Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1594
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Simmer K - - 2008
The n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are essential nutrients for preterm infants, who may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA ...
Indrio Flavia - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic on feeding tolerance and gastrointestinal motility in healthy formula-fed preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty preterm newborns were enrolled; 10 were exclusively breast-fed, and the remaining 20 were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC ...
Velaphi Sithembiso C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a biologically and chemically acidified formula with or without probiotics with a standard formula on growth of infants negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: This was a double-masked, randomized, clinical trial. Infants born to consenting HIV-positive women who had decided not to breast-feed ...
Mah Ka Weng - - 2007
The fecal microbiota of 37 infants with (n = 20) or without (n = 17) probiotic administration was evaluated on D 3, and at 1, 3, and 12 mo by fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry (FISH-FC), PCR, and bacteriological culture methods. They represent consecutive subjects of an ongoing double-blind, placebo-controlled ...
Embleton Nicholas D - - 2007
There is compelling evidence that current nutritional practice fails to provide sufficient dietary protein for preterm infants, especially extremely and very low birth weight infants. Nutrient requirements can be estimated by a variety of techniques, but most suggest that these infants will require a protein intake of 3.5-4.0 g/kg/d. Even ...
Andresen E - - 2007
To examine the safety of formula feeds used by mothers participating in a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme, contents of 94 feeding bottles collected at a PMTCT-clinic were analysed. An additional 17 samples were taken from already prepared feeds during home visits, as well as 21 samples from bottles ...
Griffin Ian J - - 2007
Growth failure in preterm infants remains extremely common despite advances in neonatal care. Many, or even a majority, leave the hospital with weights below the 10th centile for age. Because of this, the possibility of nutritional interventions to improve postdischarge growth has been considered. A variety of interventions have been ...
Szajewska Hania - - 2007
Protein hydrolysate formulas for preterm infants recently have been developed. However, the indications for the use of such formulas are unclear. The aim of this article is to systematically evaluate the effect of protein hydrolysate formulas in the feeding of preterm infants through searching the MEDLINE (1966-August 2006) and Cochrane ...
Forestell Catherine A - - 2007
Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the ...
Veereman Gigi - - 2007
Inulin-type fructans have been used in infants and children because of their prebiotic potential to modulate the intestinal flora and influence the innate and adaptive immune response favorably. A mixture of long chain inulin (5-60 monomers) in combination with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (2-7 monomers) has been added to infant formula in ...
Tanaka A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Some formulas using the serum cystatin C level to estimate the GFR have recently been reported. However, there has been no report of a serum cystatin C-based formula for adjusting the dosage of the drugs cleared by the kidney. In this study, we compared the predictive performance of the ...
Hoffman Dennis - - 2008
Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group ...
Gutiérrez-Castrellón Pedro - - 2007
Human milk is recommended as the only alimentary source for the first six months of life. Additionally there is a medical and social need for safe and effective alternative forms of nutrition for infants who cannot be fed with breast milk. Recently the safety and efficacy of some ingredients in ...
Riedijk Maaike A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cyst(e)ine can be synthesized de novo from methionine and serine and is, therefore, a nonessential amino acid in human adults. Several studies have suggested that cyst(e)ine might be a conditionally essential amino acid in preterm infants because of biochemical immaturity. No data are available on cyst(e)ine requirements in low-birth-weight ...
Moukarzel Adib A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE(S): Advantages of prethickened formulas (AR) with regards to esophageal pH and gastric emptying were investigated in this study as compared with a regular formula (R). STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-four healthy infants, <6 months old, with gastroesophageal reflux were enrolled into the study. All infants underwent 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring while ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
The ability of Enterobacter sakazakii to cause infections in infants, coupled with its documented presence in some lots of commercially manufactured powdered infant formula, raises a concern about the potential for its growth in reconstituted formula, with consequent increased safety risk. A study was done to determine these characteristics in ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
Neonatal bacteremia and meningitis caused by the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii have been associated with the consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. Lactoperoxidase (LPO), present in mammalian milk, is known to inhibit the growth of enteric pathogens. We undertook a study to determine if the lactoperoxidase system (LPOS) will inhibit ...
Siahanidou Tania - - 2007
Our study examined if dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have an impact on oxidative stress in preterm infants. Serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), total peroxide concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined at mean (standard deviation [SD]) 34.7 (10.9) days of life in 104 healthy preterm infants (gestational age, 32.6 [2.9] ...
Parracho Helena - - 2007
The human colonic microflora has a central role in health and disease, being unique in its complexity and range of functions. As such, dietary modulation is important for improved gut health, especially during the highly-sensitive stage of infancy. Diet can affect the composition of the gut microflora through the availability ...
Nevo Neta - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The infant formula market has grown significantly and offers a wide range of products for the different stages of healthy infant growth. Healthy infants often go through a series of unnecessary changes of formulas. The present study aimed to identify the factors leading to switches to alternative formulas. We ...
Clarke S E - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The practice of supplementing standard infant formula with energy for infants with faltering growth has been widespread. This increases energy density but disturbs the protein : energy ratio, and increases risks of microbial contamination and errors in feed preparation. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a nutrient-dense ...
Niers Laetitia - - 2007
Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific protection against enteric pathogens, as well as numerous ...
Alliet Philippe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol is a nutrient of essential importance in infant feeding because it is necessary in membrane development. In adults with high lipid levels, high doses of inulin (oligofructose) inconsistently decreased levels of serum cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in infants ...
Davis A M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula with a protein profile and total protein concentration closer to human milk (HM) and lower than conventional formulas. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen healthy, term infants, <or=14 days post-natal age were enrolled and 166 (76.9%) completed the study. Timed ...
Field Catherine J - - 2008
To determine the effect of feeding formula containing long-chain PUFA (LCP) on immune function, healthy term infants were randomised at age 2 weeks to either a standard term formula (Formula; n 14) or the same formula supplemented with the LCP 20 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3 (Formula+LCP; n 16). ...
Indrio Flavia - - 2007
To investigate the effects of fermented formula (FF) with Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065 on thymus size and stool pH of healthy term infants, ultrasound examinations and evaluations of thymus sizes and thymus indices (TI) and measurements of stool pH were performed in the same 90 term neonates ...
Derzelle Sylviane - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is an occasional contaminant of powdered infant formula that can cause rare but severe foodborne infections in infants. To determine optimal methods for the detection and identification of E. sakazakii, 38 naturally contaminated samples from infant formulae factories were analyzed by two PCR-based methods and by a method ...
Gurtler Joshua B - - 2007
A study was done to determine survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in four milk-based and two soybean-based powdered infant formulas. A 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into the six infant formulas at water activity (aw) 0.25 to 0.30, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.43 to 0.50 to give low ...
Mitmesser Susan Hazels - - 2007
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are two long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) found naturally in human milk. DHA and ARA have been receiving increased attention from health care professionals and the public. Research suggests that DHA intake and status have a significant impact on visual and cognitive development ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2007
Observational studies have shown that allergic infants, irrespective of the type of diet, show various degrees of growth depression in the first year of life. We investigated whether the type of milk in the complementary feeding period (6-12 months of age) is associated with differences in the increase of standardized ...
Teitelbaum Jonathan E - - 2007
To assess the familiarity of pediatricians with commercially available formulas and their use for cow's milk protein allergy and colic, a list of formulas was generated by visiting several grocery stores. Pediatricians were ask to indicate their familiarity with these and other "specialized" formulas with regard to protein and carbohydrate ...
Raghav Mamta - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii has recently been recognized as an often fatal neonatal pathogen that rarely infects adults. Although not much is known about factors involved in its pathogenicity, the organism has been reported to produce enterotoxin. Currently, no information is available in the literature about the production and characterization of the ...
Blossfeld Ivonne - - 2007
The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied ...
Chao Hsun-Chin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infant constipation is a frequent condition in formula-fed infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed in infants who had constipation with Novalac-IT (IT group) versus a 20% strengthened formula (S group). Enrolled subjects had difficulties in defecating, hard stools, or low frequency of defecation (< or =3 ...
Costalos C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by bifidobacteria which have beneficial properties. Their presence is due to various compounds of breast milk including prebiotic substances. AIM: This prospective, double blind, study compared the growth, acceptability and the proportion of bifidobacteria and clostridia in the stool flora ...
Osaili T M - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has caused several cases of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants and has been associated with infant formulas. Five strains of E. sakazakii were inoculated individually into brain heart infusion broth and rehydrated or dehydrated infant milk formula and exposed to ionizing ...
Rivkees Scott A - - 2007
Infants consume most of their calories as formula. Because of this large fluid intake, infants normally produce dilute urine, not far off from that seen in individuals with diabetes insipidus (DI). Infants with DI are therefore prone to water intoxication if fixed antidiuresis is achieved using the long-acting vasopressin analog ...
Greer Frank R - - 2007
Although there are no official recommendations for specific nutrient intakes in premature infants after hospital discharge, it is agreed that the goal should be to achieve the body composition and rate of growth of that of a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age during the entire first year of ...
Kashyap Sudha - - 2007
Providing optimal nutrition to satisfy the growth needs of very low birth weight infants is critical. The available preterm formulas and fortified human milk diets provide protein intakes of approximately 3.5 to 3.6 g/kg/d when volumes sufficient to provide 120 kcal/kg/d are fed to these infants. These intakes support growth ...
Mullane N R - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) is an opportunistic pathogen and the aetiological agent in rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. Among infants, those at greatest risk are neonates (<28 days), particularly those born prematurely or of low birth weight (<2500 g). Consumption of contaminated powdered ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2007
Infant and follow-on (or "follow-up") formulae fermented with lactic acid-producing bacteria during the production process contain no viable bacteria in the final product due to their inactivation by heat or other means. In this article the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews published information on their clinical evaluation. In a systematic ...
López-Alarcón M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test whether breastfeeding's protection against anorectic responses to infection is mediated by n-3 fatty acids' attenuation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. DESIGN: Experimental and observational studies. SETTING: A hospital-based study was conducted. SUBJECTS: Five groups of infants were followed; three in the experimental and two ...
Brouard Cécile - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increase of isolation of Salmonella Agona was observed in January through February 2005 among infants in France. METHODS: Case-control study, food trace-back and microbiologic investigations were promptly carried out. RESULTS: A total of 141 confirmed cases <12 months of age were identified. Most had diarrhea (99%; bloody 56%) ...
Koo W W K - - 2007
Rice is the world's leading staple cereal food and is the major source of protein for many parts of the world. Rice is among the first solid foods fed to infants in many cultures, in part because of its hypoallergenicity from lack of gluten. Nutritional quality of rice protein compares ...
Heird William C - - 2007
More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. Considerable ...
Wang Chongxin - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are known to provide energy to colonocytes, whereas overproduction of SCFAs can cause mucosal injury in premature infants. Our objective was to investigate the effects of the oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B breve) on fecal lactic acid and SCFAs in low birth weight ...
Denne Scott C - - 2007
Growth outcomes for extremely premature infants remain poor, and improving growth in this population will require a better understanding of how to limit proteolysis and promote protein accretion. Extremely premature infants exhibit high rates of proteolysis that are unrestrained by physiologic increases in insulin, intravenous amino acids, and full parenteral ...
King James C JC - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin has an array of biological activities that include growth, immune modulation, and antimicrobial effects. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was to examine the impact of bovine lactoferrin supplementation in infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthy, formula-fed infants, > or =34 weeks' gestation and < or =4 ...
von Berg Andrea - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for primary prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk children include feeding with hydrolyzed formulas if breast-feeding is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention study was to investigate the allergy preventive effect of 3 hydrolyzed formulas compared with cow's milk formula in the first ...
Mullane N R - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) and its processing environment was monitored between April 2005 and March 2006. The purpose of the monitoring programme was to locate points of contamination, investigate clonal persistence, and identify possible dissemination routes along the processing chain. A total of 80 ...
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