Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 667
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Overpeck M D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reference for birth weight for gestational age to identify Mexican American infants born in the United States who are small or large for gestational age. METHODS: Reference percentiles were developed for Mexican American and non-Hispanic white births, using national vital statistics from 1992-1994 for Mexican Americans ...
Geronimus A T - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA. DESIGN: Using standard demographic techniques, death certificate and census data were analysed to make sex specific ...
Cervantes A - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: For almost two decades, the literature has consistently described an epidemiologic paradox relating to better birth outcomes among high-risk groups, particularly new immigrants from Mexico and Southeast Asia. We hypothesize that regardless of their sociodemographic profile, Mexican immigrants will exhibit lower rates of low birth weight and preterm deliveries ...
Malcoe L H - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This population-based study examined the effect of all major congenital anomalies on the mortality of White and Black infants by infant sex, birthweight, gestational age, and lethality of the anomaly. The study also determined the total contribution of anomalies to infant mortality. METHODS: California Birth Defects Monitoring Program data ...
Alexander G R - - 1999
Using national data, we develop and contrast the birth-weight percentiles for gestational age by infants of extremely-low-risk (ELR) White and African-American women and examine racial differences in the proportion of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. We then scrutinise racial variations in infant mortality rates of the infants of ELR women. We further ...
Hurrell R F - - 1999
The effects of different polyphenol-containing beverages on Fe absorption from a bread meal were estimated in adult human subjects from the erythrocyte incorporation of radio-Fe. The test beverages contained different polyphenol structures and were rich in either phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid in coffee), monomeric flavonoids (herb teas, camomile (Matricaria recutita ...
Carlson E - - 1999
Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from ...
Malloy M H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of the birth of a very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 gm) and very preterm (VPT, < or = 32 week) infant to previous occurrences of VLBW-VPT infants among women who had two to five pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a case-control study using ...
Fang J - - 1999
To determine cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese migrants in New York City and compare it to both that of residents in China and whites in New York City, mortality records for 1988 through 1992 for New York City and the 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. ...
Poma P A - - 1999
This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. ...
Cazano C - - 1999
Recent comparisons of growth curves and incidence of low birth weight are available for Caucasians and African-Americans or Hispanics. To compare size at birth in Hispanics with African-Americans in an inner-city population, we analyzed data on mother-infant pairs admitted to Jacobi Medical Center from January 1, 1995 until May 31, ...
Fang J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of maternal hypertension on the risk of low birth weight among white, black, and Hispanic residents of New York City. METHODS: New York City birth certificates, 1988 through 1994, provided data on maternal and infant characteristics. Hypertension was self-reported on birth certificates, and was categorized ...
Horowitz M - - 1999
PURPOSE: We compared the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in black and nonblack patients in whom prenatal hydronephrosis was confirmed postnatally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 58 black and 51 nonblack patients with confirmed hydronephrosis who underwent voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Reflux was present in 9 cases (8.3%). The ...
Fang J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article is to determine the effect of community income as a co-factor in the association of low birth weight, race, and maternal nativity in New York City. METHODS: New York City birth records, 1988 through 1994, provided data on maternal and infant characteristics. There were ...
D'Zmura M - - 1998
Color constancy depends on sensitivity to change in both illumination spectral properties and object position. We investigated this latter form of color constancy by asking a cerebral achromatopsic to name the colors of papers that were presented atop black, gray or white backgrounds under identical illumination. Comparison of color names ...
Hessol N A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether racial differences in risk of low birth weight infants among black and white parents can be attributed to differences in demographic, behavioral, medical, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: We analyzed 203,815 singleton births from the 1992 California birth certificate data set for the risk of very low ...
Carmichael S L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The long-standing difference in infant mortality in the United States between black and white infants has increased in recent years. To help identify the cause, we evaluated changes in birthweight distributions (BDs) and birthweight-specific mortality rates (BSMRs) among black and white infants born in the United States between 1983 ...
Schroeder T J - - 1998
This study was conducted to establish bioequivalence between a newly developed oral cyclosporine formulation, Sang-35 (SangStat Medical Corp., Menlo Park, CA), and the microemulsion formulation Neoral (Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ). In a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study, 36 fasted, healthy male volunteers received a single 500-mg cyclosporine dose formulated ...
Scott-Wright A O - - 1998
Strategies to reduce US infant mortality rates often focus on the black-white disparity in rates. Linked Infant Birth and Death Files for Davidson County, Tennessee, from 1990 through 1994 were used to determine infant outcomes for infants born to college-educated white and black women. Risks for adverse outcomes were identified ...
Scott C L - - 1998
This report contains public health surveillance data that describe trends in postneonatal mortality (PNM) and that update information published in 1991. 1980-1994. National death certificate data characterizing PNM were reported by hospital physicians, coroners, and medical examiners. Data for 1980-1994 were compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) ...
Reichman N E - - 1998
CONTEXT: With the influx of Latin American immigrants to the United States and the relatively high fertility of Hispanic women, the importance of understanding patterns of birth outcomes within the heterogeneous Hispanic community is growing. METHODS: Vital statistics data linked with hospital discharge files for single, liveborn infants delivered in ...
Carmichael S L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Although neonatal mortality has been declining more rapidly than postneonatal mortality in recent decades, neonatal mortality continues to account for close to two-thirds of all infant deaths. This report uses U.S. vital statistics data to describe national trends in the major causes of neonatal mortality among black and white ...
Hain F M - - 1998
Birth statistics for the Johannesburg Metropolitan Region were collected for 757 151 confinements from 1969 to 1989 (467513 Black, 194375 White, 67250 Coloured and 28013 Indian confinements). From 1969 to 1978 data on the sexes of twins were also collected for 375 203 of the confinements (203 504 Black, 129 ...
Kieffer E C - - 1998
This study examined the impact of maternal diabetes on birth weight for gestational age patterns of all term black infants and white infants in the United States using data derived from the 1990-1991 US Live Birth File of the National Center for Health Statistics. Infants of both black mothers and ...
Petrini J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: For at least 20 years, birth defects have been the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Some studies have reported higher rates for black infants than white infants of mortality due to birth defects, while other studies have reported no black-white differences. The authors analyzed the ...
Din-Dzietham R - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Despite decreasing infant mortality in North Carolina, the gap between African Americans and Whites persists. This study examined how racial differences in infant mortality vary by maternal education. METHODS: Data came from Linked Birth and Infant Death files for 1988 through 1993. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for confounders. ...
Racine A D - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although infant mortality rates have declined gradually in New York City for many years, the rate of that decline began to accelerate dramatically at the end of the 1980s. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the recent accelerated decline in infant mortality for three race/ethnicity designations in New York City and to ...
Paige D M - - 1998
Preterm low birth weight is the major determinant of infant morbidity and mortality. Numerous studies have linked bacterial vaginosis (BV) with preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW), especially among black women. This article reviews the published literature to provide clear evidence that BV is an independent risk factor for ...
MacDorman M F - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This report presents infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file)-1995 period data by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. Trends in birthweight-specific infant mortality rates from 1985-95 are also discussed. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data from the linked file are presented. The data ...
FitzSimmons E - - 1998
Our research indicates that infant head molding, the application of pressure or bindings to cranial bones to alter their shapes, is prevalent among various Caribbean, Latino, European, African American, Asian, and Native American groups. The data emerged during a cross-cultural anthropological study of child care practices. The documentation of the ...
Myers D - - 1998
"This study explores the rate of advancement into homeownership of immigrants, relative to native borns, in Southern California, a principal region of immigrant settlement.... Recent immigrants as well as young native borns are newcomers to the housing market and have lower attainment levels than earlier arrivals or older cohorts. Cohort ...
Tumiel L M - - 1998
The 1988 Upstate New York Live Birth Certificate was the first to record Hispanic ethnicity and country of origin. This registry was used to compare low birthweight and preterm delivery among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic infants. Risk of low birthweight and preterm delivery was assessed for Hispanics by ...
Polednak A P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The study examined the prevalence of low birth weight among biracial infants of black and white parents, by region of the United States. METHODS: Using the national linked live birth-death infant file for 1991, low birth weight (<2,500 g) was examined among 50,980 biracial singleton infants according to parental ...
Patel D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of multiple births among adolescents using birth as the unit of analysis and to examine the association between maternal race/ethnicity and parity and the occurrence of multiple births among women less than 20 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Computerized birth certificate files without personal identifiers ...
Muise J G - - 1997
The Ebbinghaus illusion was used to study size estimation as influenced by salient features of the central figure. Two groups of fourth graders, 9 boys and 11 girls, and two groups of seventh graders, 9 boys and 9 girls, judged the size of two central figures (an Oreo cookie or ...
Walsh S J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether elevated rates of mortality from systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the Southeastern United States result from local, multicounty clusters of the disease. METHODS: Detection of spatial clusters of SSc mortality by applying the method of Kulldorff and Nagarwalla to death certificate data from 955 counties in 12 ...
Frisbie W P - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent of variation by race/ethnicity in the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes, whether differentials persisted after other risk factors were controlled for, and whether the direction and magnitude of relationships differed by type of outcome. METHODS: A revised system of measurement was used to estimate ...
Castilla E E - - 1997
The aim of this work was to test whether postaxial hexadactyly had different clinical and epidemiological characteristics depending on hand or foot involvement. In the period 1967-1993, the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) enrolled 1,582,289 births, and 2,271 cases with isolated (nonsyndromal) postaxial polydactyly (5th-digit hexadactyly). The prevalence ...
David R J - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In the United States, the birth weights of infants of black women are lower than those of infants of white women. The extent to which the lower birth weights among blacks are related to social or genetic factors is unclear. METHODS: We used vital records for 1980 through 1995 ...
Fang J - - 1997
To determine the association of birthplace (US-born vs. foreign-born) with mortality among blacks and whites in New York City, we examined death records for 5 years from 1988 to 1992 and the 1990 census data. Mortality rates by race and birthplace were compared for all causes of death and for ...
Fang J - - 1997
Among non-Hispanic black and white residents of New York City the association between birthplace by region (South, West/ Midwest, and Northeast) within the United States and mortality was determined by linking mortality records for 1988-1992 with the 1990 United States census data for New York City. Age-adjusted death rates computed ...
Greenberg M - - 1997
A study was made of all homicide deaths among black Americans during the period 1979-1991 in order to test two competing hypotheses about region of birth and region of death. One hypothesis was that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates in every region of the US. The competing hypothesis ...
Patel D - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The study purposes were to examine maternal and paternal high-risk factors and note associated differences in birth outcomes among Hispanic subgroups compared with white and black populations in Illinois. STUDY DESIGN: Computerized birth certificate data of 131,768 Hispanic singleton neonates (14.1% of all Illinois births from 1989 through 1993) ...
Cotch M F - - 1997
Several studies have suggested that pregnant women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis may be at increased risk of an adverse outcome. To evaluate prospectively the association between T. vaginalis and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in a large cohort of ethnically diverse women. At University-affiliated hospitals and antepartum clinics in five ...
Fuentes-Afflick E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between Latino ethnicity, Latino subgroup, and low birth weight (LBW). DATA SOURCES: From the MEDLINE computer data-base, we used the key words birth weight; infant, LBW; Latinos; Hispanic Americans; Cuban Americans; Mexican Americans; and Puerto Ricans to identify studies that analyzed LBW in Latinos. STUDY ...
Lenders C M - - 1997
The objective of this study was explore the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and dietary sugar intake by pregnant adolescents. From two urban, prenatal clinics in the City of Camden, NJ, a cohort of 594 nondiabetic, pregnant adolescents, aged 13-19 y, who delivered live, singleton newborns between 1985 and 1990, was ...
Deguchi K - - 1997
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were examined by neuropathological and immunohistochemical methods. Thirteen ELBW infants of 85 infants with PVL, born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation, showed a widespread type of distribution of PVL from the deep to intermediate white matter. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated ...
DuPlessis H M - - 1997
PURPOSE: To determine the independent effects of maternal age and race/ethnicity on poor pregnancy outcomes, with and without controlling for other factors. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis of 54,447 linked birth, fetal death, and infant death certificates in California from 1980-87. RESULTS: Women of young maternal age (10-13 years) are approximately ...
Collins J W JW - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent to which the place of residence affects the black to white differential in post-neonatal (28-365 days) mortality, we performed a univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression of the 1982-1983 Illinois vital records. Chicago Police violent crime information and 1980 US Census income data. METHODS: Four ...
Benn P A - - 1997
Second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) are routinely measured in screening fetuses at high risk for Down syndrome or open neural tube defects (ONTD). For test interpretation, individual patient values of these three analytes are related to population-derived median values. We evaluated data ...
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