Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1591
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Shamir Raanan - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is present in the sera of healthy humans, may affect lipoprotein structure and composition, and reduce atherogenicity of oxidized LDL-cholesterol. Our aims were to examine serum levels of BSSL in breast- and formula-fed infants, and explore the influence of BSSL on serum lipid profile and ...
Carneiro Letícia A M - - 2003
A total of 90 samples of infant formula (IF) were collected from the lactary of a teaching hospital, during a 4-month period from July to August 1999. The sanitary conditions of the formulas were analyzed, and a physiological characterization of Gram-negative bacillus isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. Colony ...
Costalos C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) is a yeast that acts both as a probiotic and as a polyamine producer. Probiotics prevent the overgrowth of pathogens in the gut while polyamines enhance intestinal maturation. The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the ability of SB to modify the gut microbial ...
Macdonald P D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. PARTICIPANTS: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight > or = 2500 g during the first 2-3 weeks ...
Napoli J EAC - - 2003
Background - Human milk oligosaccharides are readily fermented in the infant colon where they selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria lower intestinal pH through the production of acetic and lactic acids which may suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Objective - To investigate the bifidogenic effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide ...
Kaempf-Rotzoll Daisy E - - 2003
It has been recommended to supplement formulas for preterm infants with n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) to improve growth, visual acuity, and neurodevelopmental performance. However, large amounts of LCP may increase lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in preterm infants. We investigated if, under high supplementation of natural ...
Büyükkayhan Derya - - 2003
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between nutrition, gestational age, and birth weight, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in newborns. METHOD: The first study group consisted of sixty newborns: thirty were fed with human breast milk and the others were fed with ...
O'Connor Deborah L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In a recent meta-analysis, human milk feeding of low birth-weight (LBW) infants was associated with a 5.2 point improvement in IQ tests. However, in the studies in this meta-analysis, feeding regimens were used (unfortified human milk, term formula) that no longer represent recommended practice. OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth, ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2003
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for the infant born prematurely, and attempts are being made to match fatty acid profiles of formula and breast fed infants. In this double-blind, randomized study we investigated the effects of a formula enriched with both n-6 and n-3 LCP ...
Renfrew M J - - 2003
AIMS: To assess what is known about the risks associated with errors in reconstituting the present generation of infant formula feeds, and to examine which methods are likely to be safest. METHODS: Systematic review, and examination of the range of infant formula products currently on sale in the UK. Studies ...
Savino F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Colic, regurgitation and constipation are common feeding problems in formula-fed infants that might benefit from dietary treatment. A formula containing fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, partially hydrolysed proteins, low levels of lactose and palmitic acid in the beta position and higher density has been tested to reduce the occurrence of these ...
Boehm G - - 2003
In the neonatal period, the intestine is colonised in a stepwise process that depends on mode of delivery, environmental factors, bacterial interactions, and the host itself resulting in a colonisation with a complex heterogeneous bacterial flora. Oligosaccharides have been identified as an important prebiotic factor of human milk As long ...
Miniello V L - - 2003
In recent years it has become accepted that healthy human intestinal microflora may play an important part in priming the infants' systemic and mucosal immunity. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota is a topical area of nutritional sciences and the main focus of many current functional foods such as non-digestible ...
Auestad Nancy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in breast milk and recently added to infant formulas. Their importance in infant nutrition was recognized by the rapid accretion of these fatty acids in the brain during the first postnatal year, reports of enhanced intellectual ...
Moore Nancy - - 2003
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) may have potential benefits, since they exhibit many soluble dietary fibre-like properties. Foods currently available for weaning infants are generally low in fibre content and lack these potential benefits. Data documenting tolerance of FOS in weaning foods are greatly lacking. Our present objective was to evaluate the tolerance ...
Brück Wolfram M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Certain milk factors may help to promote the growth of a host-friendly colonic microflora (e.g. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli) and explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer and milder intestinal infections than those who are formula-fed. The effects of supplementation of formula with two such milk factors was investigated in this study. ...
Miniello V L - - 2003
Phyto-oestrogens are non-steroidal plant-derived compounds that possess oestrogenic activity and act as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Among the dietary oestrogens, the isoflavone class enjoy a wide-spread distribution in most of the members of the Leguminosae family, including such prominent high-content representatives as soybean. Phyto-oestrogen research has grown rapidly in ...
Lidestri M - - 2003
Among other components of human milk, oligosaccharides might contribute to the high efficiency of calcium absorption of breastfed infants. In adults, it can be shown that dietary oligosaccharides can improve calcium absorption. The present analysis was performed to evaluate a possible influence of dietary oligosaccharides on parameters of calcium metabolism ...
Fang Jiasong - - 2003
Phospholipid FA (PLFA) profiles were determined on four piezophilic bacteria from the deep sea: Moritella japonica DSK1, Shewanella violacea DSS12, S. benthica DB6705, and S. benthica DB21MT-2. The total concentrations of PLFA were higher in strains grown at low pressure (DSK1, 10 MPa, 27.0 mg/g dry wt cells; DSS12, 50 ...
Bouwstra Hylco - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Whether long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) play a role in the development of the young nervous system in term infants is debated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether supplementation of formula with LCPs for 2 mo improves the quality of general movements (GMs) in healthy term infants at 3 mo of ...
Hernell Olle - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Protein hydrolysate formulas are used for infants with food allergy. Most studies of such formulas focus on their effect on allergy and rarely evaluate their capacity to provide normal nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We compared plasma aminograms, serum urea nitrogen, and trace element status in breastfed infants, infants fed hydrolysate ...
Tuohy P G - - 2003
Soy infant formula contains high levels of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, which are commonly referred to as phytoestrogens. These are non-steroidal chemicals with structural similarities to estrogen. Infants consuming soy formula have high levels of circulating isoflavones. These are an order of magnitude greater than the levels of isoflavones ...
Chowanadisai Winyoo - - 2003
Human milk contains several biologically active proteins that benefit the breast-fed infant. In order to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, these proteins need to be protected against proteolysis. Since human milk contains relatively high concentrations of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), we have expressed recombinant AAT in rice to explore the possibility of ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2003
To evaluate a pre-thickened formula (Enfamil AR) for regurgitant gastroesophageal reflux, 104 infants were enrolled in a 5-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group trial. The Enfamil AR group showed greater symptom reduction by the end of the first week: percent feedings with any regurgitation (p = 0.045), total regurgitation ...
Stenhouse Elizabeth - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: to compare expected date of delivery (EDD) and gestational age (GA) obtained by midwives with those calculated using the Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Death in Infancy (CESDI) recommended formula. DESIGN: retrospective study of obstetric records and prospective study of clinical cases examined by multiple midwives. SETTING: postnatal wards, ...
Picaud J C - - 2003
In very immature babies, nutrition often begined with human milk, but a lot of mothers have a difficulty in lactating and banked human milk is not always available. Therefore, preterm formulas have been specifically designed for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during hospitalisation stay. They differ significantly from standard ...
Carver Jane D - - 2003
Modifications to infant formulas are continually being made as the components of human milk are characterized and as the nutrient needs of diverse groups of infants are identified. Formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added in amounts similar to those in human milk have recently become available in the United ...
Baker R - - 2003
Formula is a substitute for the preferred nutritional fluid for infants, human milk. Considering that human milk is uniquely suited for human infants, formula feeds have done remarkably well in promoting growth and development of bottle-fed and partially breast-fed infants. Early in the last century, the horrendously high infant mortality ...
Agostoni C - - 2003
Infant formulas on the market today should be aimed at providing the best alternative to breast milk for infants of those women who are unable to continue breastfeeding until 6 months of age and substituting ideally for human milk after 6 months of age approaching the structural and functional effects ...
Hoffman Dennis R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Breast-fed infants receive docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in their diet. Upon weaning, infants lose this dietary source of long-chain polyunsaturates because many commercial formulas do not contain these important constituents for neural membrane biogenesis. We evaluated the benefits of postweaning dietary supplementation of DHA + ARA ...
Tawfeek Haifa Ibrahim - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of using oral bovine hyperimmune immunoglobulin concentrate with high-titer antibodies against Escherichia coli in preventing diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic E. coli. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled field trial conducted at the Al-Sheikh Omer Maternal and Child Health Center in Baghdad, Iraq ...
Rodriguez A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if supplementation of preterm infant formula with a high docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio together with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was able to maintain plasma and red blood cell DHA levels similar to that obtained with breast milk feeding without altering n-6 fatty acid status. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: ...
El-Arab Aly Ezz - - 2003
The selenium (Se) content of 11 infant formulas had been determined using electrothermal and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The Se content ranged between 0.43 and 17.17 microg/100 g powder infant formulas with wide variations reaching 40.36-fold excess between the poorest RIRI-1 (0.43 microg/100 g) and Milupa-2 (17.2 microg/100 g ...
Kelleher Shannon L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Advances in dairy technology make it possible to enrich infant formula with specific bovine milk components that may enhance nutrient status. Glycomacropeptide, a carbohydrate-rich casein peptide, may increase absorption of calcium, iron, or zinc. alpha-Lactalbumin, a major breast-milk protein, may contribute to a balanced amino acid pattern and increase ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Palm and palm olein (PO) oils are used in some infant formula fat blends to match the fatty acid profile of human milk, but their presence has been shown to lower calcium and fat absorption. We aimed to determine if the reported differences in calcium absorption could affect skeletal ...
Harvey Mudd S - - 2003
Studies were carried out to identify the cause of combined severe hypermethioninemia and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in a cluster of 10 infants ascertained between 1999 and early 2001. Although several were thought initially to have cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency and treated accordingly, CBS deficiency and other known genetic causes of hypermethioninemia ...
D'Auria E - - 2003
This study was designed to assess whether a rice-hydrolysate formula allows normal growth and adequate metabolic balance in infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Infants (seven females, nine males; aged 6-14 months) were randomly assigned to receive a rice-hydrolysate formula (n = 8) or a soy formula (control group, n ...
Lombaert G A - - 2003
Three hundred and sixty-three samples of cereal-based infant foods were collected from the Canadian retail marketplace over 3 years. The samples included oat-, barley-, soy-, and rice-based infant cereals, mixed-grain infant cereals, teething biscuits, creamed corn, and soy-based formulas. Samples were analysed for targeted mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, ...
Navarro-Blasco I - - 2003
Levels of aluminium in 82 different infant formulae from nine different manufacturers in Spain were determined by acid-microwave digestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of aluminium content in tap water in reconstituted powder formulae was examined and an estimate was made of the theoretical toxic aluminium intake ...
Aggett Peter - - 2003
Nucleotides play a significant role in many physiologic functions, ranging from the encoding of genetic information to signal transduction. Accumulating evidence from recent animal and clinical studies supports the original notion that nucleotides are semi-essential dietary nutrients. The development of a new technique, total potentially available nucleosides, to accurately quantify ...
Heavey Patricia M - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of age and diet (breast milk, formula milk and weaning diet) on metabolic activities in faecal samples from infants aged 1 week to 1 year, and to compare these findings with activities found in samples from adults. Such activities ...
Lyn Jennifer A - - 2003
The Optimised Uncertainty (OU) methodology has been developed to optimise multi-analyte situations. It has then been applied to a retail survey of infant food for trace elements, classifying the food as compliant or non-compliant with the regulatory thresholds or specification limits that are appropriate for each element. The large-scale survey ...
Pladys Patrick - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamic RT (QRS apex-end of T wave) rate dependence in newborns. STUDY DESIGN: A Digital Holter ECG was acquired on day 15 in nine full-term and eight preterm infants. Ten-minute periods were recorded during wakefulness and sleep. The accuracy of fit with RT-RR pairs was individually ...
Stone William L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In adults, RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (natural vitamin E) has approximately twice the biological activity of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E). Similar studies have not been done in term infants. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the vitamin E and antioxidant status of term infants fed formulas differing in the amount and form of vitamin ...
Wenzl Tobias G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Thickening of formula feedings is part of the therapeutic approach for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infants. However, its mechanism of action, especially regarding the occurrence of nonacid (pH >4) GER, has not yet been clearly described. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was to examine the influence ...
Cook-Sather Scott D - - 2003
Recommended preoperative fasting intervals for infant formula vary from 4 to 8 h. We conducted a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded trial of 97 ASA physical status I and II infants scheduled for elective surgery to determine whether average gastric fluid volume (GFV) recovered from infants formula-fasted for 4 h (liberalized fast, ...
Schmelzle Hansjörg - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional efficacy and bifidogenic characteristics of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed whey protein, modified vegetable oil with a high beta-palmitic acid content, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and starch. METHODS: In a double-blind study, healthy formula-fed term infants aged younger than ...
Bhat S S - - 2003
Soya infant formulas are essential for infants intolerant to cow's milk. Soya formulas contains glucose syrup or maltodextrins instead of Lactose, which has led to concern that they are potentially more cariogenic than standard infant formulas containing lactose. The study was conducted to compare the acidogenic effect of Soya Infant ...
von Berg Andrea - - 2003
The potential of extensively or partially hydrolyzed formulas to reduce the risks for allergies is controversial. We sought to assess the preventive effect of differently hydrolyzed formulas compared with cow's milk formula (CMF) in high-risk infants. Between 1995 and 1998, 2252 infants with a hereditary risk for atopy were enrolled ...
Ghisolfi Jacques - - 2003
Prebiotics have the potential to promote immediate and long-term effects on the health and well-being of infants. They have been added to infant formulas in Japan for 20 years and have only recently been used in Europe. The objective is to change the intestinal microflora in order to mimic the ...
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