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Results 251 - 300 of 1581
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von Berg Andrea - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of nutritional intervention with hydrolyzed infant formulas on allergy development has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We performed a follow-up of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention study until 6 years of life to investigate the long-term allergy-preventive effect of 3 hydrolyzed infant formulas compared with cow's ...
Singhal Atul A Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom. - - 2008
Dietary nucleotides are nonprotein nitrogenous compounds that are thought to be important for growth, repair, and differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract. A higher nucleotide intake may also have favorable effects on the fecal microbial composition and incidence of diarrhea in infancy. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis with an ...
Frontela C - - 2008
Cereals are introduced to infants between the ages of 4 and 6 months to supplement breast milk and follow-on formula. Our objectives were to examine the content and in vitro availability of Fe, Ca, and Zn from five commercially available infant cereals mixed with water or follow-on formula before and ...
Rada Vojtech - - 2008
Our aim was to isolate bifidobacteria and clostridia from infant faeces and to test the growth of bifidobacteria and clostridia on prebiotic oligosaccharides. Seventy breast-fed infants aged between 3 and 253 days were tested for the presence of bifidobacteria and clostridia in their faeces. Ten strains of clostridia and 10 ...
Nigro Francesco - - 2008
Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the ...
Breitbart Mya - - 2008
Metagenomic sequencing of DNA viruses from the feces of a healthy week-old infant revealed a viral community with extremely low diversity. The identifiable sequences were dominated by phages, which likely influence the diversity and abundance of co-occurring microbes. The most abundant fecal viral sequences did not originate from breast milk ...
Giovannini M - - 2008
Recently there has been considerable concern related to the presence of bacteria, in particular Enterobacter sakazakii, in powdered infant formula milk. E. sakazakii, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in premature and full-term ...
Osaili Tareq M - - 2008
Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive ...
Magne Fabien - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and effect on faecal microbiota of a formula with prebiotic oligosaccharides alone or in combination with acidic oligosaccharides in infants at the age of partial formula feeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised intervention trial in which 82 healthy, full-term, partially ...
Kim Hoikyung - - 2008
Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii dried on the surface of stainless steel and exposed to 43% relative humidity, as affected by temperature, was studied. Populations of E. sakazakii (7.4 to 8.6 log CFU per coupon) on coupons dried for 2 h at 22 degrees C decreased significantly (P < or = ...
Chouraqui Jean Pierre - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Probiotics and prebiotics are considered to be beneficial to the gastrointestinal health of infants. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate infant formulas containing probiotics and synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) for safety and tolerance. DESIGN: In a prospective, controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, healthy full-term infants were exclusively fed ...
- - 2008
This final rule amends the regulations governing the WIC Program to clarify issues that have arisen subsequent to the publication of the WIC Food Delivery Systems Final Rule on December 29, 2000, and to strengthen further the requirements for State vendor management and infant formula cost-containment systems. This rule contains ...
Levallois Patrick - - 2008
Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The ...
Burks Wesley - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: In study 1, to compare the effect on growth in healthy infants of a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) and a control extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF), with both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) at levels similar to those in human milk worldwide. In study 2, to evaluate ...
Siahanidou Tania - - 2008
Adiponectin has potent insulin-sensitizing effects, improves lipid metabolism, and potentially protects against the development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, increasing adiponectin levels in preterm infants at risk for developing metabolic syndrome may be of special interest. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty ...
Smithers Lisa G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of preterm formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is based on their effectiveness to increase blood status and improve visual outcomes. Dispute remains over their efficacy on global development. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of LCPUFA-supplemented with those of control formulas on neurodevelopment and ...
Jing Hongkui - - 2008
Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phyto-oestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect normal development of the human brain. ...
Sandström Olof - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Formula-fed infants have growth and plasma amino acid patterns different from those of breastfed infants. OBJECTIVE: alpha-Lactalbumin is a major protein in human milk, and the addition of bovine alpha-lactalbumin to infant formula has been proposed to modify the plasma amino acid pattern of the recipient infant, possibly allowing ...
Osaili T M - - 2008
This study determined the effect of acid, alkaline, chlorine, and ethanol stresses on the thermal inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formula. Unstressed or stressed cells were mixed with reconstituted powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) at temperatures between 52 and 58 degrees C for various time periods or mixed ...
Sebeková Katarína - - 2008
Industrial processing of infant formulas (IFs) induces the formation of Maillard products, namely N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). CML content is expected to be several times higher in IFs than in fresh human breast milk. To elucidate whether CML is absorbed from IFs into the bloodstream, CML concentration in the plasma and ...
Conte F - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii (Es) infections are likely to involve newborns and infants, causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Contamination of infant formulae milk during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. Es has been isolated from environmental sources and from food other than infant formula and milk powder, but why ...
Ahn Youngmee - - 2008
AIM: To explore the suitability of existing formulas to estimate the body surface area (BSA) of newborns when direct measurement of surface estimation is not practical. METHODS: In 589 term-newborns of normal weight and height, the five estimations (in cm2) were performed using four known BSA formulas by Boyd, Meban, ...
Savino Francesco - - 2008
We carried out a cross-sectional study of 115 healthy infants, younger than 6 months old, exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed, to investigate correlations between circulating leptin concentrations and body composition measurements. Serum leptin was evaluated with radioimmunoassay, and body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed a relationship between ...
Parrilla-Rodríguez Ana M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The WHO Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is intended to be adopted as a minimum requirement by all governments and aims to protect infant health by preventing inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes. Labels need to have correct and clear dispositions since they frequently are the only source of ...
Staelens Sofie - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric emptying (GE) is influenced by the type of nutrition. The objective of this study was to compare GE in infants fed an intact protein formula (IPF), a partially hydrolysed formula (PHF), and an extensively hydrolysed formula (EHF). METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Following ...
Corpeleijn Willemijn E - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The gastrointestinal tract of the premature newborn functions suboptimally with regard to digestion, absorption, and feeding tolerance. Human milk contains trophic factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), that are believed to stimulate gut growth and function. The objective of this double blind, randomized, controlled trial was to assess ...
Zung Amnon - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of soy-based formulas in female infants. These formulas contain significant amounts of phytoestrogens, compounds with structural similarity to estradiol. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study consisting of 694 female infants ages 3 to 24 months that consecutively attended 10 general pediatric clinics, none of ...
Kemp Andrew S - - 2008
Three types of infant formula (soy, extensively hydrolysed and amino acid) may be appropriate for treating cows milk protein allergy. Selection of a formula depends on the allergy syndrome to be treated. Extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended as first choice for infants under 6 months of age for treating immediate ...
Cahill Sarah M - - 2008
Powdered infant formula is not sterile and may be intrinsically contaminated with pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, that can cause serious illness in infants. In recent years, at least 6 outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants that have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula have been reported. ...
Infante Pina D - - 2008
AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In ...
Yang Vincent L - - 2008
Recently, four deaths, 50,000 illnesses, and 12,000 hospitalizations from presumed exposure to melamine in infant formula have been reported in China. While there are very few data on the nephrotoxic effects of melamine in humans, studies on animals have shown that melamine, in particular in combination with cyanuric acid, causes ...
Fiore Alfonsina - - 2008
The Enterobacter sakazakii is considered an emerging pathogen and has been recently connected to neonatal cases of necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis due to use of contaminated powdered infant formula. However its presence is not limited to powdered infant formula; it can also be found in a broad range of foods ...
Richling Ira - - 2008
The present study provides the first convincing explanation of the mode of action of the medical device NYDA, a special dimeticone (CAS 9006-65-9) formula containing 92% of two dimeticones with different viscosities specifically designed for the physical treatment of head lice infestations (pediculosis capitis) by suffocation. Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) ...
Lönnerdal Bo - - 2008
The growth pattern of formula-fed infants is quite different from that of breastfed infants. There may be several reasons for this difference, ranging from different endocrine responses to feeding and the presence of growth factors in breast milk to different control of food intake, but it is highly likely that ...
Hafez Lamia M - - 2008
The concentration of heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), were estimated in formula (powdered milk) and cow milk. Eleven samples of infant formulae which represent most kinds of formulae used for feeding infants from birth up to 2 years were taken from pharmacies. Sixteen samples of cow's milk were ...
Burrin Douglas G - - 2008
Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as a flavour additive in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is the major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is extensively ...
Mao Meng - - 2008
Probiotics have been proposed for the management and prevention of acute diarrhoea in infants. A double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was carried out in 224 Chinese infants 6 to 36 months of age with severe acute diarrhoea and free from moderate or severe malnutrition. After oral or parenteral rehydration, they ...
Simmer K - - 2008
The n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are essential nutrients for preterm infants, who may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA ...
Indrio Flavia - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic on feeding tolerance and gastrointestinal motility in healthy formula-fed preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty preterm newborns were enrolled; 10 were exclusively breast-fed, and the remaining 20 were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC ...
Velaphi Sithembiso C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a biologically and chemically acidified formula with or without probiotics with a standard formula on growth of infants negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: This was a double-masked, randomized, clinical trial. Infants born to consenting HIV-positive women who had decided not to breast-feed ...
Mah Ka Weng - - 2007
The fecal microbiota of 37 infants with (n = 20) or without (n = 17) probiotic administration was evaluated on D 3, and at 1, 3, and 12 mo by fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry (FISH-FC), PCR, and bacteriological culture methods. They represent consecutive subjects of an ongoing double-blind, placebo-controlled ...
Embleton Nicholas D - - 2007
There is compelling evidence that current nutritional practice fails to provide sufficient dietary protein for preterm infants, especially extremely and very low birth weight infants. Nutrient requirements can be estimated by a variety of techniques, but most suggest that these infants will require a protein intake of 3.5-4.0 g/kg/d. Even ...
Andresen E - - 2007
To examine the safety of formula feeds used by mothers participating in a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme, contents of 94 feeding bottles collected at a PMTCT-clinic were analysed. An additional 17 samples were taken from already prepared feeds during home visits, as well as 21 samples from bottles ...
Griffin Ian J - - 2007
Growth failure in preterm infants remains extremely common despite advances in neonatal care. Many, or even a majority, leave the hospital with weights below the 10th centile for age. Because of this, the possibility of nutritional interventions to improve postdischarge growth has been considered. A variety of interventions have been ...
Szajewska Hania - - 2007
Protein hydrolysate formulas for preterm infants recently have been developed. However, the indications for the use of such formulas are unclear. The aim of this article is to systematically evaluate the effect of protein hydrolysate formulas in the feeding of preterm infants through searching the MEDLINE (1966-August 2006) and Cochrane ...
Forestell Catherine A - - 2007
Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the ...
Veereman Gigi - - 2007
Inulin-type fructans have been used in infants and children because of their prebiotic potential to modulate the intestinal flora and influence the innate and adaptive immune response favorably. A mixture of long chain inulin (5-60 monomers) in combination with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (2-7 monomers) has been added to infant formula in ...
Tanaka A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Some formulas using the serum cystatin C level to estimate the GFR have recently been reported. However, there has been no report of a serum cystatin C-based formula for adjusting the dosage of the drugs cleared by the kidney. In this study, we compared the predictive performance of the ...
Hoffman Dennis - - 2008
Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group ...
Gutiérrez-Castrellón Pedro - - 2007
Human milk is recommended as the only alimentary source for the first six months of life. Additionally there is a medical and social need for safe and effective alternative forms of nutrition for infants who cannot be fed with breast milk. Recently the safety and efficacy of some ingredients in ...
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