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Results 101 - 150 of 668
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Matijasevich Alicia - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed trends in mortality among infants born to White and to Black or mixed-race women in 3 population-based cohorts representing all births in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Pelotas, southern Brazil. METHODS: Births were assessed during daily visits to all maternity hospitals. Maternal skin color was classified by ...
Paul Ian M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: In the United States, significant ethnic and racial health and healthcare disparities exist among our most vulnerable populations, new mothers and newborns. We sought to determine disparities in socioeconomic status, perinatal health, and perinatal healthcare for black mothers and their newborns cared for in well-baby nurseries compared with white ...
Palomar Lisanne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that paternal race influences the risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cohort study to examine the association of paternal race with preterm birth using the Missouri Department of Health's birth registry from 1989-1997. Birth outcomes ...
Hummer Robert A - - 2007
Recent research suggests that the favorable mortality outcomes for the Mexican immigrant population in the United States may largely be attributable to selective out-migration among Mexican immigrants, resulting in artificially low recorded death rates for the Mexican-origin population. In this paper we calculate detailed age-specific infant mortality rates by maternal ...
Steel A - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Cervical incompetence appears to have a greater prevalence in the developing world, which possibly extends to multi-ethnic communities in the UK. Emergency cerclage has been found to have a relative degree of success in patients detected on ultrasound or presenting clinically. Our study aimed to look at the emergency ...
Qiu Samuel X - - 2007
Osteoporosis is a major age-related source of morbidity and mortality. Increased bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts is central to its pathogenesis. Cytokines, particularly RANKL and TNFalpha, are often increased under pathologic conditions, leading to enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa L), a popular herbal supplement for the treatment of menopausal ...
McDonald Jill A - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: One in five US babies are Hispanic, and many Hispanics are recent immigrants. This study's goal is to compare reproductive health characteristics between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) mothers and to determine whether those characteristics differ by Hispanic birth increases. METHODS: State-based Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2002 data ...
Olson Michael A - - 2007
Previous research suggests that automatic prejudice directly manifests in nonverbal behavior. The authors offer a more complex picture of the relation between automatic processes and nonverbal behavior by suggesting that any discomfort that appears in nonverbal behavior stems not from negative attitudes per se but from discordance between automatically activated ...
Christakos G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. METHODS: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of ...
Donovan Edward F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to test the hypothesis that participation in a community-based home-visiting program is associated with a decreased risk of infant death. METHODS: A retrospective, case-control design was used to compare the risk of infant death among participants in Cincinnati's Every Child Succeeds program and control subjects matched ...
Schempf Ashley H - - 2007
We evaluated whether the decline of the racial disparity in preterm birth during the last decade was commensurate with a decline in the contribution of preterm birth to the infant mortality gap. We used linked files of 1990 and 2000 data on US infant births and deaths to partition the ...
David Richard - - 2007
Since 1950, dramatic advances in human genetics have occurred, racial disparities in infant mortality have widened, and the United States' international ranking in infant mortality has deteriorated. The quest for a "preterm birth gene" to explain racial differences is now under way. Scores of papers linking polymorphisms to preterm birth ...
Friedman Ray - - 2007
In this study, the authors examined differences between Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. They predicted and found that Chinese arbitrators make higher awards for interfirm contract violations than Americans. This difference is partially explained by differences in attributions. Prior theory suggests, and the authors found, that the Chinese tend to ...
Tuan Wen-Jan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality has been perceived as one of the critical and sensitive measures that reflect not only the heath status of infants and their mothers, but also the general well-being of a society. However, our knowledge of racial disparities in neonatal mortality associated with low birth weight and short ...
Davis Devra Lee - - 2007
The expected ratio of male to female births is generally believed to be 1.05, also described as the male proportion of 0.515. We describe trends in sex ratio at birth and in fetal deaths in the United States, in African Americans and in whites, and in Japan, two industrial countries ...
Alexander G R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of infants of U.S. resident Asian-Indian-American (AIA) mothers and compares those to infants of U.S. resident Whites and African-American (AA) mothers. METHODS: Single live births to U.S. resident mothers with race/ethnicity coded on birth certificate as AIA, non-Hispanic White, or ...
Schempf Ashley - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Recent increases in the Delaware Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) have been attributed to a rise in the mortality of very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants born to mothers of higher socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the determinants of infant mortality trends in Delaware vary by race. ...
El Reda Darline K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth (PTB), <37 weeks gestation, occurs in 12.1% of live births annually and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Racial/ethnic subgroups are disproportionately affected by PTB. Michigan is home to one of the largest Arab-American communities in the country; however, little is known ...
Byrd DeAnnah R - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Understanding the factors contributing to black/white disparities in infant mortality rates in Wisconsin is a prerequisite to decreasing these disparities and improving birth outcomes. We examined multiple determinants of infant mortality to understand the impact of specific risk factors on the infant mortality rates of blacks and whites in ...
Smyth Breda - - 2007
To examine premature mortality in terms of years of potential life lost (YPLL) among a cohort of long-term heroin addicts. This longitudinal, prospective study followed a cohort of 581 male heroin addicts in California for more than 33 years. In the latest follow-up conducted in 1996/97, 282 subjects (48.5%) were ...
Collins James W JW - - 2007
To explore the association between race and preterm birth among women with a lifelong residence in high-income neighborhoods. Stratified and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on the Illinois transgenerational birthfile (infants born 1989-1991 and mothers born 1956-1975) with appended US Census income data. African American (n = 777) and ...
Tjørve Kathleen M C - - 2007
We studied prefledging growth, energy expenditure and time budgets of African Black Oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini, chicks on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of parental feeding on the growth and energetics of semi-precocial shorebird chicks. Chicks reached mean fledging mass, ...
Carson Carolyn - - 2007
In the Pittsburgh region, as elsewhere, the Black infant mortality rate, reflecting overall health disparities, is higher than the rate for White babies. This study suggests that the answer to the infant mortality racial disparity question may lie partially in the characteristics and availability of prenatal care as well as ...
Wightkin Joan - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: In order to prospectively identify psychosocial predictors of infants being underweight, we followed 3,302 low-income infants. These infants received well-baby care in health departments and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food Program from the newborn period to 12 months of age. METHODS: We linked ...
Baker Laurence C - - 2007
To obtain information about health outcomes in neonates in 9 subgroups of the Asian population in the United States. Cross-sectional comparison of outcomes for births to mothers of Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Thai, and Vietnamese origin and for births to non-Hispanic white mothers. Regression models were used ...
Sheeder Jeanelle - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the interaction between maternal age and race in the prediction of infant size at birth. METHODS: Birth certificate data was used to study the relationship between maternal age, race/ethnicity, and the size of term, singleton infants born to 91,061 healthy, non-smoking, non-substance using, primigravidas. RESULTS: Maternal race/ethnicity ...
Fok Tai-Fai - - 2006
Skinfold thickness is a validated parameter of subcutaneous fat accumulation. Data on triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were collected from 10,043 (5318 males, 4725 females) singletons at 12 hospitals with gestation 31-42 wk. The LMS method using maximum penalized likelihood was used to perform model fitting of the anthropometric centiles ...
Kaiser Cheryl R - - 2006
In two studies, Whites' endorsement of system-justifying beliefs predicted increased negativity toward Blacks who blamed negative events on discrimination. Whites' system-justifying beliefs were not associated with negativity toward Blacks who blamed negative events on other internal causes, external causes, or nondiscriminatory unfairness. These negative reactions toward discrimination claimants were mediated ...
Howard David L - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Black women in the United States are more likely to give birth to preterm and low birth-weight infants than their white counterparts, but little is known about variation in birth outcomes within the black population. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the risk of low birth weight ...
Messer Lynne C - - 2006
Census data are widely used for assessing neighborhood socioeconomic context. Research using census data has been inconsistent in variable choice and usually limited to single geographic areas. This paper seeks to a) outline a process for developing a neighborhood deprivation index using principal components analysis and b) demonstrate an example ...
Eisen Rebecca J - - 2006
Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. ...
Colen Cynthia G - - 2006
We estimate the extent to which upward socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty will give birth to a low-birthweight baby. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the 1970 US Census were used to complete ...
Yang Quanhe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The objective is to study racial differences in infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 1989-1991 and 1995-2002 linked birth/death files for trends and racial differences in IMBD by selected categories of birth defects for infants of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and ...
Goza Franklin W - - 2007
This study presents an ecological analysis of the relationship between infant mortality and economic status by race in metropolitan Ohio, using census data on mother's residence and economic status determined by the percentage of low-income families living in each area. The analysis updates previous studies as white-non-white comparisons for total ...
Sangaré Laura - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate population-based rates of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated infant hospitalizations related to race/ethnicity, payer source, and geography in California. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of RSV-coded infant hospitalizations were performed using the California patient discharge data for 1999 to 2003. All discharge records for infants younger than 1 year ...
Zhang Yawei - - 2007
It was hypothesized that the risk for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is associated with maternal hormone levels. To examine the hypothesis, some studies used perinatal factors as surrogates for hormone levels. To determine the validity of this assumption, hormone-perinatal factor relationships were examined in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Birthweight for gestational age is lower in US Black infants than in US White infants. It is unknown, however, whether this difference is 'normal' (i.e. physiological) or reflects pathological foetal growth restriction. METHODS: We applied an analytic approach based on foetuses at risk to compare gestational age-specific rates of ...
Headley Adrienne J - - 2006
Adverse reproductive outcomes (AROs) disproportionately affect black American infants and significantly contribute to the U.S. infant mortality rate. Without accurate understanding of AROs, there remains little hope of ameliorating infant mortality rates or eliminating infant health disparities. However, despite the importance of monitoring infant mortality rates and health disparities, birth ...
Qin Cheng - - 2006
Asians are often considered a single group in epidemiological research. This study examines the extent of differences in maternal risks and birth outcomes for six Asian subgroups. Using linked birth/infant death certificate data from the State of California for the years 1992-97, we assessed maternal socio-economic risks and their effect ...
Battilani P - - 2006
Geostatistical analysis was applied to the incidence of Aspergillus Section Nigri and A. carbonarius in Southern Europe and Israel for the 3-year period 2001-2003 to facilitate identification of regions of high risk from contamination with these fungi and production of ochratoxin. The highest incidence of black aspergilli was normally observed ...
Samad Lamiya - - 2006
To compare demographic, social, maternal, and infant related factors associated with partial immunisation and no immunisation in the first year of life in the United Kingdom. Prospective cohort study. Sample of electoral wards in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, stratified by measures of ethnic composition and social disadvantage. 18,488 ...
Kitsantas Panagiota - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health problem. Compared to normal weight infants, LBW is positively associated with infant mortality and negatively associated with normative childhood cognitive and physical development. In the past two decades, research has identified important risk factors of LBW. In this study, we ...
Kuo Lun-Cheng - - 2006
Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18 in black soymilk is reported. At the concentration of 3-5% (w/v), black soymilk in flask cultures, the isoflavones, daidzin, and genistin were highly deglycosylated within 24 h. Deglycosylation of isoflavones was further carried out in a 7-l fermenter with 5% black ...
Mathews T J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2003 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data file by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. Excluding ...
Beal Anne C - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Race is a predictor of health outcomes and risk for some clinical conditions, for example, mother's race predicts risk for hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, with blacks at lowest risk. Little is known about the correlation of race as recorded in medical records with self-reported race. Also, use of maternal race ...
Healy C Mary - - 2006
The reasons for the higher pertussis incidence among Hispanic infants, compared with among infants of other ethnicities, are unknown. The geometric mean concentration of pertussis toxin-specific immunoglobulin G in serum samples from 220 Hispanic neonates was 8.45 EU/mL, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and it was significantly lower if ...
Wang Lin - - 2006
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects >200,000 pregnancies in the United States annually and is associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity, as well as poorer long-term health for infants with FGR compared with infants without FGR. FGR appears to be a complex trait, but the role of genetic factors in ...
Madan Ashima - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal risks and outcomes in foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated 6.4 million U.S. vital records for births during 1995-2000 to white, foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women. Risks and outcomes were compared by use of chi2 and logistic regression. RESULTS: ...
Baker Anna Nibley - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of residential segregation with poor birth outcomes (low birthweight, preterm) and with perinatal risk markers (maternal age, education and marital status, prenatal care and substance use, presence of paternal information on birth certificate) for foreign- and native-born black women in the Minnesota seven-county metropolitan area. ...
Rock W P - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in the size and shape of the skull and jaws in British populations between the thirteenth and twentieth centuries. METHOD: Lateral cephalometric radiograms were obtained from skulls of three groups of subjects: 30 skulls were from the remains of those who died in the London Black ...
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