Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1595
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Joeckel Rebecca J - - 2009
Because every child has individual needs, there are a variety of infant and pediatric formulas from which to choose. Not only are there several categories of formulas including milk protein-based, soy protein-based, hydrolyzed protein, and amino acid-based, but there are differences between products within each category. Research is being done ...
Chenu J W - - 2009
The genus Cronobacter accommodates the 16 biogroups of the emerging opportunistic pathogen known formerly as Enterobacter sakazakii. Cronobacter spp. are occasional contaminants of milk powder and, consequently, powdered infant formula and represent a significant health risk to neonates. This review presents current knowledge of the food safety aspects of Cronobacter, ...
Stuart Sheela - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to investigate comparability of viscosity of liquids used in assessment and treatment of infants with dysphagia. Goals of this study were as follows: (1) Establish baseline viscosity values for (a) the commercial barium assessment liquids of varying thicknesses and (b) clinically typical infant formula ...
Goldberg Isabell - - 2009
Enterobacter sakazakii, a pathogen that can be found in powdered infant milk formula, can cause adverse health effects on infants. Using Vickrey auction, this study examines parents' willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality assurance label on powdered infant milk formula. The influence of ambiguity with the incidence rate information ...
Erkekoglu Pinar - - 2009
Nitrites are responsible for methemoglobinemia, to which infants younger than 6 months are thought to be the most susceptible population. This study aimed to detect whether there was any nitrite contamination in infant formulas and baby foods marketed in Turkey and to estimate possible toxicological risks in this sensitive physiological ...
Mauer Lisa J - - 2009
Near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy methods (NIR, FTIR-ATR, FTIR-DRIFT) were evaluated for the detection and quantification of melamine in infant formula powder. Partial least-squares (PLS) models were established for correlating spectral data to melamine concentration: R(2) > 0.99, RMSECV ≤ 0.9, and RPD ≥ 12. Factorization analysis of spectra was able ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Protein intake during infancy was associated with rapid early weight gain and later obesity in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that higher protein intake in infancy leads to more rapid length and weight gain in the first 2 y of life. DESIGN: In a ...
Rzehak Peter - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The short- and long-term effects of feeding with hydrolyzed formulas on growth are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the potential differences in body mass index (BMI) over the first 6 y of life between infants fed with partially hydrolyzed whey (pHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed whey (eHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed ...
van Waardenburg Dick A DA Department of Pediatrics, Maastricht University and Medical Center, P Debeyelaan 25, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Nutritional support improves outcome in critically ill infants but is impeded by fluid restriction, gastric intolerance and feeding interruptions. Protein and energy-enriched infant formulas may help to achieve nutritional targets earlier during admission and promote anabolism. Randomized controlled design. Infants with respiratory failure due to RSV-bronchiolitis received a protein and ...
Herfel T M - - 2009
Oligosaccharides, the third largest component in human milk, are virtually absent from cow's milk and most infant formula. Prebiotic carbohydrates like polydextrose (PDX) have been proposed as surrogates for human milk oligosaccharides. Safety assessments of novel infant formula ingredients include dose-response experiments in appropriate neonatal animal models such as the ...
Wu Yong-Ning - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence and concentrations of melamine and its analogues in tainted infant formula and to identify the etiologic factors for the urinary stones epidemic in infants and young children in China in 2008. METHODS: Sanlu infant formula samples were collected from families of the affected children in ...
Jia Xu-Dong - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the dietary melamine exposure in Chinese infants and young children from the consumption of melamine adulterated Sanlu infant formula. METHODS: Four age groups of infants and young children (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) were chosen as the assessed subjects and the maximum amount of infant formula ...
Leung Cheung - - 2009
Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare but serious clinical condition in newborns and small infants. It is usually caused by diarrhea, improperly prepared infant formula, decreased fluid intake, or exclusive breastfeeding. Symptoms are usually masked until neurological symptoms occur. We report two infants who presented with fever and hypernatremic dehydration caused ...
O'Connor Nina R - - 2009
Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic ...
Kazi Tasneem G - - 2009
In present work concentrations of toxic elements (TEs), aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in seventeen imported samples of infant milk-based (IMF) and infant soy-based formulae (ISF), were measured, to evaluate whether the intakes of understudy TEs accomplished within recommended permissible levels. The TEs were analyzed by electrothermal atomic ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2009
Since the concept of lasting programming effects on disease risk in human adults by the action of hormones, metabolites, and neurotransmitters during sensitive periods of early development was proposed >3 decades ago, ample supporting evidence has evolved from epidemiologic and experimental studies and clinical trials. For example, numerous studies have ...
Savino Francesco - - 2009
Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines ...
Almeida C - - 2009
Here, we report a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for rapid detection of Cronobacter strains in powdered infant formula (PIF) using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Laboratory tests with several Enterobacteriaceae species showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the method were 100%. FISH using PNA could ...
Scalabrin Deolinda M - - 2009
Healthy, term infants received extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHF; control), the same formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHF-LGG), or partially hydrolyzed whey:casein (60:40) formula supplemented with LGG (PHF-LGG), in this double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel, prospective study. Anthropometric measures and 24-hour dietary and tolerance recalls were obtained at 30, 60, ...
Redmond Elizabeth C - - 2009
AIMS: Microbial contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) is known to cause gastrointestinal infections in infants. Of concern is intrinsic contamination of the formula with (for example) Salmonella enterica as well as extrinsic contamination from inappropriate handling or ineffective disinfection. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic and ...
Bruzzese Eugenia - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIM: The addition of prebiotics to infant formula modifies the composition of intestinal microflora. Aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that prebiotics reduce the incidence of intestinal and respiratory infections in healthy infants. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open trial was performed. Healthy infants were ...
O'Brien S - - 2009
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in follow-on formula powders commercially available in European countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 470 samples comprising 31 different products from 18 brand names belonging to seven companies were tested for the presence of Cronobacter species. No milk- or ...
Langman Craig B - - 2009
Melamine, a man-made non-nutritive substance containing nitrogen, can falsely elevate measures of protein content in foodstuffs. Several manufacturers of powdered infant formula in China apparently added melamine to raise the measured protein content and thereby exposed thousands of infants and young children to very high levels of melamine. Such exposure ...
Hayes M - - 2009
Previously two antimicrobial peptides, IKHQGLPQE (caseicin A) and VLNENLLR (caseicin B), were identified following the fermentation of sodium caseinate with the proteolytic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus DPC 6026. This study evaluated the ability of these peptides to kill Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 12868 spiked in reconstituted infant formula. The survival of E. ...
Gibson Robert A - - 2009
Probiotics and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) may be beneficial supplements for infants who are not breast-fed. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety of an infant formula containing the LC-PUFA DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) and the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis by comparing the growth rate of infants ...
Siemer J - - 2009
PURPOSE: Birth weight is an important predictive parameter for neonatal morbidity and mortality in the small fetus. Accurate estimation of fetal weight is therefore a valuable tool for determining the further obstetric management. The majority of studies presenting new formulas have included relatively small samples with a narrow range of ...
Steenhout Philippe G - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the growth of the newborn infant. It is therefore essential that mothers who cannot breastfeed or choose not to are provided with alternatives that closely match the composition and functionality of breast milk. This study aimed to investigate the growth ...
Fanaro Silvia - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine the bifidogenic effect of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) in a follow-on formula and the effects on other intestinal bacteria. Secondary objectives were the effects on stool characteristics, growth, and general well-being. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind study, 159 healthy infants, ...
Edwards Maura - - 2009
DATA SOURCES: Information was sourced from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials (a service of the US National Institutes of Health), ProQuest UMI (a dissertation and thesis database), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Virtual Health Library, Bireme-PAHO-WHO, and the Latin America and ...
Berseth Carol Lynn - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. METHODS: The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula ...
Pandelova Marchela E - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to assess the total daily energy intake of infants (aged 0-4 months) exclusively fed with infant formulae available on the European Union market. All of the products were identified from the European market share data of the year 2007 covering 22 countries. The ...
Palcich Gabriela - - 2009
This study was the first conducted in Brazil to evaluate the presence of Enterobacter sakazakii in milk-based powdered infant formula manufactured for infants 0 to 6 months of age and to examine the conditions of formula preparation and service in three hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of dried ...
Redmond Elizabeth - - 2009
Infant susceptibility and the risks posed by infections associated with bottle-fed powdered infant formula (PIF) have received increased attention in recent years. Intrinsic contamination of PIF with pathogens has been reported and extrinsic contamination can be introduced from the handler or the environment during reconstitution. Recommended disinfection advice and bottle ...
Kim Jung Beom - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) infections are an important cause of life-threatening meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. Dried infant formula milk is an important vehicle for E. sakazakii infection. E. sakazakii was isolated in Korea from dried infant formula milk. Although E. sakazakii infection of infants may occur in ...
Aka P Sema - - 2009
Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of ...
Osaili T M - - 2009
AIMS: To determine the survival and growth characteristics of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in infant wheat-based formulas reconstituted with water, milk, grape juice or apple juice during storage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Infant wheat-based formulas were reconstituted with water, ultra high temperature milk, pasteurized grape or apple juices. The reconstituted formulas ...
Han Young-Hee - - 2009
We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake throughout the first year of life is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological benefits. Few studies have evaluated the role of DHA intakes on age at achievement of gross motor milestones. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effects of DHA supplementation throughout the first year ...
Michalski Marie-Caroline - - 2008
Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh ...
Herbold Nancie H - - 2008
Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants. This observational study collected pilot data on formula preparation practices of 15 mothers of infants under the age of 7 months. A site survey tool was developed, based upon existing instruments. A trained observer traveled to ...
Amalaradjou Mary Anne Roshni - - 2009
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a major component of bark extract of cinnamon. It is classified as generally recognized ...
Ben Xiao-Ming - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effect of a new infant formula supplemented with a low level (0.24 g/100 mL) of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal micro-flora (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and E. coli) and fermentation characteristics in term infants, compared with human milk and a standard infant formula without GOS. METHODS: Term infants (n ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2008
The 2 most abundant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the brain are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), where they have a functional and structural role in infant development. DHA is concentrated in the prefrontal cortex, which is important for association and short-term memory, and in some retinal ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2008
Nutramigen AA is an amino acid-based formula for infants with multiple food protein intolerance or severe cow's milk allergy. Similar growth, tolerance, and safety profiles were found in a study comparing Nutramigen AA with a control formula (Nutramigen LIPIL) in healthy, term, formula-fed infants in a randomised study. Moreover, no ...
K W Yap Wendy - - 2008
The effects of inulin on the microbial composition and faecal characteristics in 36 healthy, formula-fed infants (average age 7.7 months) given 3 different daily dosages of native inulin (0.75 g/day, 1.00 g/day, and 1.25 g/day) were studied. At all levels of inulin consumption, a significant (p<0.05) reduction of potential pathogenic ...
Berseth Carol Lynn - - 2009
Very fussy or extremely fussy infants were randomized to receive: soy-based formula (Soy: n = 82) or a partially hydrolyzed cow's milk protein (CMP), low-lactose formula (PHF: n = 77) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel, prospective 28-day feeding trial. Body weight and infant formula tolerance were reported. Adverse events ...
Smithers Lisa G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have improved visual outcomes when fed a formula containing 0.2-0.4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared with infants fed no DHA, but the optimal DHA dose is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed visual responses of preterm infants fed human milk (HM) and formula with a DHA concentration estimated to match ...
Labiner-Wolfe Judith - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the extent to which mothers learn about proper handling of infant formula from health professionals and package labels; mothers' beliefs about the likelihood of germs being in infant formula and the importance of following safe-use directions; whether they take measures while handling infant formula ...
Steele Caroline - - 2008
Increasing concern regarding potential pathogens in infant formulas led to this evaluation of the influence of procedural and environmental factors on infant formula contamination. In two phases of study, a total of 526 formula samples were analyzed for contamination. In Phase 1, conducted from October 2001 through May 2002, nursing ...
Smithers L G - - 2008
Formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves retinal function of preterm infants but the optimal dose is unknown. In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of increasing the DHA concentration of human milk and formula on circulating fatty acids of preterm infants. Infants born <33 weeks gestation were ...
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