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Bongers Marloes E J - - 2007
Nutrilon Omneo (new formula; NF) contains high concentration of sn-2 palmitic acid, a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It is hypothesized that NF positively affects stool characteristics in constipated infants. Thirty-eight constipated infants, aged 3-20 weeks, were included and randomized to NF (n = 20) or ...
Henderson G - - 2007
Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula rather than standard term formula might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with standard term formula on growth and development for preterm infants following hospital ...
Osborn D A - - 2007
The composition of the intestinal microflora may be different in individuals with atopic eczema from those without this condition, and such differences may precede the development of eczema. Prebiotics are nondigestible food components that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of non-pathogenic bacteria in the colon. ...
Kim Kwang-Pyo - - 2007
Reconstituted infant formula has been implicated in outbreaks of Enterobacter sakazakii infections, causing high mortality and serious sequelae. Current prevention methods appear to be insufficient to ensure that such foods are free of E. sakazakii. In this study, the usefulness of bacteriophages for biocontrol of E. sakazakii was investigated. Of ...
Estuningsih Sri - - 2006
To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. ...
Miyazawa Reiko - - 2006
AIM: We investigated the effects of milk-based formulas thickened with two different concentrations of locust bean gum on gastric emptying in infants with recurrent regurgitation episodes. METHODS: Thirty-nine infants with three or more episodes of regurgitation per day but no complications who were fed mainly with infant formula were studied. ...
Bruzzese E - - 2006
It is becoming clear that intestinal microflora plays an important role in the development of local and systemic immune response. Nutritional ingredients have been added to infant formula in an attempt to make its composition similar to that of human milk. The effects of these modifications have been observed in ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Despite the theoretical benefits of nutrient-enriched formula given to preterm infants after hospital discharge, its role in reversing growth deficits after hospital discharge remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the effect of different formulas on the growth, bone mass, and body composition of preterm infants after ...
Rutherfurd S M - - 2006
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral ...
Abrams Steven A - - 2006
Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailability of calcium between infant ...
Brück Wolfram M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Certain milk factors may promote the growth of a host-friendly gastrointestinal microbiota, for example, one that is predominated by bifidobacteria, a perceived health-promoting genus. This may explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer intestinal infections than their formula-fed counterparts who are believed to have a more diverse microbiota, which is ...
Hübler Axel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested a possible influence of ghrelin on foetal growth. After birth, the regulation of this newly discovered orexigenic peptide is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between circulating levels of ghrelin and enteral nutritional state in preterm infants during the first months of life. METHODS: ...
Scheiwiller Judith - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Colonisation of the human colon starts immediately after birth. Bacterial composition is substantially influenced by the type of feeding. During weaning, microbiota diversifies considerably to finally approach the composition of that of adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of colonic microbiota obtained from different ...
Sola-Larrañaga Cristina - - 2006
Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted ...
Krabbendam L - - 2007
Animal studies have demonstrated behavioural effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) deficiencies and in humans, several psychiatric disorders have been linked to abnormal essential fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LC-PUFA status at birth and the later development of problem behaviour. ...
Blake Michael J - - 2006
Orally administered caffeine and dextromethorphan (DM) were used as pharmacologic probes to determine the effect of infant diet on acquisition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme activity during the first 6 mo of life. The caffeine elimination rate constant (ke) was determined from serum, and concentrations of caffeine, DM, and their ...
Weizman Zvi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and tolerance of two formulas, supplemented with different probiotic agents, in early infancy. DESIGN: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Clinics of a University Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Full-term healthy infants aged less than 4 months. INTERVENTION: Infants were randomly assigned for 4 weeks to a standard ...
Kapiki Angeliki - - 2007
AIM: The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by bifidobacteria which have beneficial properties. Their presence is due to various components of breast milk, including prebiotic substances. This prospective double-blind study compared the numbers of bifidobacteria in the stool flora of bottle-fed preterm infants randomized to receive for ...
Dittrich Ralf - - 2006
Maillard products, such as Nepsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML), are readily formed during the manufacturing of infant formulas. Little has been known, however, about the presence of CML in human breast milk and about the uptake of CML by infants. In this study, CML was measured in the serum and breast milk of ...
Huertas Rafael - - 2006
An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification ...
Bajaj Ishwar B - - 2006
Gellan gum, a high-molecular-weight anionic linear polysaccharide produced by pure-culture fermentation from Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, has elicited industrial interest in recent years as a high-viscosity biogum, a suspending agent, a gelling agent, and an agar substitute in microbial media. In this paper we report on the optimization of gellan ...
Turck Dominique - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Excess protein in infant formula may lead to renal overload and play a role in later obesity. The objective of this controlled, prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to assess the suitability and safety of a modified protein content infant formula and its noninferiority as compared to a conventional formula. ...
Mullane N R - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii has been associated with life-threatening infections in premature low-birth-weight infants. Contaminated infant milk formula (IMF) has been implicated in cases of E. sakazakii meningitis. Quick and sensitive methods to detect low-level contamination sporadically present in IMF preparations would positively contribute towards risk reduction across the infant formula food ...
Cinquin Cécile - - 2006
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of purified exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M with those of a well-known prebiotic (short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides) on infant colonic microbiota using a new three-stage chemostat model with immobilized infant faecal microbiota. Two continuous cultures with different faecal inocula were tested with ...
Bowen Anna B - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii kills 40%-80% of infected infants and has been associated with powdered formula. We analyzed 46 cases of invasive infant E. sakazakii infection to define risk factors and guide prevention and treatment. Twelve infants had bacteremia, 33 had meningitis, and 1 had a urinary tract infection. Compared with infants ...
Zappitelli Michael - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) may be a better marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than serum creatinine (SCr) level. Few studies derived CysC-based GFR prediction equations for children. Objectives of this study are to: (1) derive CysC-based GFR prediction equations for children, and (2) compare these equations with published formulae. ...
Campbell Sheila M - - 2006
This article summarizes several major advances in tube feeding formulas marketed in the United States. It traces the progress in tube feeding formulas, starting with blenderized formulas to commercially available intact-nutrient formulas and culminating in the introduction of the concept of immunonutrition. The impact of packaging is also described.
Noble S S Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2006
Breastfed infants may grow more slowly in the second half of infancy than formula-fed infants, differences in weaning practice may contribute. Dietary intakes of 4-month-old infants have been investigated cross-sectionally. Diet was assessed using a structured 1-day un-weighed dietary record in 852 white singletons (72% of those invited) from a ...
Moro G - - 2006
Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto- and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of ...
Vähätalo Liisa - - 2006
The objective of this study was to assess the relative validity of a dietary interview method for use in an infant population. A dietary interview covering a 1-month period was completed during a study visit at 3 or 6 months of age. It included structured questions and a short food ...
Rutherfurd S M - - 2006
Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility of ...
Rairakhwada Dina - - 2007
A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group ...
Lee J W - - 2006
The observed Enterobacter sakazakii D10-values for tryptic soy broth and dehydrated powdered infant formula were 0.27 +/- 0.05 and 0.76 +/- 0.08 kGy, respectively. A decrease of approximately 3 log in the dehydrated powdered infant formula was obtained by irradiation with 3.0 kGy or rehydration with hot water at 80 ...
Evans Sharon - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feeding tolerance of a high-energy (1 kcal mL(-1)) infant formula (HEIF) for infants with faltering growth, weighing 2.5-8 kg, when administered at full strength from day 1 compared with stepwise introduction. METHODS: Thirty infants (aged 2-43 weeks) from a supraregional children's hospital requiring a high-energy formula ...
Scopesi Fabio - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Recently we demonstrated an increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) erythrocyte concentration in rat pups subjected to nucleotide-enriched artificial feeding. DESIGN: The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a possible increase in 2,3-DPG concentration can also be obtained in human neonates who are fed nucleotide-enriched formula. Preterm neonates ...
Savino F - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy on crying episodes owing to infantile colic of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolysed whey proteins, prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS), with a high beta-palmitic acid content. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study. SETTING: Italy. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven formula-fed ...
Scholtens Petra A M J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Breast-fed infants have relatively high proportions of faecal bifidobacteria. This bifidogenic microbiota is at least partly explained by the high levels of prebiotic oligosaccharides in human milk. The present study aimed at testing the effect of solid foods with added prebiotic galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) on the composition of ...
- - 2006
Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed ...
Glueck Charles J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that metformin during lactation versus formula feeding would have no adverse effects on infants' growth, motor-social development, or intercurrent illness. STUDY DESIGN: Growth, motor-social development, and illness requiring a pediatrician visit were assessed in 61 nursing infants (21 male, 40 female) and 50 formula-fed infants ...
Savino Francesco - - 2006
AIM: To evaluate the relationship between serum leptin concentration in infants and infant and maternal BMI. METHODS: 75 healthy term infants aged 0-12 mo, 51 exclusively breastfed (BF) for at least 4 mo and 24 formula fed (FF), were included in a cross-sectional study. Weight, length and cranial circumference of ...
Wright Kristen - - 2006
PURPOSE: To summarize results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating growth, cognitive, neurological, and visual development of term infants supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). DESIGN AND METHODS: The Boyack and Lookinland Methodological Quality Index (MQI) was used to evaluate data from RCTs identified from multiple data ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the published clinical data on the physiologic effects of using palm oil and its low melting fraction, palm olein (PO) as a dominant lipid source in the fat blend in infant formulas. DESIGN: A systematic search of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed ...
Mohan Nair Manoj Kumar - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging, infant formula-borne pathogen that causes severe meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants, with a high fatality rate. Traditional detection methods take up to 7 days to identify E. sakazakii. The outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), along with its flanking sequences ...
Haarman Monique - - 2006
The developing intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is considered to play an important role in the priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Generally, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus predominate the microbiota of breast-fed infants. In intervention trials it has been shown that lactobacilli can exert beneficial effects on, for example, ...
Bakker-Zierikzee A M - - 2006
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in the defence of the gastrointestinal tract. The level of faecal SIgA antibody is associated with increased neutralization and clearance of viruses. Formula-fed infants who lack the transfer of protective maternal SIgA from breast milk may benefit from strategies to support maturation ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2006
Forty-two infants (20 males, 22 females) with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to investigate the effects on biochemical and physiological outcomes of a phenylalanine-free infant formula containing a fat blend supplemented with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3), and arachidonic acid ...
Drudy D - - 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii represents a significant risk to the health of neonates. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Infants aged <28 days are considered to be most at risk. Feeding with ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2006
Individual differences in acceptance patterns are evident as early as the child's first experiences with a particular food. To test hypothesis that the flavor of formula fed to infants modifies their acceptance of some foods, we conducted a within- and between-subjects design study in which two groups of 6- to ...
Mayes Clifford - - 2006
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an integral component of neural cell membranes and is critical to the development and function of the CNS. A premature delivery interrupts normal placental supply of DHA such that the infant is dependent on the nature of the nutritional support offered. The most abundant omega-3 fatty ...
Cooke Richard - - 2006
Several lines of evidence suggest that formula with protein content of 3.0 g/100 kcal does not fully meet the protein needs of very-low-birth weight infants. Our purpose was to compare nitrogen balance, metabolic status and growth in infants fed a standard (3.0 g/100 kcal; RegPro) and high (3.6 g/100 kcal; ...
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