk intake and severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected for a trial of glutamine supplementation in extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight <1000 ...
Lau C - - 2007
(1) To compare maternal characteristics and psychological stress profile among African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic mothers who delivered very low birthweight infants. (2) To investigate associations between psychosocial factors, frequency of milk expression, skin-to-skin holding (STS), and lactation performance, defined as maternal drive to express milk and milk volume. Self-reported psychological ...
Marino L V LV Department of Dietetics, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and School of Adolescent and Child Health, Cape Town, South Africa. - - 2007
The study arose as part of a best-practice nutrition model regarding the introduction of ready-to-use (RTU) infant feeds in place of powdered infant feeds (PIFs) as a standard formula for infants under the age of 1 year who are unable to be breastfed. Internationally and locally there is grave concern ...
Chan G M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the processing of human milk to remove its fat content and its use in seven infants with chylothorax. STUDY DESIGN: The mother's milk was centrifuged at 3000 r.p.m. for 15 min at 2 degrees C. After centrifugation, the milk separated into ...
Nishijo Muneko - - 2008
Dioxins are known to affect infant growth and neurodevelopment in both humans and animals. In this study, we examined the relationship between neonatal head circumference, which is related to fetal brain development, and the concentration of dioxins in breast milk as an indicator of maternal exposure. A total of 42 ...
Reiner Jessica L - - 2007
Synthetic musk compounds are used as additives in many consumer products, including perfumes, deodorants, and detergents. Earlier studies have reported the occurrence of synthetic musks in environmental and wildlife samples collected in the United States. In this study, human breast milk samples collected from Massachusetts, were analyzed for the determination ...
Aparicio Sara - - 2007
Three different lactation experiments have been tested in a double blind procedure for 3 weeks, to improve sleep-wake patterns in infants. In a control experiment, standard infant commercial milk (1.5% tryptophan) was administered without changes during the day. In a second control (inverse), enriched milk (3.4% tryptophan) was given during ...
Kimata Hajime - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atopic eczema (AE) often complain of sleep disturbance. Melatonin is involved in sleep, and the levels of blood melatonin in patients with AE are decreased in comparison to healthy subjects. However, the levels of breast-milk melatonin had only been reported in healthy subjects. Laughter increased natural killer ...
Hinde Katherine - - 2007
Primate infants require extensive maternal investment, and lactation is the most expensive aspect of this investment. However, the relationship between maternal condition and milk composition has been largely uninvestigated in primates. To better understand this relationship, I collected mid-lactation milk samples from 46 captive multiparous rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at ...
Asakuma Sadaki - - 2007
Sialyl oligosaccharides of human milk/colostrum are generally believed to be of biological significance, for example with respect to anti-adhesion of pathogenic organism, providing precursors for biosynthesis of brain, and so on. However, the levels of each of the sialyl oligosaccharides in human colostrum have not so far been determined. The ...
Seaton Suzette - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone has become popular for post-Caesarean section (CS) analgesia yet it is not currently recommended for use in breast-feeding mothers because of limited information on its excretion into breast milk. AIM: To investigate the relationship between maternal ingestion of oxycodone after CS and the resultant maternal plasma, breast milk ...
Hopkins David D Bristol Children's Hospital, Bristol, - - 2007
To investigate the relationship between iron status in infancy and type of milk and weaning solids consumed. An observational cohort study. 928 term infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1993-94. Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations at 8 and 12 months were assessed in relation to type ...
Sadeharju Karita - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Enterovirus infections are frequent in infants and may cause severe complications. We set out to assess whether breastfeeding can protect against these infections and whether such an effect is related to maternal antibodies in breast milk or in the peripheral circulation of the infant. METHODS: One hundred fifty infants ...
Woo Katie - - 2007
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly endorses that human milk is species specific and the optimal nutrition for infants, and that banked human milk is a suitable alternative. After the death of an infant, breast milk often is disposed of without consideration of donation because the public and healthcare ...
Ennaceur S - - 2007
The levels of 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in breast milk from 87 Tunisian mothers throughout their lactation periods. Breast milk levels of OCP residues were determined using a validated methodology that included capillary column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. All samples contained detectable residues of p,p'-DDE (2.421 mg/kg ...
Morales Yesenia - - 2007
Significant benefits to infant host defense, sensory-neural development, gastrointestinal maturation, and some aspects of nutritional status are observed when premature infants are fed their mothers' own milk. A reduction in infection-related morbidity in human milk-fed premature infants has been reported in nearly a dozen descriptive, and a few quasi-randomized, studies ...
Mukhopadhyay Kanya - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of human milk fortification on short term growth and biochemical parameters in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) appropriate for gestation (AGA) and small for gestation (SGA) babies. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Level III neonatal unit. SUBJECTS: Preterm infants weighing < or = ...
Struff W G - - 2007
Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some ...
Funkquist E-L - - 2007
This study investigated weight patterns of infants born SGA, in relation to two different feeding regimens during hospital stay. We compared 21 SGA infants prescribed 200 mL/kg milk on day 2, with 21 infants, prescribed 170 mL/kg on day 9. The infants fed according to the proactive nutrition policy tolerated ...
Asakuma S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Human colostrum is known to be important for the protection of infants against infection by pathogenic microorganisms. This protection is thought to be due, partially, to various neutral and acidic oligosaccharides that are present in colostrum and milk. However, the concentrations of each of the oligosaccharide of human colostrum ...
Rampono Jonathan - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative infant dose of quetiapine during breast feeding, describe the milk:plasma (M:P) ratio, and determine the well-being of the exposed infant. CASE SUMMARY: A 26-year-old mother and her 3-month-old son were studied over a 24 hour quetiapine dose interval at steady-state. Quetiapine concentrations were quantified by ...
Boehm Günther - - 2007
Feeding infants breast milk of healthy mothers is associated with a lower incidence of infectious and allergic diseases. Although this effect is of multifactorial origin, it is widely accepted that the entire intestinal flora of breast-fed infants provides antiinfective properties and is an important stimulating factor for the postnatal development ...
Anderson Philip O - - 2007
Hydrocodone is a narcotic that is widely used, often in nursing mothers. Although case reports suggest that hydrocodone in breast milk sometimes may be problematic for the breastfed infant, no reports exist on the amount of its excretion into breast milk. Two mothers who were taking an acetaminophen and hydrocodone ...
Xiang M - - 2007
AIM: To examine the concentrations of zinc and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 PUFAs) in breast milk, the impact of zinc on omega-6 PUFA metabolism, and the growth rate of infants. METHODS: Forty-one mother-term infant pairs from a rural area of northern Beijing, China, who were 1 month (n = ...
López Alvarez María José - - 2007
The human baby is born extremely immature, with its major organs and immune system not fully developed. for its survival, the infant depends on an extraordinarily well-adapted evolutionary strategy shared by all mammals: breastfeeding. But what does milk contain that makes it so essential for the newborn and how does ...
Lubetzky Ronit - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat content of expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants is higher in samples expressed in the evening than in the morning during the first 7 weeks of lactation. METHODS: The authors collected samples of expressed human ...
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