Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 668
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Lu Michael C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine racial-ethnic disparities in stressful life events before and during pregnancy and to assess the relationship between stressful life events and racial-ethnic disparities in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted a retrospective cohort ...
Platt Robert W - - 2004
Birth-weight- and gestational-age-specific perinatal mortality curves intersect when compared by race and maternal smoking. The authors propose a new measure to replace fetal and infant mortality and an analytic strategy to assess the effects of risk factors on this outcome. They used 1998 data for US Blacks and Whites. Age-specific ...
Moseley Kathryn L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: African-American adults are more likely than white adults to desire the continuation of life-sustaining medical treatment (LSMT) at the end of life. No studies have examined racial differences in parental end-of-life decisions for neonates. OBJECTIVE: To collect preliminary data to determine whether differences exist in the choices made by ...
Headley Adrienne J - - 2004
The U.S. black infant mortality rate (IMR) remains a significant public health concern. Although improved during the last four decades, the U.S. IMR remains within the lowest tier of IMRs for all industrialized countries, and black American infants remain disproportionately represented in low birthweight (LBW) and infant death statistics. Numerous ...
Ribar Rebecca J - - 2004
Young infants learn common categorical distinctions, such as animals versus vehicles. But can they, like adults, rapidly form new categories, such as black-and-white animals? To answer this question, 6-, 10-, and 13-month-old infants were familiarized with four land animals that were black and white in coloring (e.g., a zebra and ...
Fiscella Kevin - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Racial disparities in infant and maternal mortality have been attributed to the unique stresses faced by Black women in the United States, but the underlying pathophysiological pathways are poorly understood. This paper reviews the literature related to potential causes of racial disparities in infant and maternal mortality. METHODS: A ...
Vernacchio Louis - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Otitis media (OM) is an extremely common pediatric diagnosis. Several risk factors have been associated with OM, but the relationship between OM and race/ethnicity remains controversial. We sought to define the relationship between OM diagnosis and race/ethnicity in infants. METHODS: By multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated the association between ...
Carmichael Suzan L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Little is known about risks of most specific birth defects among infants born to U.S.-born and foreign-born Hispanic or African-American women. METHODS: Using data from a large population-based registry, we explored risks of selected congenital malformation phenotypes in offspring of U.S.-born and foreign-born Hispanic and African-American women, relative to ...
Van Haren Keith - - 2004
Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is a progressive cavitating disease of central white matter due to a deficiency of the translation initiation factor eIF2B. Oligodendrocytes appear to be numerically increased in some white matter areas, while decreased in others. We compared oligodendrocytes of cerebral, cerebellar, and pontine white matter from ...
Kaiser Jeffrey R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of survival for very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight 501 to 1500 g) neonates over 23 years. STUDY DESIGN: Data for 4873 VLBW neonates born from 1977 to 2000 were divided into five epochs. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Birth weight-specific survival ...
Lazariu-Bauer Victoria - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of prenatal participation in the NYS WIC Program on birth weight through enhanced control of selection bias and gestational age bias. Program effects were assessed separately for White, Black, and Hispanic women and subpopulations defined by values of Kotelchuck index of adequacy of prenatal ...
Joseph K S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality rates among black infants are lower than neonatal mortality rates among white infants at birth weights <3000 g, whereas white infants have a survival advantage at higher birth weights. This finding is also observed when birth weight-specific neonatal mortality rates are compared between infants of smokers and ...
Heck Katherine E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To examine mortality rates and quality of race reporting for multiple-race individuals in California using the new multiple-race data available on the death certificate. METHODS: Death date were drawn from California vital statistics for 2000 and 2001. Denominator data were drawn from the 2000 census Modified Race Data Summary ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to estimate the black-white gap in early mortality among triplets. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study on triplets delivered in the United States from 1995 to 1997. We computed relative risks for early mortality among triplets born to black mothers using the ...
Elo Irma T - - 2004
We used vital records and census data and Medicare and NUMIDENT records to estimate age- and sex-specific death rates for elderly non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, including five Hispanic subgroups: persons born in Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, other foreign countries, and the United States. We found that corrections for data errors ...
Vahratian Anjel - - 2004
The preterm delivery rate in North Carolina is consistently higher than the national average. However, recent reports suggest that singleton preterm delivery rates for non-Hispanic Whites are increasing while those for non-Hispanic African Americans are decreasing. To study this pattern further, the authors examined data on singleton non-Hispanic White and ...
Holian John - - 2004
We examine the effect of a large, comprehensive maternity and infant care (MIC) program on birthweight and infant mortality in an economically depressed urban population. The study is based on linked birth, infant death and program files for 1985-87 Cleveland and East Cleveland, Ohio, birth cohorts (N = 31,415). Taking ...
Hunte Haslyn E R - - 2004
Recognizing that no single intervention was likely to eliminate racial disparities, the Genesee County REACH 2010 partnership, utilizing both "bench" science and "trench" knowledge, developed 13 broad-based, multi-faceted interventions to eliminate infant mortality. This article provides highlights from a recent birth records comparison analysis of the Maternal Infant Health Advocate ...
Kwiterovich Peter O PO - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of gestational age, gender, and race, on lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth. DESIGN: Prospective study of representative sample of infants. SETTING: The Johns Hopkins Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 163 infants (70 White and 93 Black) >28 weeks gestational age. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lipids, lipoprotein subclasses, apolipoproteins, ...
Wilson Ann A Department of Human Development, South Dakota State University, School of Medicine, - - 2004
In South Dakota between 2001 and 2002 there was a 2% increase in births with the number of both white and minority newborns increasing. In recent decades, trends in natality data show an ongoing shift in the ethnic distribution of the state's youngest population with 19% of the 2002 births ...
Sastry Narayan - - 2003
We examine differences in the mean birth weights of infants born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican-origin Hispanic mothers (of any race) in Chicago in 1990 using linear regression models with neighborhood fixed effects. Our pooled models accounted for 64% of the black-white difference and 57% of the black/Mexican-origin ...
- - 2003
Although the overall U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) declined dramatically during the 1900s, striking racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality remain. Infant health disparities associated with maternal place of birth also exist within some racial/ethnic populations. Eliminating disparities in infant health is crucial to achieving the 2010 national health objective of ...
Kenig Fabien - - 2003
A pseudohomologous series of branched aliphatic alkanes with a quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs, specifically 2,2-dimethylalkanes and 3,3- and 5,5-diethylalkanes) were identified in warm (65 degrees C) deep-sea hydrothermal waters and Late Cretaceous black shales. 5,5-Diethylalkanes were also observed in modern and Holocene marine shelf sediments and in shales spanning ...
Pazmiño Patricio A - - 2003
Although end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains a major public health problem in Texas, information regarding the influence of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the prevalence of ESRD in Texas counties is limited. To determine whether ethnicity and a surrogate marker of socioeconomic status influence the prevalence of dialysis-related ESRD and ...
Mathews T J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2001 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. RESULTS: Infant mortality rates ranged from 3.2 per 1,000 live births for Chinese mothers to ...
Wood James W - - 2003
Recent research has questioned whether the European Black Death of 1347-1351 could possibly have been caused by the bubonic plague bacillus Yersinia pestis, as has been assumed for over a century. Central to the arguments both for and against involvement of Y. pestis has been a comparison of the temporal ...
Chang Shih-Chen - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To describe maternal characteristics and birth outcomes in a group of pregnant minority adolescents and to characterize the impact of maternal age (<15 years versus 15-17 years) on birth outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A 10-year retrospective chart review was conducted in 1120 pregnant black adolescents (< or =17 years of ...
Jones Timothy F - - 2003
In this case-control study of Yersinia enterocolitica infections among black infants, chitterling preparation was significantly associated with illness (p<0.001). Of 13 samples of chitterlings tested, 2 were positive for Yersinia intermedia and 5 for Salmonella. Decontamination of chitterlings before sale with methods such as irradiation should be strongly considered.
Petrova Anna - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of race/ethnicity on mortality and morbidity such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and bacteriologically confirmed sepsis, assisted ventilation, surfactant administration, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) among very prematurely delivered infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of a ...
Gould Jeffrey B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have addressed perinatal outcomes in Hispanic, black, and white non-Hispanic women and demonstrated that although foreign-born Mexican American women have many demographic and socioeconomic risk factors, their rates of low birth weight (LBW) infants and infant mortality are similar to those of white women. This phenomenon has ...
Leslie Jennie C - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to compare Hispanic birth outcomes with those of white and African American women in North Carolina and to examine variables associated with adverse birth outcomes among Hispanic women. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of birth outcomes by ethnicity/race, from linked birth/infant death certificates in North Carolina ...
Norr Kathleen F - - 2003
This article describes the outcomes at 1 year for a randomized clinical trial of Resources, Education and Care in the Home-Futures: a program to reduce infant mortality through home visits by a team of trained community residents led by a nurse. Low-income, inner-city pregnant women who self-identified as African American ...
Guillory V James - - 2003
Infant morbidity due to low birth weight and preterm births results in emotional suffering and significant direct and indirect costs. African American infants continue to have worse birth outcomes than white infants. This study examines relationships between newborn hospital costs, maternal risk factors, and prenatal care in Medicaid recipients in ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of the disparity in infant mortality between twins born to black and white teenagers in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis was performed on twins born to adolescents in the United States within the period 1995-1997. The generalized estimating equations framework was used to generate ...
Gregory Patrice M - - 2003
Wide disparities in birth outcomes persist between Black and non-Black women giving birth in the United States, despite medical and social interventions. This research, which examines birth outcomes and cost for infant hospitalization at delivery for Black and non-Black Medicaid clients in relation to the level of prenatal participation in ...
Palazzo Lorella - - 2003
The mortality disadvantage of African Americans is well documented, but previous studies have not considered its implications for population theory in the general case of industrialized nation states with high levels of income inequality. This paper examines the relevance of classic epidemiological theory to the extremes of income and mortality ...
Lu Michael C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In the United States, Black infants have significantly worse birth outcomes than do White infants. The cause of these persisting racial disparities remains unexplained. Most extant studies focus on differential exposures to protective and risk factors during pregnancy, such as current socioeconomic status, maternal risky behaviors, prenatal care, psychosocial ...
De Beer Dalene - - 2003
The free radical scavenging activity of South African red (n = 46) and white (n = 40) cultivar wines was determined using 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothialozinesulfonic acid) radical cations (ABTS(.+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH.). The total antioxidant activities (TAA) of red and white wines using ABTS(.+) were 14.916 and 0.939 mM Trolox, respectively, ...
Todem David - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Has there been progress in the reduction of adolescent and young adult mortality in Wisconsin over the last 20 years? This paper addresses this question by examining the mortality trends--and disparities by race and gender--of adolescents and young adults in Wisconsin, ages 15-24. METHODS: Mortality data for blacks and ...
Hagen Erika W - - 2003
Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics, this paper analyzes the trends in infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality in Wisconsin between 1980 and 1999. The main causes of infant death are also examined. Results indicate that whites have consistently experienced a steady decline in infant mortality, from 9.2 ...
Alexander Greg R - - 2003
In recent years, gains in neonatal survival have been most evident among very low birth weight, preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) infants. Most of the improvement in neonatal survival since the early 1980s seems to be the consequence of decreasing birth weight-specific mortality rates, which occurred during a period ...
Ayoola Omolola O - - 2002
Fever is a common complaint in infancy, and bacteraemia is one of the more serious causes of such fever. However, there exists scanty data on risk of bacteraemia among febrile infants of developing countries and what clinical predictors, if any, could identify those febrile infants with bacteraemia. To address this ...
Baldwin Laura-Mae - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We sought to provide a national profile of rural and urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) maternal and infant health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of all 1989-1991 singleton AI/AN births to US residents, we compared receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care, low birthweight (< 2500 g), infant ...
Rosenberg Kenneth D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses attention on maternal nutrition and stress as possible reasons for excess black infant mortality after exploring lower infant mortality for the infants of foreign-born black mothers compared to native-born black mothers. METHODS: All births to non-Hispanic black women in New York City from 1988-1992 were examined ...
Wheelis Mark - - 2002
On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de' Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate ...
Mathews T J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This report presents the 2000 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. RESULTS: Infant mortality rates ranged from 3.5 per 1,000 live births for Chinese mothers ...
Lauderdale Diane S - - 2002
We present sex- and age-specific death probabilities for the elderly of six Asian American subgroups--Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese--based on data from social Security Administration files. We determined ethnicity by combining race, place of birth, surname, and given name. The data source and ethnic determination are the same ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2002
We examined trends in fetal growth among singleton live births in the United States and Canada. The data files (n = 48,637,680; 16.6% blacks) for US births, and the Canadian Birth Database of Statistics Canada (n = 3,167,702) for Canadian births were used. Trends were assessed between 1985-86 and 1997-98 ...
Kunz A - - 2002
Textile reactive dyes are very recalcitrant to biodegradation, causing aesthetic, acute and chronic toxicity problems in receiving waters. In this study, we present the degradation of three different reactive dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Blue 21) by ozone, at two different pH conditions. The ozonation process ...
- - 2002
Despite substantial reductions in U.S. infant mortality during the past several decades, black-white disparities in infant mortality rates persist. One of the Healthy People 2010 national objectives for maternal and infant health is to reduce deaths among infants aged < 1 year to < or = 4.5 per 1,000 live ...
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