Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1589
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Xu Haibo - - 2005
During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4. However, human milk is known to contain higher concentrations of environmental pollutants than infant formula, which are potent CYP1A ...
De Schepper Jean - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Prematurely born infants, especially those with very low birth weight (<1500 g) are at risk for metabolic bone disease. OBJECTIVES: The influence of the type of oral feeding regimen and of other potential determinants of whole bone mineral content in prematurely born infants, when they approached full gestation, were ...
Poggio Emilio D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in severely ill inpatients is clinically important for therapeutic interventions and prognosis, but notoriously difficult to do accurately. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula are widely used to estimate renal function in sick hospitalized patients; however, neither ...
Navarro-Blasco I - - 2005
Lead concentrations in 82 different types of infant formulae (cow's milk and soy based) marked in Spain were analysed by acid-microwave decomposition and anodic stripping voltammetry. Dietary lead intake from infant formula and tap water used for powder formula reconstitution were estimated in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake ...
Parimi Prabhu S - - 2005
Threonine kinetics, threonine oxidative pathway, and the relationship between threonine and whole body protein turnover were quantified in 10 healthy term infants during the first 48 h after birth. The kinetic data were obtained 6 h after the last feed (fasting) and in response to formula feeding, using [U-(13)C(4),(15)N]threonine, [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine, ...
Seppo Leena - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Infants with cow milk allergy (CMA) are reported to have reduced growth and special nutritional needs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient intake, nutritional status, and growth in infants with CMA who were fed either a soy formula or an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula. ...
Young Rosemary J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the type of feeding during the first 4 months of life affects bone mineral density at 4 years of age. METHODS: Healthy 4-year-old children were recruited from the offices of primary health care providers. After confirming the type of infant ...
Bjornvad Charlotte Reinhard - - 2005
Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to small intestinal dysfunction, which may lead to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In piglets, we tested whether the physiological and environmental transitions occurring at birth affect the response of the immature intestine to enteral feeding. Pig fetuses (106 days gestation, term = 115 days) were ...
Gibson Robert A - - 2005
There have been conflicting reports regarding the effectiveness of dietary nucleotides (NT) to regulate tissue desaturases and hence stimulate accumulation of both n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NT-supplemented cow's milk-based formula on erythrocyte phospholipid FA status ...
Veledo María Teresa - - 2005
Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (betaLG) has been described by several authors as the main allergen present in cow's milk. It can induce allergic reactions even at the low concentration existing in hypoallergenic formulas based on hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins (generally lower than microM). In this paper, the usefulness of a capillary electrophoresis ...
Miquel Esther - - 2005
Adapted, follow-up, probiotic follow-up, toddler, and probiotic toddler infant formulas were subjected to an in vitro enzymatic procedure simulating physiological digestion. The formation and identification of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) in the milk-based infant formulas were studied using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled on line to an ion trap mass ...
Sesmero María-Angeles - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in newborns and first-semester infants and to assess the influence of diverse methodologic and biological factors on BIS measurements. METHODS: We studied 69 infants of both sexes, from the first day after ...
Makrides Maria - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adequate growth is an important indicator of health and well-being in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effect of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on the growth of term infants. DESIGN: Using the methodology outlined by the Cochrane Collaboration, we reviewed all known ...
Corrêa Naflesia B O - - 2005
GOALS: This clinical trial was carried out to determine whether oral treatment with a commercial probiotic formula containing Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus would reduce the frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in infants. STUDY: In this double-bind formula controlled study, 80 infants, 6 to 36 months of age, were randomly ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2005
The possible long-term effects of prolonged breastfeeding in preventing obesity have led to the reconsideration of different growth curves of breastfed and formula-fed infants in the light of haematochemical markers. Leptin, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factors and other compounds may not only represent mediators involved in the metabolism of fat tissues, ...
Haarman Monique - - 2005
A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate ...
Veereman-Wauters Gigi - - 2005
The rationale for supplementing an infant formula with prebiotics is to obtain a bifidogenic effect and the implied advantages of a 'breast-fed-like' flora. So far, the bifidogenic effect of oligofructose and inulin has been demonstrated in animals and in adults, of oligofructose in infants and toddlers and of a long-chain ...
Clandinin M Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and benefits of feeding preterm infants formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) until 92 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), with follow-up to 118 weeks PMA. STUDY DESIGN: This double-blinded study of 361 preterm infants randomized across three formula groups: (1) control, no supplementation; (2) ...
Bacaër Nicolas - - 2005
In some forests of Niger where 'controlled rural markets' have been organized, fuelwood is harvested following a policy of the form: every T year, cut the dead trees and those live trees which have a diameter greater than D. Dead trees generally form the main part of the harvest. In ...
Birch Eileen E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Several studies found a benefit of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supplementation for visual or mental development, but others found no benefit. Likely contributors to differences among studies are the amount of LCP supplementation, functional outcomes, and sample size. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated LCP supplementation in amounts typical for human ...
Petridou Eleni - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors of circulating leptin in healthy full-term newborns and to explore the relationship with anthropometric variables, serum levels of adiponectin and the major components of the IGF system at birth. To explore whether leptin levels are regulated by breastfeeding vs. formula feeding. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: ...
Vlková E - - 2005
An enzyme-based assay was developed for the detection of bifidobacteria in infant faeces. Ninety-five samples from 51 breast-fed infants in the age between 3 and 276 days were investigated. Bifidobacteria and other bacterial groups were determined by cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Faecal samples were examined for the ...
Groh-Wargo Sharon - - 2005
The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and body composition of premature infants who were fed formulas with arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) to 1 y of gestation-corrected age (CA). Preterm infants (750-1800 g birth weight and <33 wk gestational age) were assigned within ...
Fattal-Valevski Aviva - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Between October and November 2003, several infants with encephalopathy were hospitalized in pediatric intensive care units in Israel. Two died of cardiomyopathy. Analysis of the accumulated data showed that all had been fed the same brand of soy-based formula (Remedia Super Soya 1), specifically manufactured for the Israeli market. ...
Euler Arthur R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Human milk components, including oligosaccharides, affect the gastrointestinal flora of infants. Previous studies in adults have demonstrated that fructo-oligosaccharides increase potentially beneficial fecal bacteria, including bifidobacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the prebiotic effect of infant formula supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides. METHODS: Healthy term infants 2 to ...
Penders John - - 2005
To determine the influence of either exclusive breast-feeding or formula feeding on both composition and quantity of the gut microbiota in infants, we have developed real-time, quantitative PCR assays for the detection of Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium difficile. Furthermore, we have monitored the prevalence and counts of Escherichia coli by ...
Weizman Zvi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of 2 different species of probiotics in preventing infections in infants attending child care centers. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted from December 1, 2000, to September 30, 2002, at 14 child care centers in the Beer-Sheva area of Israel in healthy term ...
Maggio L - - 2005
AIM: Protein hydrolysates have been introduced in preterm formulae, but it is not clear whether they are needed for the feeding of preterm infants. We designed a randomized, controlled trial to test the effects of a preterm formula with hydrolysed cow's milk proteins on short-term growth and urinary and plasma ...
Udell Tuesday - - 2005
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of modifying 18-carbon PUFA [18-C PUFA: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6)] in the diets of term and preterm infants on DHA (22:6n-3) status, growth, and developmental outcomes. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving formula-fed term and ...
Forsythe Stephen J - - 2005
Recently there has been considerable concern related to the presence of bacteria, in particular Enterobacter sakazakii, in powdered infant formula milk. This paper considers the bacteria in these products at point of sale, with reference to current microbiological testing and the need for good hygienic practice in their subsequent preparation ...
Richards G M - - 2005
AIMS: To determine survival and growth characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal as affected by type of liquid used for reconstitution and storage temperature after reconstitution. METHODS AND RESULTS: A commercially manufactured dry infant rice cereal was reconstituted with water, apple juice, milk, or liquid infant formula, inoculated ...
Xinias I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Infant regurgitation is a phenomenon causing worldwide parental distress and anxiety. Parental reassurance and dietary advices regarding feeding techniques and volumes are helpful in the management. Guidelines also recommend the use of thickened formula. However, the impact of thickened feeding on the frequency of acid reflux is still a ...
Hadders-Algra Mijna - - 2005
It is debatable whether supplementation of infant formula with LCPUFA has an effect on infant growth and development. Up till now, there is little evidence of a negative effect on infant growth. A review of randomized controlled trials in term infants revealed that LCPUFA, in particularly supplementation with > or ...
Knol Jan - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is generally dominated by Bifidobacteria. We aimed to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides (GOS/FOS) is able to establish a bifido-dominant microflora, not only in numbers but also with respect to the metabolic activity in the colon. METHODS: Two ...
Fleith M - - 2005
Human milk contains n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), which are absent from many infant formulas. During neonatal life, there is a rapid accretion of AA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in infant brain, DHA in retina and of AA in the whole body. The DHA ...
Kullen M J - - 2005
A number of studies involving the feeding of probiotics and prebiotics to infants have been published over the last decade. These studies have examined a wide range of health outcomes, including growth and safety, prophylaxis and alleviation of diarrheal disease, reduction in atopic disease, reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduction ...
Przyrembel Hildegard - - 2005
Requirements for the safety and nutritional adequacy of infant formula are set by legislation and aim for the best possible substitute for human milk with regard to growth, development and biological effects. This is, however, a continuous process and has to be supported by science-driven innovative activities of manufacturers and ...
Seo K H - - 2005
Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of invasive infection with high mortality rates in neonates. Powdered milk-based infant formulas have been associated with the E. sakazakii-related outbreaks in premature or other immunocompromised infants. In this study, an assay was developed for the specific detection of E. sakazakii in infant formula ...
Rinne Minna M - - 2005
The aim of the study was to assess the quantitative and qualitative differences of the gut microbiota in infants. We evaluated gut microbiota at the age of 6 months in 32 infants who were either exclusively breast-fed, formula-fed, nursed by a formula supplemented with prebiotics (a mixture of fructo- and ...
Heird William C - - 2005
The presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human milk but not in infant formula, coupled with lower plasma and brain lipid contents of DHA in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants and reports of higher IQ in individuals who were breast-fed versus formula-fed as infants, suggest that ...
Henderson G - - 2005
Preterm and low birth weight infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants post-hospital discharge with calorie and protein-enriched formula milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To review the evidence from randomised controlled trials that feeding following hospital discharge with calorie and protein-enriched formula compared with standard ...
Bauerly Kathryn A - - 2005
Infants are exposed to variable copper (Cu) intake; Cu in breast milk is low, whereas infant formulas vary in Cu content as well as the water used for their preparation. Little is known about the regulation of Cu absorption during infancy. The objectives of this study were to determine effects ...
Chen An-Chian - - 2005
Currently 15% of U.S. infants are fed soy formulas that contain up to 14 mg of genistein equivalents/L. Our goal was to investigate the impact of dietary genistein on intestinal development. Piglets (n=8/group) were fed sow milk replacer (MR), MR+1 mg/L of genistein (LG), or MR+14 mg/L of genistein (HG) ...
Eshach Adiv Orly - - 2004
Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value ...
Pillo-Blocka Francy - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of rapid advancement to more concentrated formula on weight gain and duration of hospitalization for infants after cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a double-blinded, randomized trial of rapid advancement to higher achieved formula concentration for postoperative infants younger than 1 year of age. After ...
Lapillonne Alexandre - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Because recent data on the effects of mineral concentrations in preterm infant formula on bone mineralization are lacking, recommendations for the mineral content of preterm infant formula differ greatly between committees. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to assess the effects of an isocaloric, nutrient-enriched preterm formula, which ...
Nair Manoj Kumar Mohan - - 2004
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen that causes meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and children, with a mortality rate of 14%. Epidemiological studies have implicated dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. Caprylic acid is a natural eight-carbon fatty acid present in breast milk ...
Schild R L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new formula for estimating weight in the fetus of < or = 1600 g. METHODS: A formula for sonographic estimation of fetal weight was produced retrospectively from 84 singleton fetuses with a birth weight of < or = 1600 g, examined sonographically within 1 ...
Rader Jeanne I - - 2004
AOAC Official Method 999.14 is applicable for the determination of choline in milk and infant formulas. To date, its use has not been extended beyond these matrixes. We modified Official Method 999.14 and applied it to the determination of choline in a range of choline-containing dietary supplements. Dietary supplement tablets, ...
Nagy Eva S - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) usually results from the surgical removal of a large segment of small intestine. Patient outcome depends on the extent of intestinal resection and adaptation of the remaining intestine. We evaluated the impact of colostrum protein concentrate (CPC) on intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection ...
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