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Results 351 - 400 of 1595
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Mullane N R - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) and its processing environment was monitored between April 2005 and March 2006. The purpose of the monitoring programme was to locate points of contamination, investigate clonal persistence, and identify possible dissemination routes along the processing chain. A total of 80 ...
Birch Eileen E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: While there is a large body of data on the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on visual and cognitive maturation during infancy, longterm visual and cognitive outcome data from randomized trials are scarce. AIM: To evaluate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA)-supplementation of ...
Stratiki Z - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have increased intestinal permeability which can render them susceptible to infections from enterobacteriae. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate whether probiotic administration to preterm infants decreases intestinal permeability. Secondary outcomes studied were: somatic growth, tolerance, rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: In a prospective randomized ...
Hawkes, J. S.
Objective: To examine the effect of nucleotide (NT)-supplemented cow's milk-based formula on growth and biochemical indices of immune function in healthy infants. Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of formula-fed term infants allocated to control formula with an innate level of NT at 10 mg/l (n=102), or formula fortified with NT ...
Cooke Richard J - - 2007
Postnatal growth retardation is inevitable in preterm infants, the more immature the infant the greater the degree of postnatal growth retardation at hospital discharge. After hospital discharge, several studies have shown that growth is poorer in preterm infants fed a standard term formula than those fed a nutrient-enriched infant formula. ...
Jirapinyo Pipop - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight infants with cow's milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. RESULTS: In the group of soy-based ...
Torres-Chavolla Edith - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is ...
Hadders-Algra Mijna - - 2007
The present review addresses the effect of pre- and postnatal supplementation of nutrition with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on neurodevelopmental outcome. The few studies which addressed the effect of prenatal LCPUFA status or prenatal LCPUFA supplementation suggest that a better prenatal arachidonic acid (AA) and doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status ...
Puccio Giuseppe - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The larger number of bifidobacteria in the intestine of breast-fed infants has been associated with their better health compared with formula-fed infants. We assessed the safety and tolerability of an experimental formula containing 2 x 10(7) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and 4 g/L of a prebiotic mixture ...
Chao Hsun-Chin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of cereal-thickened formula or postural therapy on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux, weight gain, and gastric emptying in infants. METHODS: We performed a prospective trial in exclusively formula-fed infants 2 to 6 mo of age presenting with regurgitation or vomiting at least three times a day. ...
Colomé Gemma - - 2007
AIM: To determine the intestinal permeability (IP) as a marker of intestinal epithelial integrity in formula-fed infants compared with healthy breast-fed infants. METHODS: IP was measured in 57 healthy infants less than 4 months old. A dual sugar test with lactulose and mannitol was performed. Three urinary ratios were established: ...
Jing Hongkui - - 2007
Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also obtained. A major positive component (P200) was ...
Roman Céline - - 2007
Intragastric fat digestion was investigated by analyzing the products of lipolysis and the gastric lipase (HGL) levels of premature infants fed with a formula enriched with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and those of infants fed with human milk. Infants were fed using a gastric tube and the gastric contents were ...
Pivik R T - - 2007
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk (n = 15) or milk-based ...
Bongers Marloes E J - - 2007
Nutrilon Omneo (new formula; NF) contains high concentration of sn-2 palmitic acid, a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It is hypothesized that NF positively affects stool characteristics in constipated infants. Thirty-eight constipated infants, aged 3-20 weeks, were included and randomized to NF (n = 20) or ...
Henderson G - - 2007
Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula rather than standard term formula might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with standard term formula on growth and development for preterm infants following hospital ...
Osborn D A - - 2007
The composition of the intestinal microflora may be different in individuals with atopic eczema from those without this condition, and such differences may precede the development of eczema. Prebiotics are nondigestible food components that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of non-pathogenic bacteria in the colon. ...
Kim Kwang-Pyo - - 2007
Reconstituted infant formula has been implicated in outbreaks of Enterobacter sakazakii infections, causing high mortality and serious sequelae. Current prevention methods appear to be insufficient to ensure that such foods are free of E. sakazakii. In this study, the usefulness of bacteriophages for biocontrol of E. sakazakii was investigated. Of ...
Estuningsih Sri - - 2006
To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. ...
Miyazawa Reiko - - 2006
AIM: We investigated the effects of milk-based formulas thickened with two different concentrations of locust bean gum on gastric emptying in infants with recurrent regurgitation episodes. METHODS: Thirty-nine infants with three or more episodes of regurgitation per day but no complications who were fed mainly with infant formula were studied. ...
Bruzzese E - - 2006
It is becoming clear that intestinal microflora plays an important role in the development of local and systemic immune response. Nutritional ingredients have been added to infant formula in an attempt to make its composition similar to that of human milk. The effects of these modifications have been observed in ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Despite the theoretical benefits of nutrient-enriched formula given to preterm infants after hospital discharge, its role in reversing growth deficits after hospital discharge remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the effect of different formulas on the growth, bone mass, and body composition of preterm infants after ...
Rutherfurd S M - - 2006
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral ...
Abrams Steven A - - 2006
Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailability of calcium between infant ...
Brück Wolfram M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Certain milk factors may promote the growth of a host-friendly gastrointestinal microbiota, for example, one that is predominated by bifidobacteria, a perceived health-promoting genus. This may explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer intestinal infections than their formula-fed counterparts who are believed to have a more diverse microbiota, which is ...
Hübler Axel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested a possible influence of ghrelin on foetal growth. After birth, the regulation of this newly discovered orexigenic peptide is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between circulating levels of ghrelin and enteral nutritional state in preterm infants during the first months of life. METHODS: ...
Scheiwiller Judith - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Colonisation of the human colon starts immediately after birth. Bacterial composition is substantially influenced by the type of feeding. During weaning, microbiota diversifies considerably to finally approach the composition of that of adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of colonic microbiota obtained from different ...
Sola-Larrañaga Cristina - - 2006
Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted ...
Krabbendam L - - 2007
Animal studies have demonstrated behavioural effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) deficiencies and in humans, several psychiatric disorders have been linked to abnormal essential fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LC-PUFA status at birth and the later development of problem behaviour. ...
Blake Michael J - - 2006
Orally administered caffeine and dextromethorphan (DM) were used as pharmacologic probes to determine the effect of infant diet on acquisition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme activity during the first 6 mo of life. The caffeine elimination rate constant (ke) was determined from serum, and concentrations of caffeine, DM, and their ...
Weizman Zvi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and tolerance of two formulas, supplemented with different probiotic agents, in early infancy. DESIGN: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Clinics of a University Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Full-term healthy infants aged less than 4 months. INTERVENTION: Infants were randomly assigned for 4 weeks to a standard ...
Kapiki Angeliki - - 2007
AIM: The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by bifidobacteria which have beneficial properties. Their presence is due to various components of breast milk, including prebiotic substances. This prospective double-blind study compared the numbers of bifidobacteria in the stool flora of bottle-fed preterm infants randomized to receive for ...
Dittrich Ralf - - 2006
Maillard products, such as Nepsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML), are readily formed during the manufacturing of infant formulas. Little has been known, however, about the presence of CML in human breast milk and about the uptake of CML by infants. In this study, CML was measured in the serum and breast milk of ...
Huertas Rafael - - 2006
An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification ...
Bajaj Ishwar B - - 2006
Gellan gum, a high-molecular-weight anionic linear polysaccharide produced by pure-culture fermentation from Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, has elicited industrial interest in recent years as a high-viscosity biogum, a suspending agent, a gelling agent, and an agar substitute in microbial media. In this paper we report on the optimization of gellan ...
Turck Dominique - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Excess protein in infant formula may lead to renal overload and play a role in later obesity. The objective of this controlled, prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to assess the suitability and safety of a modified protein content infant formula and its noninferiority as compared to a conventional formula. ...
Mullane N R - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii has been associated with life-threatening infections in premature low-birth-weight infants. Contaminated infant milk formula (IMF) has been implicated in cases of E. sakazakii meningitis. Quick and sensitive methods to detect low-level contamination sporadically present in IMF preparations would positively contribute towards risk reduction across the infant formula food ...
Cinquin Cécile - - 2006
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of purified exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M with those of a well-known prebiotic (short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides) on infant colonic microbiota using a new three-stage chemostat model with immobilized infant faecal microbiota. Two continuous cultures with different faecal inocula were tested with ...
Bowen Anna B - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii kills 40%-80% of infected infants and has been associated with powdered formula. We analyzed 46 cases of invasive infant E. sakazakii infection to define risk factors and guide prevention and treatment. Twelve infants had bacteremia, 33 had meningitis, and 1 had a urinary tract infection. Compared with infants ...
Zappitelli Michael - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) may be a better marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than serum creatinine (SCr) level. Few studies derived CysC-based GFR prediction equations for children. Objectives of this study are to: (1) derive CysC-based GFR prediction equations for children, and (2) compare these equations with published formulae. ...
Campbell Sheila M - - 2006
This article summarizes several major advances in tube feeding formulas marketed in the United States. It traces the progress in tube feeding formulas, starting with blenderized formulas to commercially available intact-nutrient formulas and culminating in the introduction of the concept of immunonutrition. The impact of packaging is also described.
Noble S S Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2006
Breastfed infants may grow more slowly in the second half of infancy than formula-fed infants, differences in weaning practice may contribute. Dietary intakes of 4-month-old infants have been investigated cross-sectionally. Diet was assessed using a structured 1-day un-weighed dietary record in 852 white singletons (72% of those invited) from a ...
Moro G - - 2006
Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of ...
Vähätalo Liisa - - 2006
The objective of this study was to assess the relative validity of a dietary interview method for use in an infant population. A dietary interview covering a 1-month period was completed during a study visit at 3 or 6 months of age. It included structured questions and a short food ...
Rutherfurd S M - - 2006
Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility of ...
Rairakhwada Dina - - 2007
A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group ...
Lee J W - - 2006
The observed Enterobacter sakazakii D10-values for tryptic soy broth and dehydrated powdered infant formula were 0.27 +/- 0.05 and 0.76 +/- 0.08 kGy, respectively. A decrease of approximately 3 log in the dehydrated powdered infant formula was obtained by irradiation with 3.0 kGy or rehydration with hot water at 80 ...
Evans Sharon - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feeding tolerance of a high-energy (1 kcal mL(-1)) infant formula (HEIF) for infants with faltering growth, weighing 2.5-8 kg, when administered at full strength from day 1 compared with stepwise introduction. METHODS: Thirty infants (aged 2-43 weeks) from a supraregional children's hospital requiring a high-energy formula ...
Scopesi Fabio - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Recently we demonstrated an increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) erythrocyte concentration in rat pups subjected to nucleotide-enriched artificial feeding. DESIGN: The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a possible increase in 2,3-DPG concentration can also be obtained in human neonates who are fed nucleotide-enriched formula. Preterm neonates ...
Savino F - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy on crying episodes owing to infantile colic of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolysed whey proteins, prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS), with a high beta-palmitic acid content. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study. SETTING: Italy. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven formula-fed ...
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