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Phillips Ghasi S - - 2009
Relative income may be a better predictor of health outcomes than absolute income. We examined two measures of relative income-income incongruity and relative household income-in relation to preterm birth in a study of U.S. Black women. Income incongruity is a measure that compares the median household income of an individual's ...
Sparks P Johnelle - - 2009
Many studies find racial/ethnic disparities in a diverse set of birth outcomes. However few empirical studies have examined the existence and possible explanations for racial/ethnic disparities in preterm births using a diverse set of racial/ethnic categories and a nationally representative sample of births. This research fills that gap. Using data ...
Collins James W JW - - 2009
In the United States, African-American infants have significantly worse outcomes than white infants. In this review, the authors look beyond traditional risk factors and explore the social context of race in this country in an effort to understand African-American women's long-standing pregnancy outcome disadvantage. In the process, new insights are ...
Nembhard Wendy N - - 2009
PURPOSE: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most prevalent birth defects. Infants with CHDs more often are small-for-gestational age (SGA) than infants without CHD; however, little is known about racial/ethnic variations in prevalence of SGA or large-for-gestational age (LGA) for infants born with CHDs. This study determined the risk of ...
Reichman Nancy E - - 2009
We employed multilevel models to estimate the effects of neighborhood racial composition on birthweight, using a national urban sample of 1871 births to unmarried black mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study. The mothers lived in 1181 census tracts with substantial variability in racial composition and ...
Nembhard Wendy N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CHD among non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic infants. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 9,352 singleton infants diagnosed with conotruncal, right or left obstructive or septal CHDs from the Florida Birth Defects Registry, born 1998-2003 to ...
- - 2009
In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to help prevent pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration mandated adding folic acid to all enriched cereal grain ...
Welford Mark R - - 2009
Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues") and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks ...
Guillory V James - - 2008
Perinatal periods of risk (PPOR) provide an alternative analytical approach to studying infant mortality. Results can be used to focus community activities to improve infant and maternal health. This article demonstrates the use of PPOR to monitor trends in excess fetal and infant mortality related to disparities associated with race ...
Cruz Evelyn - - 2008
For at least 20 years, the probability that an infant born in Wisconsin would die during the first year of life has been approximately three times greater for infants born to African American women than for those born to White women. Over the same period of time, other states have ...
Zhang Xun - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risks of infant death and neonatal morbidity by week of gestation at term. STUDY DESIGN: National U.S. birth cohort study on the basis of singleton live births in 1995-2001 at 37 to 41 completed weeks gestational age (GA), with exclusion of congenital anomalies. Main outcomes included ...
Hearst Mary O - - 2008
Economic differences and proximal risk factors do not fully explain the persistent high infant mortality rates of African Americans (blacks). The authors hypothesized that racial residential segregation plays an independent role in high black infant mortality rates. Segregation restricts social and economic advantage and imposes negative environmental exposures that black ...
Nystrom Michael J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether perinatal outcomes among interracial Asian-white couples are different than among Asian-Asian and white-white couples. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of Asian, white, and Asian-white couples delivered at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2005. Asian-white couples were subdivided into white-mother/Asian-father or Asian-mother/white-father. Perinatal outcomes ...
Glaser Sally L - - 2008
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in the tumor cells of some but not all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients, and evidence indicates that EBV-positive and -negative HL are distinct entities. Racial/ethnic variation in EBV-positive HL in international comparisons suggests etiologic roles for environmental and genetic factors, but these studies used clinical ...
Li Qing - - 2010
This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and ...
Bruckner Tim A - - 2008
PURPOSE: Black infants die from sudden infant death syndrome at twice the incidence observed among non-Hispanic white infants. Explanations for this disparity include a two-fold greater prevalence of prone (i.e., stomach) infant sleep placement among black caregivers. I test the hypothesis that the contraction of state economies may contribute to ...
Soria-Pastor Sara - - 2008
There is increasing evidence about the presence of white matter damage in subjects with a history of premature birth, even in those classified as good outcome because of an apparently normal development. Although intellectual performance is within normal limits in premature children it is significantly decreased compared to paired controls. ...
Cheng Diana - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study circumcision rates in Maryland using hospital discharge and maternal survey data in order to provide healthcare providers, parents and policy makers with more accurate and comprehensive information about this common yet controversial procedure. METHODS: Secondary data analyses were performed using Maryland hospital discharge data files containing records ...
Shen Tammy T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that race is associated with the risk of preterm birth due to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and its recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally linked birth certificate ...
Quinn Gwendolyn P - - 2009
Infant mortality has been identified as a key public health concern in the United States. Although infant mortality rates (IMRs) in the United States have declined during the past 10 years, the rates among Blacks are more than two times higher as compared with other racial and ethnic groups. This ...
Sims Mario - - 2008
This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) ...
Wuttikul Chatchada - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study discusses prominent signal intensity of T(1)/T(2) prolongation of subcortical white matter within the anterior temporal region in premature infant brains that radiologists may encounter when interpreting conventional screening MRIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images of 69 preterm and term infants with no neurological abnormalities or ...
Howard David L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether there are racial differences in the relation between the timing of incarceration during pregnancy and birth outcomes among incarcerated pregnant women. METHODS: We examined the medical records associated with 360 infants born to pregnant inmates in Texas state prisons between January 1, 2002 and December 31, ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether the preponderance of obesity among black women could explain the black-white disparity in neonatal mortality. METHODS: This is a population-based study using longitudinally collected data among pregnant women from the state of Missouri spanning almost two decades (1978-1997). Obesity is defined in this study as body ...
Simhan Hyagriv N - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the contribution of paternal race and parental racial discordance to preterm birth STUDY DESIGN: We used a US natality cohort of 2,845,686 singleton births. Race was self-reported. Preterm birth was defined as a birth at <34 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: In ...
Mahmood Farida - - 2008
Morphological variants showing differences in length of median white scaled bands on the proboscises of female Aedes sollicitans (Cape May County, NJ) are described from F1 progeny of wild-caught mosquitoes. The length of the white-scaled band was classified into 5 categories: 1) large (0.53-0.60 mm), 2) medium (0.40-.47 mm), 3) ...
Duboscq Julie - - 2008
In mammals, which give birth to more or less dependent offspring, parturition usually takes place during the animals' resting period and in a secure environment. We report here the first direct and documented observation of a daytime birth of a wild baby crested black macaque, Macaca nigra, in the Tangkoko ...
Jiménez Tomás R - - 2008
The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using ...
Wells Natalie N Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics , Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2008
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of the Navy, Department of Defense or the U. S. government. Dr. Wells is a military service member (employee ...
Ma Sai - - 2008
I sought to identify whether there were associations between paternal race/ethnicity and birth outcomes among infants with parents of same- and mixed-races/ethnicities. Using the National Center for Health Statistics 2001 linked birth and infant death file, I compared birth outcomes of infants of White mothers and fathers of different races/ethnicities ...
Kitsantas P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic differences among non-Hispanic black and white births in the distribution of maternal risk factors of infant mortality across specific causes of death. STUDY DESIGN: The data were obtained from the North Carolina linked birth/infant death files (1989 to 1997). Logistic ...
Osypuk Theresa L - - 2008
The causes of the racial/ethnic disparity in preterm birth (PTB) remain largely unknown; traditional risk factors such as smoking and prenatal care fail to account for it. The authors examined whether living in metropolitan areas (MAs) with high levels of residential racial segregation along multiple dimensions (hypersegregation) was associated with ...
Eudy Ruth L - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to explore regional, economic and racial disparities in infant mortality rates between geographic sub-regions within the eight states containing the Delta and to test hypotheses that regional disparities would decrease over time while county poverty level and racial composition would remain significant predictors ...
Howell Elizabeth A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether differences in the hospitals at which black and white infants are born contribute to black/white disparities in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using New York City vital statistics records on all ...
DeWitte Sharon N - - 2008
Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347-1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions ("frailty")? Many researchers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naïve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of ...
Howell Elizabeth A - - 2008
Black infants in the United States are more than twice as likely to die as White infants in the first year of life. Reducing the existing racial disparity in infant mortality rates is a major health policy focus. Despite decades of research aimed at reducing preterm births, our efforts have ...
Menon Ramkumar - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the differences in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and the immunoinhibitory cytokine IL-10 in the amniotic fluid of black and white women in spontaneous preterm birth. METHODS: In this study, 321 amniotic fluids from cases (preterm birth 36 or fewer weeks' gestation) and controls (normal term ...
L'Abbé E N - - 2008
Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. ...
Khalid J M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that homozygous c.985A>G medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a disease of White ethnic origin but little is known regarding its ethnic distribution. We estimated ethnic-specific homozygous c.985A>G MCADD birth prevalence from a large-scale UK newborn screening study. METHODS: Homozygous c.985A>G MCADD cases were ascertained ...
Shen Tammy T - - 2008
Efforts to elucidate risk factors for placental abruption are imperative due to the severity of complications it produces for both mother and fetus, and its contribution to preterm birth. Ethnicity-based differences in risk of placental abruption and preterm birth have been reported. We tested the hypotheses that race, after adjusting ...
Grady Sue C - - 2008
This study explores mediating medical risk factors in the association between racial residential segregation (i.e., racial 'black' isolation) and low birthweight in New York City, adjusting for maternal and infant risk factors and neighborhood poverty. This race-specific cross-sectional multilevel study found that as racial isolation increased in neighborhoods, the odds ...
Nembhard Wendy N - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Birth defects and preterm birth (PTB) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Infants with birth defects are more likely to be born preterm (<37 weeks), yet the roles of maternal ethnicity and fetal growth in this relationship are unclear. This study aimed to ...
Lay A M - - 2007
The objective of this work was to characterize a novel appearance defect found in Cheddar cheese, heretofore referred to as black spot defect (BSD), and to determine an etiology. Uniformly distributed throughout the cheese mass, BSD appears as small spherical black spots from 0.20 to 4.7 mm in diameter and ...
Alexander Greg R - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The two-fold purpose of this analysis is first to contrast the maternal risk factors and birth outcomes of American Indians (AIs) with other race/ethnic groups and to compare the maternal risk factors and birth outcomes of AIs by region to assess whether there are geographic variations in the adverse ...
Wingate Martha S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the "healthy migrant" effect is applicable to an internally mobile U.S.-born population, that is, whether infants born to women that moved within the United States had better birth outcomes compared to those infants whose mothers did not move. METHODS: This study used 1995-2001 National Center for ...
Carson Scott Alan - - 2008
The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in economic history. Moreover, a number of core findings in the literature are widely agreed upon. There are still some populations, places and times, however, for which anthropometric evidence remains thin. One example is 19th century ...
Dudink Jeroen - - 2007
Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy ...
Alexander Greg R - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We examined trends in birthweight-gestational age distributions and related infant mortality for African American and white women and calculated the estimated excess annual number of African American infant deaths. STUDY DESIGN: Live births to US-resident mothers with a maternal race of white or African American were selected from the ...
Silva L M - - 2007
Few studies are available about racial inequalities in perinatal health in Brazil and little is known about whether the existing inequality is due to socioeconomic factors or to racial discrimination per se. Data regarding the Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, whose mothers were interviewed from June 1, 1978 to May ...
Kirmeyer Sharon E W - - 2007
Birth certificate gestational age data based on the date of the mother's last menstrual period (LMP) are considered problematic. Of particular concern are birthweight distributions for infants reported on the birth certificate as having been delivered at 28-31 weeks' gestation; these distributions have been shown to be distinctly bimodal. The ...
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