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Results 401 - 450 of 669
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Morrow H W - - 1994
To examine differences in perinatal health among nine Asian ethnic subgroups, a descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using linked birth/infant death certificates for 1982 to 1987. When compared with Whites, Asians had a lower proportion of young mothers, unmarried mothers, and women who received first trimester prenatal care; a higher ...
Verrier M - - 1994
Neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality rates were determined in Texas' triethnic populations from 1984 through 1986 with relation to gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, parity, and prenatal care. All mortality rates were increased in the black population. Preterm birth and low birth weight were both strong predictors of mortality. ...
Mushinski M - - 1994
Since the early 1970s, the number and rate of multiple births have increased fairly steadily. Of the 4,110,907 babies born in the United States in 1991, 98,125 (2.4 percent) were twins, triplets or other higher order plural births. The 1991 rate of 23.9 multiple births per 1,000 live births--the highest ...
Parker J D - - 1994
We compared associations between five indicators of socioeconomic status (maternal education, paternal education, maternal occupation, paternal occupation, family income) and three reproductive outcomes (low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm delivery) in a representative sample of US births. We used data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health ...
Robillard P Y - - 1994
Debate has developed among several authors about possible accelerated maturation of black fetuses in comparison with whites. In Guadeloupe, French West Indies, where 85% of the population is of black African-American origin, it has been noted that the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) represents a significant drop beginning after ...
Sung J F - - 1994
Black infant mortality rates (IMRs) are approximately twice those of whites in Georgia and nationwide. This study evaluates maternal factors, particularly marital status, that influence racial differences in infant mortality. Population-based data on 565,730 live births and 7269 infant deaths in Georgia from 1980 to 1985 were examined. The IMR ...
Duffy M S - - 1994
Between May 1989 and October 1991, 544 black bears Ursus americanus were collected in New Brunswick and examined for Trichinella spiralis larvae. In addition, 110 of these bears were examined for filarial nematodes, and the entire intestinal tracts of 12 bears were examined for intestinal helminths. Four species of helminths ...
- - 1994
A national health objective for the year 2000 is to reduce low birthweight (LBW) (< 2500 g [< 5 lbs, 8 oz]) to an incidence of no more than 5% of live-born infants (50.0 per 1000) (objective 14.5). During 1970-1985, the incidence of LBW in the United States declined steadily ...
Burd L - - 1994
A cross-sectional prevalence study was done in four primary care clinics (two rural and two urban sites) and four Native American clinics serving members of the Chippewa, Sioux, Hidasta, Arikara, and Mandan tribes, all in North Dakota, to determine the prevalence of prone, supine, and side sleeping position in white ...
Kron M A - - 1994
Indigenous Indian groups comprise approximately 20% of Ecuador's population, the third largest percentage in all of Central or South America, yet immunogenetic data on these groups are lacking in the literature. In the course of population migration studies, sera collected from 65 Ecuadorians living in the northern province of Esmeraldas ...
- - 1994
National health objectives for the year 2000 include reducing the overall infant mortality rate (i.e., deaths at age < 1 year per 1000 live births) to no more than 7.0 per 1000 live births (objective 14.1) and the infant mortality rate for blacks to no more than 11.0 (objective 14.1a). ...
Neggers Y - - 1994
A prospective study was conducted in a sample of 1491 multiparous women to ascertain whether the relationship between maternal tricep skinfold thickness and infant birthweight is modified by smoking status and whether the relationship is different in white and black infants. Maternal tricep skinfold thickness measured at midpregnancy was a ...
Grossman D C - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To use vital statistics and communicable disease reports to characterize the health status of an urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population and compare it with urban whites and African Americans and with AI/ANs living on or near rural reservations. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of routinely reported data. SETTING: ...
Michielutte R - - 1994
This study examines the associations between race, birth weight, and mortality from endogenous causes for all singleton births born in 1984-1987 in a 20-county region of North Carolina. A more detailed analysis of preterm low birth weight infants examines these associations according to the proximate medical causes (medical etiology) of ...
Lyon A J - - 1994
The outcome of 11046 infants, from 20 weeks' gestation, born to mothers of different ethnic origins within one London borough has been analysed. There was no difference in perinatal death rates between the Asian and white infants. Among those with mothers from Africa and the West Indies there were overall ...
Ahn N - - 1994
Estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1987) indicate that differences in high school completion rates between women who have a teenage birth and those who do not are affected by the birth itself, family background characteristics and individual heterogeneity. Merely having a teenage birth leads to a 50% ...
Berg C J - - 1994
Very low birthweight (VLBW) is a commonly used endpoint in perinatal epidemiology, but the population of VLBW infants comprises a wide range of gestational ages and rates of fetal growth. We used data from a population-based study of all 1072 black and white VLBW liveborn infants born in 29 counties ...
Stocks J - - 1994
Race is recognized as an important determinant of lung function in children and adults, but limited data exist for infants. Accurate interpretation of lung function tests during the neonatal period may depend on appropriate values for predicting normality. The aim of this study was to compare tidal breathing parameters, Hering-Breuer ...
Cooper P A PA Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, - - 1994
Previous studies in South Africa and elsewhere have suggested that there are ethnic differences in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD). This study compared the prevalence of HMD between black and white infants with birth weights of 1,000-1,749 g. A cohort of black and one of white low-birth-weight infants ...
Wegman M E - - 1993
A new low in the infant mortality rate was reached in 1992, at 848.7 deaths per 100,000 live births, a decline of 5% from 894.4 in 1991. Birth, death, and marriage rates were also lower, but the divorce rate inched up to 4.8 per 1000 population, the same level as ...
O'Campo P - - 1993
Needs assessments are essential for policy formulation and the appropriate design of intervention programs. Recent nationwide data show that among large metropolitan areas of the United States, Baltimore has one of the highest infant mortality rates and ranks in the worst top 10 for blacks and the top 5 for ...
Neuspiel D R - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: Maternal cocaine use is a leading grounds for newborn foster placement. This study was initiated to investigate the factors that predict custody status of infants born to substance-abusing women. METHODS: A retrospective cohort design was used to study the correlates of discharge custody decisions for 99 consecutive infants testing ...
Alexander G R - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: We examined the pregnancy outcomes of three ethnic groups: African-American Blacks, non-Hispanic Whites, and Filipinos. In an attempt to reduce ethnic dissimilarities in parental employment and access to health care, this investigation compared the single-live-birth outcomes of married, adult women who resided in the state of Hawaii and who ...
Eschbach K - - 1993
The census-enumerated American Indian population dispersed rapidly between 1930 and 1990. Changes in ethnic classification account for most of the change. In the 1980 count, 10 states with historically large Indian populations account for 53% of births of Indians between the ages of 10 and 80, compared with 72% of ...
Mittendorf R - - 1993
We suggest an explanation for a pediatric paradox: the low-birthweight-specific (LBW) neonatal mortality rate (NMR) for black infants is less than the NMR for white infants, even though the overall NMR for black infants is about twice the overall NMR for white infants. Analyzing the Delivery Interview Program data set--a ...
Alo C J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To describe birth-weight-specific differences in mortality risks between white and black Illinois infants by age at death and leading cause of death. DESIGN: Population-based birth cohort study. SETTING: State of Illinois. PATIENTS: All Illinois infants who were born from 1980 through 1989 and reported to the Illinois Department of ...
Collins J W JW - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of infant race as a determinant of the Black-White disparity in low birthweight (< 2500 g). METHODS: Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed on Illinois vital records from 1982 and 1983 and on 1980 United States census ...
Mor J M - - 1993
Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States ...
Reynoso T C - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to determine whether pregnant Mexican-American teenagers who are acculturated to American lifestyles have different medical and psychosocial problems from those who are more recent immigrants. Consecutive pregnant Mexican-American (or Mexican) teenagers attending a university obstetrics clinic for teenagers were divided into two groups based ...
- - 1993
Childbearing patterns in the United States reflect marked increases in and variation among different racial/ethnic groups. Groups with high rates of teenage childbearing traditionally have elevated risks for low birthweight (LBW [< 2500 g (5 lb 8 oz)]) and other poor birth outcomes associated with serious infant morbidity, permanent disability, ...
Cohen B B - - 1993
National data reveal that low birth weight and infant mortality rates among Hispanics are, in general, between the rates for whites and those for blacks. The question remains, do differences in low birth weight reflect distributions of known risk factors, or do ethnic differences persist after simultaneously adjusting for intervening ...
James S A - - 1993
Recent studies on differences in infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW) among non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, and Mexican Americans were reviewed. Despite similar socioeconomic profiles, infant mortality among Mexican Americans (8/1000 live births) is less than half that of African Americans (18/1000 live births). In fact, the rate for ...
Greenberg D N - - 1993
Previous studies suggest that low birth weight black infants have less morbidity and birth-weight-specific mortality during the perinatal period than low birth weight white infants. We studied the effect of maternal race on outcome in preterm infants born at a military hospital that offers free access to obstetric and neonatal ...
Davis R O - - 1993
Biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were compared by race and sex in 5,405 ultrasound examinations done on 2,831 women. Black fetuses had significantly longer FL than white fetuses; male fetuses had larger BPD, HC and AC than females. The differences in BPD, ...
Rutkow I M - - 1993
In 1985, Wilhelm Roentgen of Germany discovered "x-rays." His findings were so startling and the expectations for x-rays were of such inestimable value that, within just a few weeks, an English language translation of his paper was published verbatim in the United States. It was immediately apparent that the usefulness ...
Hulsey T C - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between maternal ethnicity and maternal antepartum complications of pregnancy, maternal sociodemographic factors, and newborn characteristics with the incidence of hyaline membrane disease. STUDY DESIGN: By using a retrospective cohort analysis the incidence of hyaline membrane disease was determined for 2295 preterm infants. ...
Geronimus A T - - 1993
The health disadvantages of infants with teenage mothers are well documented. Because poor and minority women are disproportionately represented among teen mothers, differences in infant health by maternal age may reflect family background (pre-childbearing) characteristics rather than the effects of maternal age. To control for differences in family background, the ...
Iida K - - 1993
The distribution of leukomalacia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive glial cells in prenatal- and postnatal-onset leukomalacia were compared and diagnosed histologically in 128 autopsied infants and the different pathogeneses were examined. Prenatal-onset leukomalacia was diagnosed in 12 of 71 still-births and neonates surviving less than 3 days (16.9%). All ...
Laveist T A - - 1993
Cities in the United States have undergone major social transitions during the past two decades. Three notable factors in these shifts have been the development of a black political elite sustained rates of black poverty, and intensified racial segregation. Indications of the effect of these social forces on black-white differentials ...
Waller P L - - 1993
Washington State birth certificate data for the years 1984-1988 were analyzed for 2,804 mothers of twins in order to determine whether black mothers of twins have a higher risk of delivering a low birthweight twin infant than white mothers. Seventy four percent of black mothers of twins gave birth to ...
Friedman D J - - 1993
This paper examines the association of ethnicity and birthweight, adjusted for other maternal and infant characteristics, among black women who gave birth in Massachusetts from 1987 through 1989. Data are drawn from the standard certificate of live birth, which includes questions on race and ethnicity/ancestry as well as birthweight; maternal ...
Sung J F - - 1993
Although unmarried mothers are at risk of delivering low-birthweight (LBW) infants, the meaning and significance of this variable need to be explored in depth. With data on 216,285 infants born to white and black mothers aged 10 to 49 years in Atlanta, Georgia, between 1980 and 1987, we examined the ...
Hogue C J - - 1993
As a result of Sweden's efforts to eliminate poverty and to provide comprehensive health care, there are only small social class differences in infant mortality. The wider social differences in US infant mortality are a consequence of less consistent and thorough attempts at social equity and universal health care. US ...
Kempe A - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Although the risk of very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) is more than twice as high among blacks as among whites in the United States, the clinical conditions associated with this disparity remain poorly explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of over 98 percent ...
Zhang J - - 1992
The differences in preterm birth between blacks and whites are poorly understood. Our study examined subtypes of moderately preterm delivery (34-36 completed weeks of gestation) and very preterm delivery (20-33 weeks) in blacks and whites using North Carolina birth certificate data for 1988-1989. We divided the causes of preterm birth ...
Iyasu S - - 1992
In recent years, the rate of decline for the black infant mortality risk (IMR) has been slower than that for whites. The resultant widening in the black-white infant mortality gap has been accompanied by an increased percentage of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (227 g-1,499 g) among black live births. ...
Gates-Williams J - - 1992
African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to ...
Buck G M - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to describe the neonatal characteristics of Native American (Indian) infants and the antenatal characteristics of their mothers as compared with white, black, and other race infants. The study population comprised 979,444 live births to upstate New York (exclusive of New York City) resident mothers ...
McGrady G A - - 1992
Reproductive outcomes were investigated in black and white female college graduates, presumed to be of similar socioeconomic status and similar risk profile with respect to environmental factors. Data were gathered by mail survey from graduates (1973-1985) of four Atlanta, Georgia, colleges between February and June 1988. Of 6,867 alumnae to ...
Kiely J L - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in rates of higher-order multiple births (triplets and higher) between 1972 and 1989, to compare infant mortality rates in infants of higher-order multiple births and singletons born from 1983 through 1985, and to compare infant mortality rates among higher-order multiples born from 1983 through 1985 with ...
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