Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1581
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Savino F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Colic, regurgitation and constipation are common feeding problems in formula-fed infants that might benefit from dietary treatment. A formula containing fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, partially hydrolysed proteins, low levels of lactose and palmitic acid in the beta position and higher density has been tested to reduce the occurrence of these ...
Boehm G - - 2003
In the neonatal period, the intestine is colonised in a stepwise process that depends on mode of delivery, environmental factors, bacterial interactions, and the host itself resulting in a colonisation with a complex heterogeneous bacterial flora. Oligosaccharides have been identified as an important prebiotic factor of human milk As long ...
Miniello V L - - 2003
In recent years it has become accepted that healthy human intestinal microflora may play an important part in priming the infants' systemic and mucosal immunity. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota is a topical area of nutritional sciences and the main focus of many current functional foods such as non-digestible ...
Auestad Nancy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in breast milk and recently added to infant formulas. Their importance in infant nutrition was recognized by the rapid accretion of these fatty acids in the brain during the first postnatal year, reports of enhanced intellectual ...
Moore Nancy - - 2003
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) may have potential benefits, since they exhibit many soluble dietary fibre-like properties. Foods currently available for weaning infants are generally low in fibre content and lack these potential benefits. Data documenting tolerance of FOS in weaning foods are greatly lacking. Our present objective was to evaluate the tolerance ...
Brück Wolfram M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Certain milk factors may help to promote the growth of a host-friendly colonic microflora (e.g. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli) and explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer and milder intestinal infections than those who are formula-fed. The effects of supplementation of formula with two such milk factors was investigated in this study. ...
Miniello V L - - 2003
Phyto-oestrogens are non-steroidal plant-derived compounds that possess oestrogenic activity and act as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Among the dietary oestrogens, the isoflavone class enjoy a wide-spread distribution in most of the members of the Leguminosae family, including such prominent high-content representatives as soybean. Phyto-oestrogen research has grown rapidly in ...
Lidestri M - - 2003
Among other components of human milk, oligosaccharides might contribute to the high efficiency of calcium absorption of breastfed infants. In adults, it can be shown that dietary oligosaccharides can improve calcium absorption. The present analysis was performed to evaluate a possible influence of dietary oligosaccharides on parameters of calcium metabolism ...
Fang Jiasong - - 2003
Phospholipid FA (PLFA) profiles were determined on four piezophilic bacteria from the deep sea: Moritella japonica DSK1, Shewanella violacea DSS12, S. benthica DB6705, and S. benthica DB21MT-2. The total concentrations of PLFA were higher in strains grown at low pressure (DSK1, 10 MPa, 27.0 mg/g dry wt cells; DSS12, 50 ...
Bouwstra Hylco - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Whether long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) play a role in the development of the young nervous system in term infants is debated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether supplementation of formula with LCPs for 2 mo improves the quality of general movements (GMs) in healthy term infants at 3 mo of ...
Hernell Olle - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Protein hydrolysate formulas are used for infants with food allergy. Most studies of such formulas focus on their effect on allergy and rarely evaluate their capacity to provide normal nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We compared plasma aminograms, serum urea nitrogen, and trace element status in breastfed infants, infants fed hydrolysate ...
Tuohy P G - - 2003
Soy infant formula contains high levels of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, which are commonly referred to as phytoestrogens. These are non-steroidal chemicals with structural similarities to estrogen. Infants consuming soy formula have high levels of circulating isoflavones. These are an order of magnitude greater than the levels of isoflavones ...
Chowanadisai Winyoo - - 2003
Human milk contains several biologically active proteins that benefit the breast-fed infant. In order to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, these proteins need to be protected against proteolysis. Since human milk contains relatively high concentrations of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), we have expressed recombinant AAT in rice to explore the possibility of ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2003
To evaluate a pre-thickened formula (Enfamil AR) for regurgitant gastroesophageal reflux, 104 infants were enrolled in a 5-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group trial. The Enfamil AR group showed greater symptom reduction by the end of the first week: percent feedings with any regurgitation (p = 0.045), total regurgitation ...
Stenhouse Elizabeth - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: to compare expected date of delivery (EDD) and gestational age (GA) obtained by midwives with those calculated using the Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Death in Infancy (CESDI) recommended formula. DESIGN: retrospective study of obstetric records and prospective study of clinical cases examined by multiple midwives. SETTING: postnatal wards, ...
Picaud J C - - 2003
In very immature babies, nutrition often begined with human milk, but a lot of mothers have a difficulty in lactating and banked human milk is not always available. Therefore, preterm formulas have been specifically designed for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during hospitalisation stay. They differ significantly from standard ...
Carver Jane D - - 2003
Modifications to infant formulas are continually being made as the components of human milk are characterized and as the nutrient needs of diverse groups of infants are identified. Formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added in amounts similar to those in human milk have recently become available in the United ...
Baker R - - 2003
Formula is a substitute for the preferred nutritional fluid for infants, human milk. Considering that human milk is uniquely suited for human infants, formula feeds have done remarkably well in promoting growth and development of bottle-fed and partially breast-fed infants. Early in the last century, the horrendously high infant mortality ...
Agostoni C - - 2003
Infant formulas on the market today should be aimed at providing the best alternative to breast milk for infants of those women who are unable to continue breastfeeding until 6 months of age and substituting ideally for human milk after 6 months of age approaching the structural and functional effects ...
Hoffman Dennis R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Breast-fed infants receive docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in their diet. Upon weaning, infants lose this dietary source of long-chain polyunsaturates because many commercial formulas do not contain these important constituents for neural membrane biogenesis. We evaluated the benefits of postweaning dietary supplementation of DHA + ARA ...
Tawfeek Haifa Ibrahim - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of using oral bovine hyperimmune immunoglobulin concentrate with high-titer antibodies against Escherichia coli in preventing diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic E. coli. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled field trial conducted at the Al-Sheikh Omer Maternal and Child Health Center in Baghdad, Iraq ...
Rodriguez A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if supplementation of preterm infant formula with a high docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio together with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was able to maintain plasma and red blood cell DHA levels similar to that obtained with breast milk feeding without altering n-6 fatty acid status. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: ...
El-Arab Aly Ezz - - 2003
The selenium (Se) content of 11 infant formulas had been determined using electrothermal and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The Se content ranged between 0.43 and 17.17 microg/100 g powder infant formulas with wide variations reaching 40.36-fold excess between the poorest RIRI-1 (0.43 microg/100 g) and Milupa-2 (17.2 microg/100 g ...
Kelleher Shannon L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Advances in dairy technology make it possible to enrich infant formula with specific bovine milk components that may enhance nutrient status. Glycomacropeptide, a carbohydrate-rich casein peptide, may increase absorption of calcium, iron, or zinc. alpha-Lactalbumin, a major breast-milk protein, may contribute to a balanced amino acid pattern and increase ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Palm and palm olein (PO) oils are used in some infant formula fat blends to match the fatty acid profile of human milk, but their presence has been shown to lower calcium and fat absorption. We aimed to determine if the reported differences in calcium absorption could affect skeletal ...
Harvey Mudd S - - 2003
Studies were carried out to identify the cause of combined severe hypermethioninemia and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in a cluster of 10 infants ascertained between 1999 and early 2001. Although several were thought initially to have cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency and treated accordingly, CBS deficiency and other known genetic causes of hypermethioninemia ...
D'Auria E - - 2003
This study was designed to assess whether a rice-hydrolysate formula allows normal growth and adequate metabolic balance in infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Infants (seven females, nine males; aged 6-14 months) were randomly assigned to receive a rice-hydrolysate formula (n = 8) or a soy formula (control group, n ...
Lombaert G A - - 2003
Three hundred and sixty-three samples of cereal-based infant foods were collected from the Canadian retail marketplace over 3 years. The samples included oat-, barley-, soy-, and rice-based infant cereals, mixed-grain infant cereals, teething biscuits, creamed corn, and soy-based formulas. Samples were analysed for targeted mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, ...
Navarro-Blasco I - - 2003
Levels of aluminium in 82 different infant formulae from nine different manufacturers in Spain were determined by acid-microwave digestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of aluminium content in tap water in reconstituted powder formulae was examined and an estimate was made of the theoretical toxic aluminium intake ...
Aggett Peter - - 2003
Nucleotides play a significant role in many physiologic functions, ranging from the encoding of genetic information to signal transduction. Accumulating evidence from recent animal and clinical studies supports the original notion that nucleotides are semi-essential dietary nutrients. The development of a new technique, total potentially available nucleosides, to accurately quantify ...
Heavey Patricia M - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of age and diet (breast milk, formula milk and weaning diet) on metabolic activities in faecal samples from infants aged 1 week to 1 year, and to compare these findings with activities found in samples from adults. Such activities ...
Lyn Jennifer A - - 2003
The Optimised Uncertainty (OU) methodology has been developed to optimise multi-analyte situations. It has then been applied to a retail survey of infant food for trace elements, classifying the food as compliant or non-compliant with the regulatory thresholds or specification limits that are appropriate for each element. The large-scale survey ...
Pladys Patrick - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamic RT (QRS apex-end of T wave) rate dependence in newborns. STUDY DESIGN: A Digital Holter ECG was acquired on day 15 in nine full-term and eight preterm infants. Ten-minute periods were recorded during wakefulness and sleep. The accuracy of fit with RT-RR pairs was individually ...
Stone William L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In adults, RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (natural vitamin E) has approximately twice the biological activity of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E). Similar studies have not been done in term infants. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the vitamin E and antioxidant status of term infants fed formulas differing in the amount and form of vitamin ...
Wenzl Tobias G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Thickening of formula feedings is part of the therapeutic approach for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infants. However, its mechanism of action, especially regarding the occurrence of nonacid (pH >4) GER, has not yet been clearly described. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was to examine the influence ...
Cook-Sather Scott D - - 2003
Recommended preoperative fasting intervals for infant formula vary from 4 to 8 h. We conducted a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded trial of 97 ASA physical status I and II infants scheduled for elective surgery to determine whether average gastric fluid volume (GFV) recovered from infants formula-fasted for 4 h (liberalized fast, ...
Schmelzle Hansjörg - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional efficacy and bifidogenic characteristics of a new infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed whey protein, modified vegetable oil with a high beta-palmitic acid content, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and starch. METHODS: In a double-blind study, healthy formula-fed term infants aged younger than ...
Bhat S S - - 2003
Soya infant formulas are essential for infants intolerant to cow's milk. Soya formulas contains glucose syrup or maltodextrins instead of Lactose, which has led to concern that they are potentially more cariogenic than standard infant formulas containing lactose. The study was conducted to compare the acidogenic effect of Soya Infant ...
von Berg Andrea - - 2003
The potential of extensively or partially hydrolyzed formulas to reduce the risks for allergies is controversial. We sought to assess the preventive effect of differently hydrolyzed formulas compared with cow's milk formula (CMF) in high-risk infants. Between 1995 and 1998, 2252 infants with a hereditary risk for atopy were enrolled ...
Ghisolfi Jacques - - 2003
Prebiotics have the potential to promote immediate and long-term effects on the health and well-being of infants. They have been added to infant formulas in Japan for 20 years and have only recently been used in Europe. The objective is to change the intestinal microflora in order to mimic the ...
- - 2003
Breast feeding should be strongly encouraged as providing the safest, most nutritionally adequate form of feeding for most infants. Dietitians should discourage the use of soya protein in children with atopy or cow's milk allergy in the first six months of life to avoid sensitisation to soya protein and exposure ...
Udell T - - 2003
Background - Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the main structural lipid in the human brain and can be derived endogenously from alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). Several studies have attempted to improve blood DHA concentrations of formula-fed infants by increasing the amount of ALA in formula while measuring changes to infant ...
Dean Jeffrey A - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a small rinse of water in an infant's mouth immediately following formula consumption would significantly improve oral glucose clearance. Though statistically significant results were not obtained at all time intervals, this study lends validity to the hypothesis that a ...
Shalaby Theresa M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a specific protocol of conservative therapy for infant gastroesophageal reflux. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of the response to telephone teaching of conservative therapy by a single instructor as part of the screening process for a pharmacotherapy study of infantile reflux. Feeding modifications included the ...
Yau Kuo-Inn Tsou - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an infant formula fortified with nucleotides (NF) with those of a control formula (CF) on the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and immune responses in healthy term infants. METHODS: This 12-month, double-blind study was conducted on ...
LaCroix Denis E - - 2003
Commercially available simple benchtop systems using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) eliminate expensive organic solvent disposal problems and offer potential to meet a demand for rapid, accurate high-volume gravimetric determinations of total fat content of infant formula powders. A Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) approach was used to evaluate the performance ...
Vivatvakin Boosba - - 2003
Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) ...
Wang B - - 2003
Background - Gangliosides are hybrid molecules composed of a hydrophilic sialyl oligosaccharide and a hydrophobic ceramide portion, which consists of sphingosine and fatty acids (FA). In animal studies, sialic acid (SA) supplementation is associated with increases in brain gangliosides and learning ability. Supplementation of docosahexanenoic acid (DHA) and archidonic acid ...
Brück W M - - 2003
AIMS: Certain milk factors may promote the growth of a gastrointestinal microflora predominated by bifidobacteria and may aid in overcoming enteric infections. This may explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer intestinal infections than their formula-fed counterparts. The effect of formula supplementation with two such factors was investigated in this study. ...
Swadling Claire - - 2003
To determine the effectiveness of modified cow's milk formulas on the symptoms of infant colic, a mini-review (Griffiths, 2002) of double-blind randomized controlled trials was undertaken. The population was infants diagnosed with colic and the outcome was a reduction in infant distress. Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were ...
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