Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1581
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Kazi Tasneem G - - 2009
In present work concentrations of toxic elements (TEs), aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in seventeen imported samples of infant milk-based (IMF) and infant soy-based formulae (ISF), were measured, to evaluate whether the intakes of understudy TEs accomplished within recommended permissible levels. The TEs were analyzed by electrothermal atomic ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2009
Since the concept of lasting programming effects on disease risk in human adults by the action of hormones, metabolites, and neurotransmitters during sensitive periods of early development was proposed >3 decades ago, ample supporting evidence has evolved from epidemiologic and experimental studies and clinical trials. For example, numerous studies have ...
Savino Francesco - - 2009
Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines ...
Almeida C - - 2009
Here, we report a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for rapid detection of Cronobacter strains in powdered infant formula (PIF) using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Laboratory tests with several Enterobacteriaceae species showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the method were 100%. FISH using PNA could ...
Scalabrin Deolinda M - - 2009
Healthy, term infants received extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHF; control), the same formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHF-LGG), or partially hydrolyzed whey:casein (60:40) formula supplemented with LGG (PHF-LGG), in this double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel, prospective study. Anthropometric measures and 24-hour dietary and tolerance recalls were obtained at 30, 60, ...
Redmond Elizabeth C - - 2009
AIMS: Microbial contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) is known to cause gastrointestinal infections in infants. Of concern is intrinsic contamination of the formula with (for example) Salmonella enterica as well as extrinsic contamination from inappropriate handling or ineffective disinfection. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic and ...
Bruzzese Eugenia - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIM: The addition of prebiotics to infant formula modifies the composition of intestinal microflora. Aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that prebiotics reduce the incidence of intestinal and respiratory infections in healthy infants. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open trial was performed. Healthy infants were ...
O'Brien S - - 2009
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in follow-on formula powders commercially available in European countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 470 samples comprising 31 different products from 18 brand names belonging to seven companies were tested for the presence of Cronobacter species. No milk- or ...
Langman Craig B - - 2009
Melamine, a man-made non-nutritive substance containing nitrogen, can falsely elevate measures of protein content in foodstuffs. Several manufacturers of powdered infant formula in China apparently added melamine to raise the measured protein content and thereby exposed thousands of infants and young children to very high levels of melamine. Such exposure ...
Hayes M - - 2009
Previously two antimicrobial peptides, IKHQGLPQE (caseicin A) and VLNENLLR (caseicin B), were identified following the fermentation of sodium caseinate with the proteolytic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC 6026. This study evaluated the ability of these peptides to kill Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 12868 spiked in reconstituted infant formula. The survival of E. ...
Gibson Robert A - - 2009
Probiotics and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) may be beneficial supplements for infants who are not breast-fed. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety of an infant formula containing the LC-PUFA DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) and the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis by comparing the growth rate of infants ...
Siemer J - - 2009
PURPOSE: Birth weight is an important predictive parameter for neonatal morbidity and mortality in the small fetus. Accurate estimation of fetal weight is therefore a valuable tool for determining the further obstetric management. The majority of studies presenting new formulas have included relatively small samples with a narrow range of ...
Steenhout Philippe G - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the growth of the newborn infant. It is therefore essential that mothers who cannot breastfeed or choose not to are provided with alternatives that closely match the composition and functionality of breast milk. This study aimed to investigate the growth ...
Fanaro Silvia - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine the bifidogenic effect of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) in a follow-on formula and the effects on other intestinal bacteria. Secondary objectives were the effects on stool characteristics, growth, and general well-being. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind study, 159 healthy infants, ...
Edwards Maura - - 2009
DATA SOURCES: Information was sourced from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials (a service of the US National Institutes of Health), ProQuest UMI (a dissertation and thesis database), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Virtual Health Library, Bireme-PAHO-WHO, and the Latin America and ...
Berseth Carol Lynn - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula ...
Pandelova Marchela E - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to assess the total daily energy intake of infants (aged 0-4 months) exclusively fed with infant formulae available on the European Union market. All of the products were identified from the European market share data of the year 2007 covering 22 countries. The ...
Palcich Gabriela - - 2009
This study was the first conducted in Brazil to evaluate the presence of Enterobacter sakazakii in milk-based powdered infant formula manufactured for infants 0 to 6 months of age and to examine the conditions of formula preparation and service in three hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of dried ...
Redmond Elizabeth - - 2009
Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle ...
Kim Jung Beom - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) infections are an important cause of life-threatening meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. Dried infant formula milk is an important vehicle for E. sakazakii infection. E. sakazakii was isolated in Korea from dried infant formula milk. Although E. sakazakii infection of infants may occur in ...
Aka P Sema - - 2009
Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of ...
Osaili T M - - 2009
AIMS: To determine the survival and growth characteristics of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in infant wheat-based formulas reconstituted with water, milk, grape juice or apple juice during storage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Infant wheat-based formulas were reconstituted with water, ultra high temperature milk, pasteurized grape or apple juices. The reconstituted formulas ...
Han Young-Hee - - 2009
We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake throughout the first year of life is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological benefits. Few studies have evaluated the role of DHA intakes on age at achievement of gross motor milestones. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effects of DHA supplementation throughout the first year ...
Michalski Marie-Caroline - - 2008
Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh ...
Herbold Nancie H - - 2008
Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants. This observational study collected pilot data on formula preparation practices of 15 mothers of infants under the age of 7 months. A site survey tool was developed, based upon existing instruments. A trained observer traveled to ...
Amalaradjou Mary Anne Roshni - - 2009
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a major component of bark extract of cinnamon. It is classified as generally recognized ...
Ben Xiao-Ming - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effect of a new infant formula supplemented with a low level (0.24 g/100 mL) of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal micro-flora (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and E. coli) and fermentation characteristics in term infants, compared with human milk and a standard infant formula without GOS. METHODS: Term infants (n ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2008
The 2 most abundant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the brain are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), where they have a functional and structural role in infant development. DHA is concentrated in the prefrontal cortex, which is important for association and short-term memory, and in some retinal ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2008
Nutramigen AA is an amino acid-based formula for infants with multiple food protein intolerance or severe cow's milk allergy. Similar growth, tolerance, and safety profiles were found in a study comparing Nutramigen AA with a control formula (Nutramigen LIPIL) in healthy, term, formula-fed infants in a randomised study. Moreover, no ...
K W Yap Wendy - - 2008
The effects of inulin on the microbial composition and faecal characteristics in 36 healthy, formula-fed infants (average age 7.7 months) given 3 different daily dosages of native inulin (0.75 g/day, 1.00 g/day, and 1.25 g/day) were studied. At all levels of inulin consumption, a significant (p<0.05) reduction of potential pathogenic ...
Berseth Carol Lynn - - 2009
Very fussy or extremely fussy infants were randomized to receive: soy-based formula (Soy: n = 82) or a partially hydrolyzed cow's milk protein (CMP), low-lactose formula (PHF: n = 77) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel, prospective 28-day feeding trial. Body weight and infant formula tolerance were reported. Adverse events ...
Smithers Lisa G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have improved visual outcomes when fed a formula containing 0.2-0.4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared with infants fed no DHA, but the optimal DHA dose is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed visual responses of preterm infants fed human milk (HM) and formula with a DHA concentration estimated to match ...
Labiner-Wolfe Judith - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the extent to which mothers learn about proper handling of infant formula from health professionals and package labels; mothers' beliefs about the likelihood of germs being in infant formula and the importance of following safe-use directions; whether they take measures while handling infant formula ...
Steele Caroline - - 2008
Increasing concern regarding potential pathogens in infant formulas led to this evaluation of the influence of procedural and environmental factors on infant formula contamination. In two phases of study, a total of 526 formula samples were analyzed for contamination. In Phase 1, conducted from October 2001 through May 2002, nursing ...
Smithers L G - - 2008
Formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves retinal function of preterm infants but the optimal dose is unknown. In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of increasing the DHA concentration of human milk and formula on circulating fatty acids of preterm infants. Infants born <33 weeks gestation were ...
van Goudoever Johannes B - - 2008
The intestine serves numerous purposes. In addition to digestion and absorption, the intestine functions as an organ that provides specific and nonspecific protection against pathological bacteria and noxious agents. At birth, and certainly when birth occurs prematurely, these functions are not yet fully developed. This article addresses the specific needs ...
Florendo K N - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To compare feeding tolerance, nutrient intake and growth in preterm infants (< or =32 weeks, < or =1750 g) fed either a standard nonhydrolyzed whey-casein (nHWC) or a partially hydrolyzed whey (pHW) preterm infant formula. STUDY DESIGN: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial infants were fed either formula for ...
Cao Xu-Liang - - 2008
A sensitive, efficient, and reproducible method, based on solid phase extraction and derivatization with acetic anhydride followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode, was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in liquid infant formula. The method quantification limit was 0.5 ng g(-1). Extraction recoveries were 85-94% ...
Sirdah M - - 2008
Beta-thalassaemia minor and iron deficiency are the most common causes of microcytosis and/or hypochromasia. The present study evaluates the diagnostic reliability of different RBC indices and formulas, as well as our proposed formula, in the differentiation of the beta-thalassaemia minor from iron deficiency in Palestinian population. Complete blood count (CBC) ...
Cao Yang - - 2009
In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure ...
Picaud Jean-Charles - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate growth and bone mineralization in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants fed preterm formula (PF) or term formula (TF). STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blind prospective study, 49 preterm infants of gestational age 33 weeks or less were randomly fed PF or TF for 2 months after discharge, ...
Inoue Koichi - - 2008
Nucleotide-supplemented infant formula has been shown to positively modify the composition of intestinal microflora, emulating the attribute of human milk. Quantification of nucleotides in infant formula is of interest because of its applicability in quality and safety assessments. There is no standard method for the analysis of nucleotides in infant ...
Pereira-da-Silva L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of ...
Kavanagh Katherine F - - 2008
Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth measured before (at 1 to 2 months) and ...
Hegar Badriul - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Regurgitation is frequent in infants. We evaluated changes in regurgitation among patient groups fed standard formula, standard formula subsequently thickened with cereal, or formula manufactured with bean gum as a thickening agent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, blinded, randomised 1-month intervention trial evaluating the efficacy of parental reassurance of ...
Gawecka Agnieszka - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the first period of life, premature infants need parenteral nutrition. Lipid emulsions (LEs), which are a part of parenteral nutrition, are known as potent immunological modulators and may therefore influence the immune status of parenterally fed infants. The aim of the study was to compare tumor necrosis factor ...
Healy B - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii is regarded as a ubiquitous organism that can be isolated from a wide range of foods and environments. Infection in at-risk infants has been epidemiologically linked to the consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. Preventing the dissemination of this pathogen in a powdered infant formula manufacturing facility is ...
Daniels Lynne - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The optimal form and dose of selenium supplementation required to achieve indicators of selenium status equivalent to those in breastfed infants are unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of fortifying infant formula (6 microg Se/L) with 2 concentrations of selenate (7 and 15 microg/L) on biochemical ...
Scholtens Petra A M J - - 2008
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of an infant milk formula with 6 g/L short-chain galacto- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [(scGOS/lcFOS) ratio 9:1] on the development of the fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response and on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in 215 healthy infants during ...
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