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Results 351 - 400 of 668
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Benn P A - - 1997
Second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) are routinely measured in screening fetuses at high risk for Down syndrome or open neural tube defects (ONTD). For test interpretation, individual patient values of these three analytes are related to population-derived median values. We evaluated data ...
Bishop J - - 1997
The prevalence of Down syndrome was studied among all live births occurring between 1989 and 1991 in the California counties monitored by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Objectives of this study were: 1) to calculate adjusted prevalence rates and quinquennial maternal age-specific risk rates of Down syndrome after adjusting ...
Kallan J E - - 1997
This study examines the net effects of the interpregnancy interval (time period from one birth to the next pregnancy) on the risks of preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and infant mortality, for blacks and whites separately, using data from 1991 U.S. Linked Birth-Infant Death files. Results show that short (less ...
Hsieh H L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of changes in birth weight distribution in individual groups and in birth weight-specific fetal death rates on the decline in the crude fetal death rate in the United States. METHODS: Data on live births and fetal deaths in the U.S. for the period 1979-1990 were ...
Fang J - - 1997
To determine the mortality experience of Hispanic residents of New York City and the influence of birthplace on their mortality rates, NYC Department of Health mortality records for 1988 to 1992 were linked for analysis with 1990 United States census data for New York City. Age-specific death rates for all ...
Watson B T - - 1997
A prospective screening program of 11,161 newborns identified twenty-one infants who had postaxial type-B polydactyly (a prevalence of one in 531 live births). Sixteen infants (76 per cent) had bilateral postaxial type-B polydactyly. Eighteen infants (86 per cent) had a family history of the anomaly. The racial prevalence was one ...
Walsh S J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate racial differences in the expression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by comparing comorbidity at death among individuals with SLE. METHODS: Proportional mortality rates were estimated for common contributing causes of death among white and black females in the United States, 1989-1991, whose death certificates listed SLE as ...
Amante A - - 1996
The relationship between human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) genotype and birth weight is investigated in a sample of white, black and Puerto-Rican new-born infants from New Haven, Connecticut (total 710 subjects). Black and Puerto-Rican infants show a higher incidence of growth retardation and a higher frequency of ALPp*1/*1 genotype as ...
Polednak A P - - 1996
Theoretically, segregation and discrimination could affect mortality among blacks (African Americans) not only through their impact on social class (including the concentration of blacks in high-poverty areas) but also by influencing health care and psychosocial factors. This paper reviews evidence that variation in mortality rates for black infants and young ...
Bachmann M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Cape Town is undergoing rapid urbanization. South African vital statistics have routinely been stratified by racial categories but intra-urban and peri-urban geographical variations have been neglected. METHODS: To examine variations in infant mortality rates (IMR) and proportional infant mortality between urban, rural and informally settled areas, stratified by racial ...
Barfield W D - - 1996
To examine racial disparities in prenatal care utilization, birth weight, and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for whom financial barriers to health care services are minimal. Using linked birth, fetal death, and infant death certificate files, we examined prenatal care utilization, birth weight distribution, and fetal and neonatal ...
Chike-Obi U - - 1996
The authors examined secular trends in birth weight for a geographically defined population over 40 years, controlling for migration effects. The study was an analysis first of all Illinois births between 1950 and 1990 and second of a subset of births for which two succeeding generations were born in the ...
Schieve L A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between race, preterm delivery, etiologic classification of preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality. METHODS: The study population consisted of 13,010 black and 19,007 white mother-infant pairs delivered at Chicago-area hospitals in 1988-1989 categorized as term or preterm births. Preterm births were further divided by severity and etiology. ...
Leviton A - - 1996
Preterm infants, including some who have sustained intracranial hemorrhage, appear to be at increased risk of lateral ventricular enlargement. Although some occurrences might be due to an impairment of cerebrospinal fluid flow or absorption, many instances of ventriculomegaly without accompanying macrocephaly reflect diffuse white matter damage resulting in diminished (i.e., ...
Hamvas A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Surfactant therapy reduces morbidity and mortality among premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Fetal pulmonary surfactant matures more slowly in white than in black fetuses, and therefore RDS is more prevalent among whites than among blacks. We reasoned that the increased use of surfactant after its approval ...
Rupich R C - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to determine whether race or gender differences in total body bone mineral content (BMC) are evident within the first 18 months of age. Total body bone mineral measurements were obtained on 64 healthy infants 1-18 months of age. There were no significant differences in ...
Polednak A P - - 1996
Trends in Black infant mortality rates from 1982 through 1991 in large US metropolitan statistical areas were examined. In some least-segregated areas, the total Black infant mortality rate reached a low of 13 per 1000 live births in 1985; it increased sharply after 1985 in the West but not in ...
Amini S B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To compare the trends and obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenage women with those of adult women. METHODS: We analyzed a 19-year (1975-1993) computerized perinatal data base with data on 69,096 births collected prospectively from a single inner-city tertiary medical center. RESULTS: Of all the births, 1875, (2.7%) were ...
Zheng T - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix has been reported to be increasing among young white women and earlier studies suggest a birth cohort pattern for the observed increase. No study, however, has examined the time trends of adenocarcinoma of the cervix by birth cohort. METHODS: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End ...
Murrell N L - - 1996
Low birth weight (LBW) is two times greater for African Americans than for Whites. Stress, self-esteem, and racism were proposed as correlates for LBW. A sample of African American women (N = 165) were interviewed in a prenatal HMO. Multiple regressions analyses run on the final sample (N = 147) ...
Fiscella K - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk ...
Traven N D - - 1996
Deaths among 35- to 44-year-old black and white men and women residing in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, were investigated. All coroner-certified nontraumatic deaths and practitioner-certified deaths coded as heart, cerbrovascular, or arterial disease, diabetes mellitus, and sudden or ill-defined causes were studied. Using autopsy, coroner, hospital, physician, and/or informant information about ...
Leske M C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with ABO, Rh and Duffy blood groups in the population-based Barbados Eye Study. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subset of black Barbados Eye Study participants, which included 199 OAG cases and 1063 controls. DATA COLLECTION: ABO, Rh and Duffy ...
Yu S M - - 1996
This paper examines the prevalence of multivitamin-mineral supplement use before and during pregnancy, as well as predictors of nonuse, in 9953 women who delivered live infants in the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Ninety-seven percent of the women were advised to take multivitamin-mineral supplements in prenatal care. Sixty-seven ...
Moore P - - 1996
Immunization levels of Mexican American and white non-Hispanic infants enrolled in Arizona's Medicaid managed care demonstration project, a prototype of the model proposed for a reformed health care system, were compared and the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation levels, health beliefs of the mothers, and infant health status on immunization ...
Stockwell E G - - 1996
This paper presents an ecological analysis of the relationship between infant mortality and economic status by race in metropolitan Ohio, using census data on mother's residence, and economic status determined by the percentage of low income families living in each area. White-non-white comparisons for total infant mortality are examined for ...
Bird S T - - 1995
In the United States, the disparity in black and white infant mortality persists despite reductions in overall infant mortality. In 1988, 23 of the 50 states had a black infant mortality rate that was more than twice as large as its white infant mortality rate. This study assesses whether state-level ...
Franklin R J - - 1995
A litter of five 14-week-old papillon puppies was referred for investigation of pelvic limb ataxia. Clinical examination revealed signs of ataxia, hypermetria and depressed postural reflexes affecting all four limbs. The severity of these signs varied between members of the litter. The condition became progressively worse and by 19 weeks ...
Kerr G R - - 1995
The mortality rate of African-American infants in Texas is about twice those of Anglo and Hispanic infants, due at least partly to their increased risk of preterm and low-weight birth. We examined the underlying causes of infant deaths from 1989 through 1991 for specific causes that accounted for the racial ...
Christy C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gender, race (black or white), or level of parental education influenced serologic responses or reporting of clinical reactions after immunization with acellular (DTaP) or whole-cell (DTP) pertussis vaccine with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined. METHODS: Healthy infants were prospectively randomized to receive one of 13 DTaP, ...
Libow L F - - 1995
A 6-month-old black infant is described with a congenital black subungual and periungual lesion of the right second toe. Histopathologic examination revealed a junctional nevus. Congenital subungual nevi are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report in a black infant.
Casselbrant M L - - 1995
To determine the incidence of otitis media (OM) and the bacteriology of acute otitis media (AOM) in a clinic population of young children in Pittsburgh, 138 black infants and 60 white infants were followed from birth to 2 years of age, examined at monthly intervals and whenever an upper respiratory ...
Singh G K - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: This study examined long-term trends and differences in infant mortality in the United States from 1950 through 1991 according to race and ethnicity, education, family income, and cause of death. Forecasts are made through the year 2010. METHODS: Log-linear regression models were applied to data from the National Vital ...
Christianson A L - - 1995
Early reports indicated a low prevalence of Down's syndrome (DS) in black African children. More recent research demonstrates an incidence similar to, or higher than that reported to occur in First World populations. One of the possible reasons for underreporting of DS in Africa, appears to be the lack of ...
Istas A S - - 1995
A national surveillance program for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was initiated in 1990. In 4 years 285 cases were reported without seasonal patterns. Mean birth statistics were as follows: gestational age, 36 weeks; weight, 2,224 g; length, 45 cm; and head circumference, 30 cm. Of the infants 68% had CNS ...
Fang J - - 1995
To determine the distribution of mortality for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in New York City, death certificates issued in New York City during 1988 through 1992, and the relevant 1990 US census data for New York City, have been examined. Age-adjusted death rates for blacks and whites by gender ...
Leland N L - - 1995
This study used the 1983-86 U.S. Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files to examine variations in pregnancy outcomes among 38,551 U.S. resident black and white adolescents ages 10 through 14. The birth rate was 4.29 per 1,000 for blacks, more than 7 times the rate for whites (.59 per 1,000). Black ...
Patel Daksha - - 1995
PURPOSE. The pupose of this study was to compare maternal and paternal risk factors and the outcomes of Asian Pacific Islander (API) pregnancies with other racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White) in Illinois. METHODS. We examined computerized birth certificate files in Illinois to descriptively analyze birth outcomes and parental characteristics ...
Boult B E - - 1995
This article is based on an investigation into some aspects of obstetrics in black teenage pregnancy conducted by the authors at two hospitals in Port Elizabeth during the latter part of 1992. In that research, it was hypothesized that significant differences with regard to several obstetrical factors would be found ...
Mor J M - - 1995
This study compares the maternal sociodemographic and prenatal care characteristics and birth outcomes of US resident white and Japanese-American mothers, using data from the state of Hawaii. The specific focus is to determine to what extent these factors can explain variations in newborn maturity and mortality indicators. Single livebirths to ...
Huddy L - - 1995
The existence of subgroup differentiation and its impact on the development of in-group bias were explored among Latinos. Consistent with prior evidence, Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans were more likely than Anglos to distinguish between Latino subgroups. However, Latinos did not distinguish equally between Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans. Latinos ...
Fowler B A - - 1995
Infant mortality is a pernicious and disturbing problem in the African American community. Research and public health reports clearly demonstrate the importance of early and ongoing prenatal care in reducing the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) infants, especially for indigent and racial/ethnic minority groups (American Nurses Association 1987, Hogue ...
Broussard E R - - 1995
Thirty-eight, healthy, full-term, first-born infants of adolescent mothers were assessed in a standardized laboratory setting using a modified Ainsworth Strange Situation procedure for assessing attachment. The security rate within this sample was 23.7% which differed considerably from that reported in most white middle class samples of approximately 55-65%. Within this ...
Flisher A J - - 1994
Nationally registered suicide mortality data for South Africa (1984-1986) were analysed. There were 5448 deaths (1.3%) due to suicide in this period. Proportional mortality and mean annual suicide mortality rates were highest for whites, followed by Asians and then coloureds. The proportional mortality for blacks was similar to that of ...
Mustin H D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine adequacy of preventive care for US infants, including both well-child care visits and immunizations, and to identify risk factors for inadequate receipt of care. DESIGN: Analysis of the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey of the National Center for Health Statistics. SAMPLE: Nationally representative sample of ...
Ballas S K - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a screening programme to identify infants with sickle cell anaemia. SETTING: A metropolitan university hospital. METHOD: 4845 (73.3%) newborn cord blood samples from 6271 infants born in the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital over a two year period were tested for the presence of haemoglobinopathies. ...
Rowley D L - - 1994
Very low birthweight and preterm delivery explain two thirds of the excess deaths experienced by African-American infants. Although comprehensive, good quality services for all African-American women will help to reduce the twofold higher rate of infant mortality experienced by African-American infants compared with white infants, the infant mortality gap will ...
McGehee M A - - 1994
Life expectancy data by race and gender for Arkansas show whites having longer average life expectancies at birth than blacks. Racial differences in life expectancy have been found to be due to higher mortality rates for blacks due to their tendency to fall into high-risk groups. Cause-specific mortality rates by ...
Harsham J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to cocaine in utero is known to cause intrauterine growth retardation. This study describes the postnatal growth patterns of infants exposed to cocaine and other drugs in utero. DESIGN: A convenience sample of 31 Northern California infants was monitored for 1 year. Infants in foster care were selected ...
Morrow H W - - 1994
To examine differences in perinatal health among nine Asian ethnic subgroups, a descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using linked birth/infant death certificates for 1982 to 1987. When compared with Whites, Asians had a lower proportion of young mothers, unmarried mothers, and women who received first trimester prenatal care; a higher ...
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