Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 668
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Peak Christopher - - 2002
An increasing body of literature documenting what has become known as "the Epidemiological Paradox" has shown that some immigrant groups to the United States tend to have healthier birth outcomes than would be expected given their sociodemographic profiles. Furthermore, the children of these immigrants do not seem to enjoy the ...
Sims Mario - - 2002
This study examined neighborhood and infant health disparities between African-American and white mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Census-block data were used for 1990 and Vital Statistics data were used for 1992 through 1994. African-American mothers lived in less desirable, more segregated neighborhoods than white mothers did in 1990. African-American infant and ...
Papacek Ellen M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether neighborhood impoverishment explains the racial disparity in urban postneonatal mortality rates. METHODS: Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on the vital records of all African-Americans and whites born in Chicago by means of a linked 1992-1995 computerized birth-death file with appended ...
Pereverzeva Maria - - 2002
Individual differences in isoluminance values were studied in infants and adults using a motion nulling paradigm. Two luminance-modulated sinusoidal grating components (spatial frequency=0.25 cpd, temporal frequency=5.6 Hz, speed=22.4 deg/s) were superimposed and moved in opposite directions across a color video screen. The contrasts of the two components were traded off ...
Iwashyna Theodore J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To examine racial and ethnic differences in place of death, adjusting for likely confounders. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. SETTING: United States in 1993. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of 22,658 deaths in 1993 from the National Mortality Followback Survey. MEASUREMENTS: Place of death as ...
- - 2002
During the 20th century, U.S. infant mortality rates (IMRs) declined by 90%; however, many of the largest U.S. cities continue to have high IMRs compared with national rates. Studies of U.S. infant mortality by region document persisting geographic disparities and differences across racial/ethnic groups. This report highlights the wide disparities ...
Madan Ashima - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Census data show that an increasing proportion of the population of the United States is of Asian or Hispanic origin. Reference curves used to characterize fetal growth relative to gestational age are predominantly based on data for White infants. The goal of this study was to compare the birth ...
Oelofse A A Nutrition Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa. - - 2002
To determine the nutritional and health status of urban infants in two disadvantaged communities in the Western Cape, South Africa with special reference to micronutrient status. The results of this study will serve to plan an intervention study in these communities in the same age group. Cross-sectional study. Two disadvantaged ...
Stancheva V P - - 2002
This study compared hematological reference ranges in black very low birth weight infants to previously published values established predominantly on white subjects. Ninety-four healthy, black, premature babies with a birth weight of 800 to 1500 g at 2-7 days of age were enrolled as part of a study comparing blood ...
Mathews T J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1999 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented. RESULTS: In general, mortality rates were lowest for infants born to Chinese and Japanese mothers (2.9 and ...
Phipps Maureen G - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the age group for the case definition of early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: We examined rates of infant mortality, very low birthweight (<1500 g), and very preterm delivery (<32 weeks) per 1000 live births for all US singleton first births ...
Branum Amy M - - 2002
Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth are primary risk factors for infant morbidity and mortality in the US. With increasing multiple births and delayed childbearing, it is important to examine the separate contributions of these characteristics to the increases in LBW and preterm birth rates. US natality records from 1981, ...
Davidoff Michael J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Significant resources have been devoted to decreasing the rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the United States. Both surveillance data and birth records have strengths and limitations for evaluating the outcomes of this resource allocation. Cause-specific infant mortality data can be used as one measure to support evaluation ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2002
Large differences in infant mortality are reported among and within industrialised countries. We hypothesised that these differences are at least partly the result of intercountry differences in registration of infants near the borderline of viability (<750 g birthweight) and/or their classification as stillbirths vs. live births. We used the database ...
Floros J - - 2001
A key cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the prematurely born infant is deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. Using the candidate gene approach, we performed family-based linkage studies to discern linkage ...
- - 2001
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common identified cause of mental retardation in the United States (1). The prevalence (approximately one in 800 live-born infants) is similar among all racial groups (2). Survival for the first year of life for infants with DS has improved dramatically during the last 50 ...
Clarke K E - - 2001
Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) sampled at sites in Europe, Africa and South America were analysed using a mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker. These samples were used to provide baseline information for a detailed analysis of the process of Africanization of bees from the neotropical Yucatan peninsula of ...
Cañeda-Guzmán I C - - 2001
Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis L. (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new genus differs from all proteocephalidean genera in the morphology of the scolex that is formed by 4 well separated lobes each containing 1 ...
Lane S D - - 2001
This article presents the multifaceted efforts of Syracuse Healthy Start, a federally funded initiative of the Onondaga County Health Department and over 20 partnering agencies to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality. The analyses presented in this article demonstrate that many women--Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic--have serious risks ...
Gallentine M L - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the incidence of hypospadias is increasing and whether racial differences among patients are significant, we evaluated the current incidence of hypospadias and patient race in an equal-access healthcare system. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review of discharge records between 1990 and 1998 from 15 military treatment ...
Denham M - - 2001
Birth weight has long been a focus of study by epidemiologists and human biologists, because it reflects the quality of the intrauterine environment and may be used as a predictor of future growth and development. Comparisons of Black and White neonates in the USA have consistently shown differences in birth ...
Crespel E - - 2001
Transient alterations in pigmentation are frequently observed in black neonates, but to our knowledge, have not previously been reported in Caucasian infants. In 54 Caucasian newborns, we found at least mild periungual hyperpigmentation similar to the variation in coloration in the periungual region of many black newborns. This pigmentation should ...
Atkinson J O - - 2001
PURPOSE: In 1997, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) introduced revised standards for classification of federal data on race. The new standards include the option to report more than one race. Reasons for the new standards include a change over time in childbearing patterns by race. OBJECTIVE: To better ...
Okano Y - - 2001
Galactokinase (GALK) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypergalactosemia and cataract formation. Through mass screening of newborn infants, we identified a novel and prevalent GALK variant (designated here as the "Osaka" variant) associated with an A198V mutation in three infants with mild GALK deficiency. GALK activity and the ...
Jooma N - - 2001
The state of Louisiana consistently has one of the five highest infant mortality rates in the nation and the racial disparity within the state is glaring. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state's linked birth and death infant data set for the birth cohort of 1990-1998, and ...
Shipp T D - - 2001
We sought to evaluate whether the expected fetal femur length, based on biparietal diameter, varies in second-trimester fetuses with respect to maternal race. The study population was composed of all fetuses scanned from 15 to 20 completed weeks' gestation during a 2-month period (June to August 1998). Maternal race was ...
Heck K E - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Several data systems are beginning to allow respondents to report more than one race. Implications of multiple race reporting for the tabulation of race-specific birth characteristics are largely unknown. This analysis reports selected demographic characteristics and birth outcomes for multiple-race mothers, using California birth certificate data for 2000. DESIGN: ...
Jenny A M - - 2001
Mexican-American infants have surprisingly low mortality rates, given their high-risk demographic characteristics. One explanation for this well-known paradox is the beneficial influence of a traditional Mexican cultural orientation. However, many studies have focused on individual, rather than contextual, markers of acculturation to explain the reasons for this paradox. This study ...
Chima F O - - 2001
The disparity in white and African American infant mortality has not only persisted but increased over time and is not expected to diminish in the near future. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the constellation of class, race, and gender vulnerabilities on African American life as manifested ...
Greisen G - - 2001
The preterm infant is at special risk of white matter injury. It was hypothesized long ago that ischemia is the principal etiology. The commonly used experimental animals for perinatal brain injury research may differ importantly from humans as regards the white matter. Therefore, evidence from human neonates that the white ...
Collins J W JW - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relationship between maternal nativity and the postneonatal mortality rate of urban Mexican-American infants. DESIGN: This is a population-based study. METHODS: Stratified and logistic regression analyses were performed on a data set of 1992-1995 computerized birth-death records of all Mexican-American infants born to Chicago ...
Fang J - - 2000
To assess maternal mortality in New York City, birth certificates and mortality records for New York City from 1988 through 1994 were linked and examined. During these 7 years, maternal mortality in New York City (defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition [ICD-9], as 630-676) per 100,000 live ...
Sharma V - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To follow the 1995 birth cohort of infants, born in the State of Missouri, through their first birthday to: 1) examine their rates of visits to emergency departments (EDs), 2) identify predictors of any ED visit, 3) examine rates of nonurgent ED visits, and 4) identify predictors of nonurgent ...
- - 2000
National infant mortality rates among non-Hispanic black women are twice those of non-Hispanic white women (1). Nearly two-thirds of this disparity is attributable to a higher rate of preterm delivery (PTD) (i.e., < or = 37 weeks' gestation) among blacks (2). To investigate state-specific changes in PTD rates among blacks ...
Buekens P - - 2000
There are relatively few low-weight births among Mexican Americans, despite their socioeconomic disadvantages. Fewer low-birth-weight (LBW) births result when babies are heavier at term or when there are fewer preterm deliveries. The authors used 1994 US singleton livebirth birth certificates to compare Mexican Americans with non-Hispanic Whites. They found that ...
Alur P P Division of Neonatology and Department of Pediatrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA. - - 2000
Normative data for hematologic values in the very low birth weight infants are limited and inconsistent, with the reported mean hematocrit (HCT) in these infants ranging from 43.5% to 60%. No data are available on the effect of race. To establish normative data for hemoglobin (Hb) and HCT by arterial ...
Mathews T J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1998 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented. RESULTS: In general, mortality rates were lowest for infants born to Cuban mothers (3.6 per 1,000), Central ...
Debillon T - - 2000
An association between chorioamnionitis and periventricular leukomalacia has been reported in human preterm infants. However, whether this link is causal has not been convincingly established, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to establish a reproducible model of cerebral white matter disease in preterm ...
Shipp T D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a racial difference in the frequency of identification of echogenic intracardiac foci (EIF) seen sonographically in the hearts of second-trimester fetuses. METHODS: Over a 2-month period (June 1998-August 1998), all fetuses scanned between 15 and 20 completed weeks' gestation were evaluated prospectively for the ...
Parker J D - - 2000
I examined time trends in low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) among interracial compared with single-race infants. Using natality data from 1978 through 1997 for singleton births to black and white parents, I calculated relative risks (RRs) of LBW and VLBW for interracial compared with single-race ...
Allen M C - - 2000
This study examines trends in the rates of very preterm, moderately preterm and gestational age-specific neonatal mortality, and in the gestational age limit of viability in South Carolina (SC) from 1975 to 1994. We also investigate whether trends were similar between African-Americans and Whites. We hypothesised that disproportionate reductions in ...
Kvale K - - 2000
Infant mortality is a powerful indicator for assessing the health of a population, and the extent to which society invests in its children. This paper examines infant mortality trends in the United States and Wisconsin among the African American and white populations from 1980 to 1998. Data from the National ...
Bhana N - - 2000
black triangle Lanoteplase is a recombinant plasminogen activator, which when administered as a single bolus intravenous injection, displays thrombolytic activity. black triangle In the phase II InTIME trial, lanoteplase dose-dependently increased reperfusion rates at 60 and 90 minutes in patients with acute myocardial infarction and at 90 (but not 60) ...
Georgiadis M P - - 2000
Runt white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) develop during grow-out and are characterized by atrophied muscles and decreased growth. Our first objective was to compare the growth (and body condition) of previously-runt white sturgeon after they recovered from the runt state and sturgeon that had never been runts. On 12 occasions, recovered ...
Strandjord T P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To study traditional risk factors and the intergenerational risk factor maternal low birth weight (LBW) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants in multiple ethnic groups. METHODS: The population-based database consists of hospital records linked to Washington state maternal and infant vital records. Four racial-ethnic groups were studied, whites, ...
Iwe M O - - 2000
Blends of defatted soy flour and sweet potato flour were extruded in a single-screw extruder run at varying pre-set rotational speeds. Die diameter of the extruder was also varied. A central composite, rotatable nearly orthogonal response surface design was used in studying the interactive effects of extrusion variables on color ...
Frank R N - - 2000
PURPOSE: While most observers agree that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is much more common in white persons than in persons of black African ancestry, the influence of iris color has been more controversial. We reexamined relationships between race, iris color, and AMD in a series of patients from our retina ...
Roberts K B - - 1999
UTI in young infants generally presents with fever. Among the youngest infants, boys and girls are equally affected. The incidence of UTI in uncircumcised boys is comparable with that in girls, whereas the rate in circumcised boys is much lower. Based on gender and race, white girls have the highest ...
Ueda K - - 1999
The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of keloids and scars resected from patients was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The surface color of hypertrophic scars was red or pink and that of atrophic scars was white. The ATP content of red scars was (in mmol/g protein) 1.06 +/- 0.14, of pink ...
MacDorman M F - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a wide variety of maternal and infant characteristics. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented. RESULTS: In general, mortality rates were lowest for infants born to Asian and Pacific Islander mothers ...
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