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Results 151 - 200 of 667
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Krapfl Heidi R - - 2006
Multiple-cause mortality files from 1999-2001 were obtained to describe premature heart disease (PHD) deaths and the role of diabetes as a contributing cause in heart disease (HD) mortality in American Indians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in New Mexico. The proportion and rate of PHD and diabetes-related HD death were calculated ...
Morse Steven B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to provide a race- and gender-specific model for predicting 1-year survival rates for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants by using population-based data. METHODS: Birth and death certificates were analyzed for all children (N = 5076) with birth weights between 300 g and ...
Buescher Paul A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in birth outcomes persist in North Carolina and the United States. We examined patterns of birth outcomes and womens health measures in North Carolina by race and age to portray the largest disparities. We wanted to see if our data were consistent with the "weathering hypothesis," which ...
Ashton Diane - - 2006
Preterm birth is a common, complex and serious disorder that disproportionately affects African-American families in the United States. In conjunction with low birthweight, prematurity has been the leading cause of neonatal death in African-American newborns for more than a decade and significantly characterizes the continuing racial and ethnic disparities seen ...
Briefel Ronette - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare demographic and maternal characteristics and usual nutrient intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age in the United States. DESIGN: We conducted three interviews by telephone to collect information on sociodemographic and maternal characteristics, feeding practices, and dietary intake in the ...
Anachebe Ngozi F - - 2006
Despite marked improvements in lowering infant and maternal mortality rates, certain racial and ethnic groups have benefited less. The reasons for these inequalities are many and complex. This article reviews the literature to assess the extent and reasons for the disparate outcomes in infant and maternal mortality rates among different ...
Srinivasan R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging problem, especially in the larger cities of Western Europe. Selective neonatal BCG vaccination is recommended for infants at risk of TB in the UK. Neonatal BCG is safe and effective, with an overall protective value of 75%. This study aimed to assess BCG rates ...
Smith David P - - 2006
We examined the "Hispanic paradox," whereby persons of Hispanic origin seemed to experience lower mortality than the non-Hispanic White population. This paradox coincided with a change from the classification of deaths and population by Spanish surname to the use of Hispanic-origin questions in the census and vital statistics. To estimate ...
Redelings Matthew D - - 2006
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative condition that can result in cognitive and physical disability and shortened life expectancy. However, population-based information is lacking regarding the mortality burden from MS in the United States. We investigated trends in MS mortality rates and examined important comorbidities in the United States from ...
Morales Leo S - - 2005
We investigated whether the proportion of Black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for Black and White VLBW infants. We analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74050 Black and White VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals ...
Smith Daniel - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The male sex ratio at birth (or the proportion of male births in a population) has been suggested as a sentinel environmental health indicator. Usually around 51%, the proportion may be dramatically decreased in offspring of persons with chemical exposures. Recent publications from the USA and elsewhere have ...
Boxma Annemieke - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe a region of hyperechoic white matter adjacent to the atrium of the lateral ventricle of preterms, and to speculate on the relevance of detecting preterm white matter injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cranial ultrasound images of 92 preterms of gestational age (GA) 32 wk or less were reviewed. ...
Nelson Caleb P - - 2005
PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the incidence of congenital penile anomalies (CPA), particularly hypospadias, is increasing. This phenomenon has significant biological and socioeconomic implications. We sought further confirmation of the reported trends using a large national database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is a 20% sample of ...
Williams Laura J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In an effort to reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), folic acid fortification of US enriched grain products was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration in March 1996 and required by January 1998. Fortification has been shown to result in an important decline in the prevalence ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We examined trends in twin preterm birth <37 weeks following ruptured membranes (ROM), medically indicated preterm birth, and preterm birth following spontaneous onset of labor (PTL). We further examined whether the changes in preterm birth subtypes were associated with trends in twin perinatal mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out ...
Giscombé Cheryl L - - 2005
Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences ...
Besculides Melanie - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feto-infant mortality rate for New York City, assess racial/ethnic variations and identify areas for intervention using the Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach. METHODS: The PPOR model examines fetal and infant deaths by age at death (fetal, neonatal, postneonatal) and birthweight (500-1499, > or =1500 g). ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2005
We set out to determine the magnitude of black-white disparity in intrauterine fetal growth inhibition among twin births to teenagers (age 15 to 19) in the United States using a retrospective cohort study design. We compared the risk for low and very low birthweight, preterm and very preterm, and small ...
McBride Kim L KL Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Ohio State University, 43205, USA. - - 2005
The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) contribute significantly to infant mortality due to birth defects. Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth ...
Getahun Darios - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between parental race and stillbirth and adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using the 1995-2001 linked birth and infant death files that are composed of live births and fetal and infant deaths in the United States. The study included ...
Wingate Martha Slay - - 2006
PURPOSE: We investigate whether variations in infant mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups could be explained by variations in fetal mortality rates where relatively higher infant mortality rates may correspond to lower fetal mortality rates due to possible systematic differences in reporting of fetal death compared to live births. METHODS: Using ...
Shiao Shyang-Yun Pamela K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine predictors of pregnancy and infant outcomes, including maternal race/ethnicity. DESIGN: Prospective and observational follow-up of high-risk pregnancies and births. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty-four mothers and their preterm and/or high-risk live-born neonates were closely followed in three tertiary care centers from the prenatal to postnatal periods for potential ...
Allen Cindy L - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in fetal death by gestational age among South Carolinians during 1999 to 2000 in an attempt to identify sociodemographic risk factors that may contribute to the refinement of care protocols. This historical cohort design appended the 1999 to 2000 South ...
Studnicki James - - 2005
PURPOSE: To assess the health status of the Hispanic population of Orange County, Florida. METHODS: The methodology utilized secondary data for 66 ethnically identified indicators in a comparative framework applied for a 5-year period (1997-2001). FINDINGS: Orange County Hispanics are younger with lower per capita income than their Florida peers, ...
Kourtis Athena P - - 2005
Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute ...
Shields Lisa B E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of infant care practices in a metropolitan community in the United States with attention to feeding routines and modifiable risk factors associated with sudden unexplained infant death (specifically, prone sleeping position, bed sharing, and maternal smoking). METHODS: We conducted an initial face-to-face meeting followed by ...
Aliyu Muktar H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race ...
Chaplin Tracey D - - 2005
The King George III copy of the Gutenberg Bible, held at the British Library, has been analyzed using Raman spectroscopy to determine the palette of pigments used in the illuminations on this work. The palette is found to comprise cinnabar/vermilion, lead tin yellow (type 1), carbon-based black, azurite, malachite, an ...
Cai Jinwen - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) technique was used to analyze resident fetal and infant death data from Kansas City, Missouri, for the period 1998-2002. Results offer important information that can be used to develop community-based prevention strategies related to racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates (IMR). METHODS: The ...
Hogue Carol J Rowland - - 2005
The disparity between black and white infant mortality rates increased over the last decade, despite overall improvement in infant survival. Because most black infant deaths are related to preterm delivery, the discovery of the cause of premature birth in general and excess premature birth for black infants in particular is ...
Duncan C J - - 2005
For the whole of the 20th century it was believed that the Black Death and all the plagues of Europe (1347-1670) were epidemics of bubonic plague. This review presents evidence that this view is incorrect and that the disease was a viral haemorrhagic fever, characterised by a long incubation period ...
Huynh Mary - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Though associations between income inequality and birth outcome have been suggested, mechanisms underlying this relationship are not known. In this analysis, we examined the relationship between income inequality and preterm birth (PTB) and post-neonatal mortality (PNM) to explore two potential mechanisms-the proposed psychosocial stress and neo-material pathways. METHODS: Data ...
Shieh Kong-King - - 2005
This study explored the effects of display characteristics such as target/background color combination, single/simultaneous presentation, and individual differences by sex, and design specialty on preferences of VDT icon design. The results indicated black targets (black-on-white, black-on-yellow) and black backgrounds (red-on-black, yellow-on-black) were the most popular and white targets (white-on-red, white-on-black) ...
Murakami S - - 2005
In order to investigate infradian aspects of sudden death, the daily incidence of 70,531 cases recorded in response to a call for an ambulance during 3 years (1979-1981) in Moscow, Russia, were re-analysed, focusing on multiseptans (components with periods of 7 days and/or multiples thereof). Apart from a prominent yearly ...
Khoshnood Babak - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To examine and compare the risk of low birth weight associated with delayed childbearing in four ethnic groups using nationally representative data in the United States. METHODS: We compared the risk of low (< 2.5 kg) birth weight among African Americans, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and non-Hispanic whites using ...
Horogh G - - 2005
A total of 869 litter records of 226 Hungarian Large White sows have been analysed to investigate the possible use of the oestrogen receptor gene (ESR) as marker to improve litter size. First, second and later parities have been evaluated separately. Frequencies of A = 0.55 and B = 0.45 ...
van Gils J - - 2005
The Danube nutrient loads are affected by human impacts mainly from agriculture and wastewater discharges. Knowledge about the Danube nutrient loads and the changes of these loads over time is essential for understanding the changes within the ecosystem of the Black Sea, induced by these loads. The paper shows the ...
Sundaram Vandana - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal deaths and 10-year trends in maternal mortality in New York City. METHODS: All maternal deaths reported by surveillance of vital records (bearing ICD-9 codes 630-676) in New York City between 1989 and 1998 were studied. Were viewed death certificates and medical and autopsy records to collect ...
Hessol Nancy A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic disparities in infant mortality have been consistently documented in the United States, but these disparities are poorly understood. Although the infant mortality rate in the United States has fallen to record low rates, since 1971 the ethnic disparity between black and white infants has remained unchanged or increased. ...
Reagan Patricia B - - 2005
Preterm births occur in 9.7% of all US singleton births. The rate for blacks is double that of whites and the rate is 25% higher for Hispanics than for whites. While a number of individual correlates with preterm birth have been identified, race and ethnic differences have not been fully ...
Mathews T J - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2002 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data file by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. RESULTS: ...
Frisbie W Parker - - 2004
Although substantial declines in infant mortality rates have occurred across racial/ethnic groups, there has been a marked increase in relative black-white disparity in the risk of infant death over the past two decades. The objective of our analysis was to gain insight into the reasons for this growing inequality on ...
Robbins Jessica M - - 2004
We used vital statistics and census data to determine whether mortality rates in Philadelphia were associated with neighborhood poverty, and to what extent excess mortality among African Americans was associated with neighborhood poverty. Gender-specific, age-adjusted mortality rates for 1999-2001 were strongly associated with neighborhood poverty among both women and men ...
Tan Hongzhuan - - 2004
Previous work has found that singleton birth outcomes are better if the father is black and the mother is white than if the father is white and the mother is black. We sought to examine the effects of parental race on fetal and infant mortality in twins. We analyzed the ...
Vorkamp Katrin - - 2004
Ten black guillemot eggs, 19 ringed seals, 20 shorthorn sculpins and 20 Arctic chars were collected around Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund, Central East Greenland) in summer 2001 and analysed for 11 brominated diphenyl ether congeners (BDEs) and organochlorine compounds. Congeners BDE85 and BDE183 were not detected in any sample. SigmaBDE was highest ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic variations in the occurrence of abdominal wall defects have been previously noted but it remains poorly understood whether race/ethnicity is a determinant of survival among affected infants. METHODS: Study was conducted on cases of gastroschisis and omphalocele recorded for the years 1983-1999 at the New York Congenital Malformation ...
Bol Kirk A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Infant mortality rates continue to show that congenital anomalies are the leading cause of infant death in the United States. However, studies of factors contributing to increased mortality across different types of congenital anomalies have been limited. The objective of this study was to assess whether the likelihood of ...
Cottrell Barbara Hansen - - 2004
This study determined the prevalence of maternal bacterial vaginosis (BV) in fetal/infant mortality cases and factors associated with BV. A retrospective descriptive study was utilized. Data were obtained from review of vital statistics and medical records of 176 women experiencing fetal/infant deaths in eight Florida counties, 1999 to 2000. Non-White ...
Basu Rupa - - 2004
Although studies suggest that air pollution is linked to perinatal outcomes, the geographic characterization of exposure to pollution differs between the studies. We compared neighborhood- and county-level measures of air pollution exposure, while examining the association between particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and birth weight ...
Lu Michael C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine racial-ethnic disparities in stressful life events before and during pregnancy and to assess the relationship between stressful life events and racial-ethnic disparities in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted a retrospective cohort ...
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