Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1589
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Mohan Nair Manoj Kumar - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging, infant formula-borne pathogen that causes severe meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants, with a high fatality rate. Traditional detection methods take up to 7 days to identify E. sakazakii. The outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), along with its flanking sequences ...
Haarman Monique - - 2006
The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, ...
Bakker-Zierikzee A M - - 2006
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in the defence of the gastrointestinal tract. The level of faecal SIgA antibody is associated with increased neutralization and clearance of viruses. Formula-fed infants who lack the transfer of protective maternal SIgA from breast milk may benefit from strategies to support maturation ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2006
Forty-two infants (20 males, 22 females) with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to investigate the effects on biochemical and physiological outcomes of a phenylalanine-free infant formula containing a fat blend supplemented with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3), and arachidonic acid ...
Drudy D - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii represents a significant risk to the health of neonates. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Infants aged <28 days are considered to be most at risk. Feeding with ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2006
Individual differences in acceptance patterns are evident as early as the child's first experiences with a particular food. To test hypothesis that the flavor of formula fed to infants modifies their acceptance of some foods, we conducted a within- and between-subjects design study in which two groups of 6- to ...
Mayes Clifford - - 2006
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an integral component of neural cell membranes and is critical to the development and function of the CNS. A premature delivery interrupts normal placental supply of DHA such that the infant is dependent on the nature of the nutritional support offered. The most abundant omega-3 fatty ...
Cooke Richard - - 2006
Several lines of evidence suggest that formula with protein content of 3.0 g/100 kcal does not fully meet the protein needs of very-low-birth weight infants. Our purpose was to compare nitrogen balance, metabolic status and growth in infants fed a standard (3.0 g/100 kcal; RegPro) and high (3.6 g/100 kcal; ...
Hawkes J S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of nucleotide (NT)-supplemented cow's milk-based formula on growth and biochemical indices of immune function in healthy infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of formula-fed term infants allocated to control formula with an innate level of NT at 10 mg/l (n = 102), or formula fortified ...
Vendt N - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects on the immune system and gastrointestinal tract, but the impacts of their long-term consumption on health and growth in early infancy are not well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-enriched formula on growth and ...
Lasekan John B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate growth, tolerance and plasma biochemistries in infants fed an experimental rice protein-based infant formula. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, 16 week parallel feeding trial of 65 healthy infants fed either an experimental partially hydrolyzed rice protein-based infant formula fortified with lysine and threonine (RPF, n = 32), or a ...
Fuller B T - - 2006
Carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) stable isotope ratios were longitudinally measured in fingernail and hair samples from mother-infant pairs where infants were exclusively breastfed (n = 5), breast- and formula-fed (n = 2), or exclusively formula-fed (n = 1) from birth. All exclusively breastfed infants had a dual enrichment in ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2006
Some 30 years ago, Günter Dörner stated that the concentrations of hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters during critical periods of early development will program disease risk in human adulthood, a concept that since has received enormous scientific support and broad attention. Evidence has also accumulated showing that early nutrition programs later ...
Brunser Oscar - - 2006
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether supplementation of milk-formulas with prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides or a probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1), could modulate the composition of the fecal microbiota of formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed (BF) infants. Ninety infants close to 4 months of age were randomized into one ...
Yeung C Y - - 2006
Infant formulas are often heat sterilized in hospitals where water contamination or nosocomial infection is a concern, but there are few studies of the effect of high heat on the nutritional value of infant formula. In particular, the effect of heat sterilization on free amino acid (FAA) concentrations is seldom ...
Barak Mila - - 2006
PURPOSE: Very little is known about the prevalence of regurgitations in human milk-fed infants in the first days of life. The authors aimed to compare the frequency of regurgitations in formula- and breastfed infants in the first 2 days of life. It was hypothesized that human milk-fed infants experience less ...
Jørgensen Marianne Hørby - - 2006
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first ...
Broekaert Ilse J - - 2006
This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore ...
Ziegler Ekhard E - - 2006
Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown ...
Savino Francesco - - 2006
Methemoglobinemia is not a rare condition arising from the exposure to hemoglobin-oxidizing agents such as nitrates-nitrites present in well water or vegetables. Infants < 3 months of age are more susceptible than adults because of lower amounts of a key enzyme, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, which converts methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. ...
Ostrom Karin M - - 2006
The objective of this randomized study was to determine if fiber-supplemented soy formula reduced regurgitation in young infants. We compared regurgitation in 179 infants randomly assigned cow's milk-based (CM, 90) formula or soy formula with fiber (SF, 89). Initial daily incidence was similar (CM, 3.6; SF, 3.9 episodes), but significantly ...
Kent George - - 2006
The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes ...
Macé Katherine - - 2006
The development of infant formula with optimized protein quality and quantity has been, and still is, the subject of intense investigation. A better understanding of the protein composition of breast milk and infant needs in association with technological breakthroughs in cow's milk fractionation, has led to the development of infant ...
Zhivadinovik J - - 2006
Dimensions of the triangle of Koch varied among the patients. The aim of this study was to present the dimensions of the triangle, and to compare the data obtained directly by post mortal measurement, using two different methods, and indirectly using mathematic formulas. The examination was performed in two independent ...
Avki Sirri - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between 16 phenotypic parameters and the diameter of the tracheal lumen and endotracheal tube size (ETS) in Dalmatian puppies. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective nonblinded study. ANIMALS: Twenty-nine Dalmatian puppies, <5 months of age, referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinics, Burdur, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ...
Premji S S SS University of Calgary, Faculty of Nursing, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4. - - 2006
The ideal quantity of dietary protein for formula-fed low birth weight infants < 2.5 kilograms is still a matter of controversy and debate. In premature infants, the protein intake must be sufficient to achieve normal growth without negative effects such as acidosis, uremia, and elevated levels of circulating amino acids ...
Lichtman Steven N - - 2005
Nineteen American infants aged less than three months developed persistent diarrhoea, acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and malnutrition, without evidence of enteric pathogens. Symptoms began 11-59 days before admission to the University of North Carolina Children's Hospital, and infants were fed semielemental formula. Despite further treatment with amino acid-based formula by continuous nasogastric ...
Grant C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare growth of infants fed goat milk infant formula (GMF) or cow milk infant formula (CMF) and to compare tolerability and safety of the two formulas. METHODS: The study was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Newborn term infants were randomized within ...
Berger-Achituv Sivan - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: In view of reports of the growing popularity of soy-based formula for infants, we examined soy consumption and its possible overuse during early infancy in central Israel. METHODS: Mothers of 1,803 infants aged 2, 4, 6 and 12 months attending well-baby clinics participated in a telephone survey covering background ...
Bakker-Zierikzee Astrid M - - 2005
Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal microflora of infants are not available. ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2005
The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 ...
Riva E - - 2005
Infant formulae are the only alternatives to breast milk for infants who are unable to continue breastfeeding through the first year of life. They aim to provide formula-fed infants with the same structural and functional benefits observed in breastfed infants. To achieve this, bioactive nutrients have been added to infant ...
Llanos Adolfo - - 2005
This study evaluated the arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formation from d5-labeled linoleic acid (d5-LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (d5-LNA) precursors in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with control groups matched by gestational age (GA) or birth weight. We compared DHA and AA formation from deuterated precursors ...
Fang Po-Chiung - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants may be born with deficits of both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), but studies on supplementation of DHA and AA for preterm infants are limited. METHODS: Preterm infants with a gestational age between 30 and 37 weeks who met all the inclusion criteria were enrolled ...
Chang W-K - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric residual volumes are widely used to evaluate gastric emptying for patients receiving enteral feeding, but controversy exists about what constitutes gastric residual volume. We have developed a method by using refractometer and derived mathematical equations to calculate the formula concentration, total residual volume (TRV), and formula ...
Moro Guido E - - 2005
Awareness of the key role of the intestinal microflora in the generation of the immunophysiological regulation and in the defence against pathogenic agents has attracted our interest in ways of manipulating the microbiota to improve health. Dietary modulation of the intestinal microflora is today one of the main topics of ...
Savino Francesco - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recently, rice-based formulas have been widely used in hypoallergenic diets, but data on nutritional values are scarce. Aim: To evaluate the growth of infants fed with a rice-based hydrolysate formula, compared to those infants fed with a soy formula or an extensively hydrolysed casein formula, in the first 2 ...
Petschow Bryon W - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether feeding Lactobacillus GG (LGG) at varying levels (10 to 10 cfu/day) would result in colonization, defined as > or =1,000 cfu of LGG per gram of stool in 3 of 5 samples collected during the feeding period. METHODS: Infants received unsupplemented formula during ...
Schanler Richard J - - 2005
Newly designed, 'enriched,' formulas are now available for the formula feeding premature infant after hospital discharge. These new formulations add to the array of milks from which to choose when the discharge of the premature infant is approaching. However, the data to support optimal or reference nutrient intakes to use ...
Fanaro Silvia - - 2005
Optimal early nutritional support is considered a crucial issue in the care of the preterm infant, particularly of those with very low- or extremely low-brithweight. Unfortunately, this goal is seldom satisfactorily attained. Several conditions such as hypoxia, acidosis, patent ductus arteriosus, drug therapy, reduced intestinal motility may interfere with an ...
Boehm Günther - - 2005
Human milk oligosaccharides play an important role, as prebiotic soluble fibres, in the postnatal development of the intestinal flora. Infant formulas are virtually free of prebiotic oligosaccharides. As a consequence, formula-fed infants develop an intestinal flora significantly different to the flora of breastfed infants. Due to the complexity of human ...
Zuppa Antonio A - - 2005
AIM: To review knowledge about the role, indications and nutritional adequacy of protein hydrolysate formulas (HF) in the preterm newborn. METHODS: A review of the available literature was carried out. RESULTS: No data support the use of HF for atopy prevention. HF could have a positive role in the early ...
Knol Jan - - 2005
In a previous study on formula-fed preterm infants, we were able to demonstrate that dietary oligosaccharides (a mixture of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides in a concentration of 1 g/dl) stimulate the growth of faecal bifidobacteria. In the present explorative analysis of this study, we focus on the effect of ...
Moro Guido E - - 2005
Human milk oligosaccharides are not digested during intestinal passage and can be detected in stools. In this study it was investigated whether a prebiotic mixture of low-molecular-weight galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and high-molecular-weight fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) can be detected in stool samples of formula-fed infants. The test formula was supplemented with 0.8 g/dl ...
Fanaro Silvia - - 2005
The present review summarizes clinical and experimental data concerning the possible effects of a prebiotic mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides. The results from several studies, made up of over 400 preterm and term infants, clearly demonstrate that the prebiotic mixture under examination specifically stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2005
The first cases of neonatal meningitis believed to have been caused by Enterobacter sakazakii were reported in 1961. Prompted by several subsequent outbreaks of E. sakazakii infections in neonates and an increasing number of neonates in intensive care units being fed rehydrated powdered infant formula, considered to be a source ...
Embleton Nicholas D - - 2005
This study compares growth and body composition in preterm infants (< or =1750 g birth weight, < or =34 wk gestation) fed three iso-caloric formulas (80 kcal/100 mL) with different protein concentrations (A = 3.3 g/100 kcal, B = 3.0 g/100 kcal, C = 2.7 g/100 kcal). The study began ...
Hays Tiffani - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the published literature to determine whether feeding hydrolyzed infant formulas from birth has a role in allergy prevention. DATA SOURCES: We identified data through a MEDLINE search using allergy prevention and infant formulas as indexing terms. The search was restricted to 1985 through the present, English-language ...
Edelson-Mammel Sharon G - - 2005
A quantity of dehydrated powdered infant formula was prepared to contain Enterobacter sakazakii strain 607 at approximately 106 CFU/ml when rehydrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The survival of the microorganism in the dry formula was followed for 2 years, during which samples periodically were rehydrated and analyzed for viable ...
Kesler Anat - - 2005
In 2003, an epidemic of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) developed in Israeli infants fed a thiamine-deficient soy-based formula. Approximately 20 infants were affected out of an estimated 3500 fed the vitamin-deficient formula. The finding of gaze abnormalities in a single infant by neuro-ophthalmologists led to the unraveling of the epidemic. In ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >