Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1581
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Riedijk Maaike A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cyst(e)ine can be synthesized de novo from methionine and serine and is, therefore, a nonessential amino acid in human adults. Several studies have suggested that cyst(e)ine might be a conditionally essential amino acid in preterm infants because of biochemical immaturity. No data are available on cyst(e)ine requirements in low-birth-weight ...
Moukarzel Adib A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE(S): Advantages of prethickened formulas (AR) with regards to esophageal pH and gastric emptying were investigated in this study as compared with a regular formula (R). STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-four healthy infants, <6 months old, with gastroesophageal reflux were enrolled into the study. All infants underwent 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring while ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
The ability of Enterobacter sakazakii to cause infections in infants, coupled with its documented presence in some lots of commercially manufactured powdered infant formula, raises a concern about the potential for its growth in reconstituted formula, with consequent increased safety risk. A study was done to determine these characteristics in ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
Neonatal bacteremia and meningitis caused by the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii have been associated with the consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. Lactoperoxidase (LPO), present in mammalian milk, is known to inhibit the growth of enteric pathogens. We undertook a study to determine if the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) will inhibit ...
Siahanidou Tania - - 2007
Our study examined if dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have an impact on oxidative stress in preterm infants. Serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), total peroxide concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined at mean (standard deviation [SD]) 34.7 (10.9) days of life in 104 healthy preterm infants (gestational age, 32.6 [2.9] ...
Parracho Helena - - 2007
The human colonic microflora has a central role in health and disease, being unique in its complexity and range of functions. As such, dietary modulation is important for improved gut health, especially during the highly-sensitive stage of infancy. Diet can affect the composition of the gut microflora through the availability ...
Nevo Neta - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The infant formula market has grown significantly and offers a wide range of products for the different stages of healthy infant growth. Healthy infants often go through a series of unnecessary changes of formulas. The present study aimed to identify the factors leading to switches to alternative formulas. We ...
Clarke S E - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The practice of supplementing standard infant formula with energy for infants with faltering growth has been widespread. This increases energy density but disturbs the protein : energy ratio, and increases risks of microbial contamination and errors in feed preparation. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a nutrient-dense ...
Niers Laetitia - - 2007
Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as numerous ...
Alliet Philippe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol is a nutrient of essential importance in infant feeding because it is necessary in membrane development. In adults with high lipid levels, high doses of inulin (oligofructose) inconsistently decreased levels of serum cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in infants ...
Davis A M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula with a protein profile and total protein concentration closer to human milk (HM) and lower than conventional formulas. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen healthy, term infants, <or=14 days post-natal age were enrolled and 166 (76.9%) completed the study. Timed ...
Field Catherine J - - 2008
To determine the effect of feeding formula containing long-chain PUFA (LCP) on immune function, healthy term infants were randomised at age 2 weeks to either a standard term formula (Formula; n 14) or the same formula supplemented with the LCP 20 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3 (Formula+LCP; n 16). ...
Indrio Flavia - - 2007
To investigate the effects of fermented formula (FF) with Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065 on thymus size and stool pH of healthy term infants, ultrasound examinations and evaluations of thymus sizes and thymus indices (TI) and measurements of stool pH were performed in the same 90 term neonates ...
Derzelle Sylviane - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is an occasional contaminant of powdered infant formula that can cause rare but severe foodborne infections in infants. To determine optimal methods for the detection and identification of E. sakazakii, 38 naturally contaminated samples from infant formulae factories were analyzed by two PCR-based methods and by a method ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
A study was done to determine survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in four milk-based and two soybean-based powdered infant formulas. A 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into the six infant formulas at water activity (aw) 0.25 to 0.30, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.43 to 0.50 to give low ...
Mitmesser Susan Hazels - - 2007
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are two long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) found naturally in human milk. DHA and ARA have been receiving increased attention from health care professionals and the public. Research suggests that DHA intake and status have a significant impact on visual and cognitive development ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2007
Observational studies have shown that allergic infants, irrespective of the type of diet, show various degrees of growth depression in the first year of life. We investigated whether the type of milk in the complementary feeding period (6-12 months of age) is associated with differences in the increase of standardized ...
Teitelbaum Jonathan E - - 2007
To assess the familiarity of pediatricians with commercially available formulas and their use for cow's milk protein allergy and colic, a list of formulas was generated by visiting several grocery stores. Pediatricians were ask to indicate their familiarity with these and other "specialized" formulas with regard to protein and carbohydrate ...
Raghav Mamta - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii has recently been recognized as an often fatal neonatal pathogen that rarely infects adults. Although not much is known about factors involved in its pathogenicity, the organism has been reported to produce enterotoxin. Currently, no information is available in the literature about the production and characterization of the ...
Blossfeld Ivonne - - 2007
The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied ...
Chao Hsun-Chin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infant constipation is a frequent condition in formula-fed infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed in infants who had constipation with Novalac-IT (IT group) versus a 20% strengthened formula (S group). Enrolled subjects had difficulties in defecating, hard stools, or low frequency of defecation (< or =3 ...
Costalos C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by bifidobacteria which have beneficial properties. Their presence is due to various compounds of breast milk including prebiotic substances. AIM: This prospective, double blind, study compared the growth, acceptability and the proportion of bifidobacteria and clostridia in the stool flora ...
Osaili T M - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has caused several cases of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants and has been associated with infant formulas. Five strains of E. sakazakii were inoculated individually into brain heart infusion broth and rehydrated or dehydrated infant milk formula and exposed to ionizing ...
Rivkees Scott A - - 2007
Infants consume most of their calories as formula. Because of this large fluid intake, infants normally produce dilute urine, not far off from that seen in individuals with diabetes insipidus (DI). Infants with DI are therefore prone to water intoxication if fixed antidiuresis is achieved using the long-acting vasopressin analog ...
Greer Frank R - - 2007
Although there are no official recommendations for specific nutrient intakes in premature infants after hospital discharge, it is agreed that the goal should be to achieve the body composition and rate of growth of that of a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age during the entire first year of ...
Kashyap Sudha - - 2007
Providing optimal nutrition to satisfy the growth needs of very low birth weight infants is critical. The available preterm formulas and fortified human milk diets provide protein intakes of approximately 3.5 to 3.6 g/kg/d when volumes sufficient to provide 120 kcal/kg/d are fed to these infants. These intakes support growth ...
Mullane N R - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) is an opportunistic pathogen and the aetiological agent in rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. Among infants, those at greatest risk are neonates (<28 days), particularly those born prematurely or of low birth weight (<2500 g). Consumption of contaminated powdered ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2007
Infant and follow-on (or "follow-up") formulae fermented with lactic acid-producing bacteria during the production process contain no viable bacteria in the final product due to their inactivation by heat or other means. In this article the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews published information on their clinical evaluation. In a systematic ...
López-Alarcón M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test whether breastfeeding's protection against anorectic responses to infection is mediated by n-3 fatty acids' attenuation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. DESIGN: Experimental and observational studies. SETTING: A hospital-based study was conducted. SUBJECTS: Five groups of infants were followed; three in the experimental and two ...
Brouard Cécile - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increase of isolation of Salmonella Agona was observed in January through February 2005 among infants in France. METHODS: Case-control study, food trace-back and microbiologic investigations were promptly carried out. RESULTS: A total of 141 confirmed cases <12 months of age were identified. Most had diarrhea (99%; bloody 56%) ...
Koo W W K - - 2007
Rice is the world's leading staple cereal food and is the major source of protein for many parts of the world. Rice is among the first solid foods fed to infants in many cultures, in part because of its hypoallergenicity from lack of gluten. Nutritional quality of rice protein compares ...
Heird William C - - 2007
More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. Considerable ...
Wang Chongxin - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are known to provide energy to colonocytes, whereas overproduction of SCFAs can cause mucosal injury in premature infants. Our objective was to investigate the effects of the oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B breve) on fecal lactic acid and SCFAs in low birth weight ...
Denne Scott C - - 2007
Growth outcomes for extremely premature infants remain poor, and improving growth in this population will require a better understanding of how to limit proteolysis and promote protein accretion. Extremely premature infants exhibit high rates of proteolysis that are unrestrained by physiologic increases in insulin, intravenous amino acids, and full parenteral ...
King James C JC - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin has an array of biological activities that include growth, immune modulation, and antimicrobial effects. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was to examine the impact of bovine lactoferrin supplementation in infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthy, formula-fed infants, > or =34 weeks' gestation and < or =4 ...
von Berg Andrea - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for primary prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk children include feeding with hydrolyzed formulas if breast-feeding is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention study was to investigate the allergy preventive effect of 3 hydrolyzed formulas compared with cow's milk formula in the first ...
Mullane N R - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) and its processing environment was monitored between April 2005 and March 2006. The purpose of the monitoring programme was to locate points of contamination, investigate clonal persistence, and identify possible dissemination routes along the processing chain. A total of 80 ...
Birch Eileen E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: While there is a large body of data on the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on visual and cognitive maturation during infancy, longterm visual and cognitive outcome data from randomized trials are scarce. AIM: To evaluate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA)-supplementation of ...
Stratiki Z - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have increased intestinal permeability which can render them susceptible to infections from enterobacteriae. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate whether probiotic administration to preterm infants decreases intestinal permeability. Secondary outcomes studied were: somatic growth, tolerance, rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: In a prospective randomized ...
Hawkes, J. S.
Objective: To examine the effect of nucleotide (NT)-supplemented cow's milk-based formula on growth and biochemical indices of immune function in healthy infants. Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of formula-fed term infants allocated to control formula with an innate level of NT at 10 mg/l (n=102), or formula fortified with NT ...
Cooke Richard J - - 2007
Postnatal growth retardation is inevitable in preterm infants, the more immature the infant the greater the degree of postnatal growth retardation at hospital discharge. After hospital discharge, several studies have shown that growth is poorer in preterm infants fed a standard term formula than those fed a nutrient-enriched infant formula. ...
Jirapinyo Pipop - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight infants with cow's milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. RESULTS: In the group of soy-based ...
Torres-Chavolla Edith - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is a pathogen of increasing medical concern, due to it being implicated in cases of meningitis, sepis, and necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the consumption of contaminated infant milk formula. At present, the method adopted by the Mexican food industry for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii is ...
Hadders-Algra Mijna - - 2007
The present review addresses the effect of pre- and postnatal supplementation of nutrition with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on neurodevelopmental outcome. The few studies which addressed the effect of prenatal LCPUFA status or prenatal LCPUFA supplementation suggest that a better prenatal arachidonic acid (AA) and doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status ...
Puccio Giuseppe - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The larger number of bifidobacteria in the intestine of breast-fed infants has been associated with their better health compared with formula-fed infants. We assessed the safety and tolerability of an experimental formula containing 2 x 10(7) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and 4 g/L of a prebiotic mixture ...
Chao Hsun-Chin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of cereal-thickened formula or postural therapy on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux, weight gain, and gastric emptying in infants. METHODS: We performed a prospective trial in exclusively formula-fed infants 2 to 6 mo of age presenting with regurgitation or vomiting at least three times a day. ...
Colomé Gemma - - 2007
AIM: To determine the intestinal permeability (IP) as a marker of intestinal epithelial integrity in formula-fed infants compared with healthy breast-fed infants. METHODS: IP was measured in 57 healthy infants less than 4 months old. A dual sugar test with lactulose and mannitol was performed. Three urinary ratios were established: ...
Jing Hongkui - - 2007
Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also obtained. A major positive component (P200) was ...
Roman Céline - - 2007
Intragastric fat digestion was investigated by analyzing the products of lipolysis and the gastric lipase (HGL) levels of premature infants fed with a formula enriched with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and those of infants fed with human milk. Infants were fed using a gastric tube and the gastric contents were ...
Pivik R T - - 2007
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if processing of language stimuli during the first half year of life in breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. This question was addressed by examining the brain event-related potentials of healthy infants receiving breast milk (n = 15) or milk-based ...
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