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Results 451 - 500 of 668
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Schoendorf K C - - 1992
BACKGROUND: In the United States, black infants are twice as likely to die as white infants; this difference reflects both black infants' higher rates of low birth weight and the higher mortality among black infants of normal birth weight. We studied mortality in infants born to college-educated parents in order ...
Collins J W JW - - 1992
To determine the extent to which disparities in risk status and access to tertiary care affect racial differences in neonatal mortality rates among normal birth weight infants, we conducted a vital records study concerning normal weight black (N = 44,399) and white (N = 48,146) singleton births in Chicago. Neonatal ...
Brooks-Gunn J - - 1992
The Infant Health and Development Program is a national collaborative study to test the efficacy of combining early child development and family support services with pediatric follow-up to reduce the incidence of health and developmental problems among low birth weight, preterm infants in eight medical school sites. Its efficacy in ...
Greenberg M - - 1992
Analysis of black American death rates by region of birth and region of residence showed that southern-born blacks had the highest mortality rates and western-born blacks the lowest mortality rates. Blacks born in the northeast, midwest, and outside the US had rates intermediate between southern and western-born black rates. Blacks ...
Rawlings J S - - 1992
Mortality among black infants in the United States is approximately twice that among white infants. The disparity has been attributed in large part to the higher incidence of poverty and limited access to health care among black Americans. We investigated race- and rank-specific infant mortality rates among dependents of military ...
Bejar R F - - 1992
One hundred twenty-seven infants less than 36 weeks of gestation (mean +/- SE = 31 +/- 3.2 weeks) were studied with echoencephalography to determine the incidence and complications associated with white matter necrosis. Ten infants (8%) developed cysts ten or more days after birth, indicating postnatal onset of white matter ...
Berenson A B - - 1992
The recent increase in requests for genital examinations in girls who may have been sexually abused has necessitated detailed information not previously available on normal anatomy of the prepubertal girl. This study was undertaken to document the genital anatomy of 211 girls between the ages of 1 month and 7 ...
Hahn R A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the consistency of the racial and ethnic classification of US infants between birth and death and its impact on infant mortality rates. SUBJECTS: All US infants born from 1983 through 1985 who died within a year. DESIGN: We used the national linked birth/infant-death computer tape, augmented with ...
Geronimus A T - - 1992
Observed variation between populations in fertility-timing distributions has been thought to contribute to infant mortality differentials. This hypothesis is based, in part, on the belief that the 20s through early 30s constitute "prime" childbearing ages that are low-risk relative to younger or older ages. However, when stratified by racial identification ...
Adams M M - - 1991
In the US, black infants born near or at term experience higher mortality than white infants. To extend our understanding of black-white differences in the relative advantages of growth (measured by birthweight) for gestational age, we compared race-specific rates of perinatal mortality by deviation in grams from the median birthweight ...
Goldenberg R L - - 1991
The mean birth weight of black infants is consistently less than that of white infants. In 1518 low-income multiparous women, the mean difference in singleton births was 171 g, of which 38 g was partitioned to preterm births and another 35 g reflected lower gestational ages in term births. A ...
Polednak A P - - 1991
The Black-White difference in infant mortality rates for 1982 through 1986 in 38 large US standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) varied by a factor of almost seven. In multiple regression analyses the most important predictor of the Black-White difference in the 38 SMSAs was an index of Black-White residential dissimilarity ...
Migone A - - 1991
Using the 1983 United States population of single live births, birthweight and gestational duration were compared for babies of these different parental racial groups: both parents White, mother White-father Black, mother Black-father White, both parents Black. The four groups differed significantly with respect to the usual sociodemographic variables. Mean birthweight ...
Molina J C - - 1991
Interactions between olfactory and brightness conditioning were examined in infant (16-day-old) and adult rats. Conditioning to an odor (methyl salicylate [MS] paired with footshock [FS]) was followed by subthreshold conditioning to an unscented black box (paired with FS). Controls were given unpaired presentations in either the 1st or the 2nd ...
Herrmann V M - - 1991
A female black rhinoceros calf developed significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose, 30 mg/dL) and hypothermia (97 degrees F) within 48 hours of birth and refused to nurse. Normal gestation of the black rhinoceros is 15 months, but elongated hoof slippers and low birth weight (30 kg) suggested prematurity in this calf. ...
Snyder R D - - 1991
The ethical issues concerning the use of fetal tissue as a source for organ transplantation has focused interest on anencephaly. For reasons that are not entirely clear, the incidence of anencephaly has been declining. As anencephaly is easily recognized and invariably fatal, mortality figures provide an excellent reflection of incidence. ...
Correa-Villaseñor A - - 1991
Cardiovascular malformations were examined for white/black variation in the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study. In this population-based case-control study, cases (n = 2,087) were live births with cardiovascular malformations ascertained through pediatric cardiology centers and 53 hospitals in Maryland, the District of Columbia, and northern Virginia between 1981 and 1987. Controls (n ...
Levin J S - - 1991
Findings are presented from the Galveston Low Birthweight Survey (GLOWBS), conducted at The University of Texas Medical Branch from 1986 through 1987. One full year of delivery logbook data were abstracted on all live, single births (N = 3904) to Anglo (n = 2114), black (n = 902), and Hispanic ...
Iyasu S - - 1991
In the United States, one-third of all infant deaths (deaths of infants ages 0-364 days) occurs in the postneonatal period (28-364 days). A substantial proportion of these deaths potentially could be prevented. To examine recent trends in postneonatal mortality (PNM) in the United States, the investigators analyzed birth and death ...
- - 1991
1990 was an excellent year for life expectancy. Average future lifetime for both infant boys and girls rose to all-time highs. However, the gender gap in expectation of life at birth widened for the first time in more than a decade. The increase may be a statistical aberration or, more ...
Mimouni F - - 1991
A role for vitamin D in the defense against falling serum calcium (Ca) concentrations following cord clamping has been suggested. Since race and season are known to affect vitamin D status, we theorized that black race and birth in winter are additional risk factors for neonatal hypocalcemia (NHC). We retrospectively ...
Hulsey T C - - 1991
An analysis of 10,159 normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries was performed to examine racial differences in mean birth weight of infants whose mothers were without antepartum or intrapartum medical complications of pregnancy. The study was limited to black and white infants of low-income mothers who were inborn, singleton, and weighed greater ...
Sousa M G - - 1991
Electrophoretic polymorphism of delta-aminolevulinate dehydrase (ALAD) was studied on 519 individuals from Bahia, Brazil. Subjective assessment of Black ancestries carried out in a five point visual scale (White, Light Mulatto, Medium Mulatto, Dark Mulatto and Black) allowed to show that the ALAD*2 allele frequency decreases from 8% in Whites to ...
Hulsey T C - - 1991
In a retrospective study of 18,631 deliveries among women of low income, we examined the association of racial disparities in mean birth weight with population differences in maternal demographic characteristics and antepartum-intrapartum medical complications. The study population consisted of inborn, nonreferred, singleton, low-income patients delivered on the nonprivate service after ...
Mangold W D - - 1991
Detailed 1977 national natality data are used to investigate social, demographic, and genetic effects on birthweight differentials. Analysis of birthweight differences among infants with white, black, and mixed black-white parents indicates that a portion of the observed weight differentials appear to be due to biologic factors. Infants with a black ...
Denton N A - - 1991
Ethnic diversity within metropolitan neighborhoods increased during the 1970s, and all-white tracts became less common. The simple presence of a minority group did not precipitate turnover, but as the minority proportion rose, the probability of racial and ethnic transition increased. Tracts with multiple groups became much more common during the ...
Kleinman J C - - 1991
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nativity status (native vs foreign born) and other maternal characteristics (age, parity, education, and marital status) on infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality among white and black mothers. The design of this nonrandomized cohort study was based on birth and ...
Becerra J E - - 1991
In the United States, infant mortality risks among Hispanics have not been previously evaluated at the national level. We used the 1983 and 1984 national Linked Birth and Infant Death data sets to compare infant mortality risks among single-delivery infants of Hispanic descent with those among single-delivery infants of non-Hispanic ...
David R J - - 1991
The gap between black and white infant death rates in the United States has grown over the last three decades. Epidemiologic and medical studies by investigators seeking to understand and reverse this adverse trend have been unsuccessful. Researchers have looked in vain for the combination of social and environmental risk ...
Weeks J R - - 1991
The numerically large and growing Indochinese refugee population has been little studied with respect to infant health. It is a population that is young, is experiencing high fertility, late onset of prenatal care, and is characterized by low socioeconomic status. Thus, it presents a high risk profile with respect to ...
Greenberg M - - 1991
Temporal clustering of homicides among 15- to 24-year-old black and white Americans was studied in 22 heavily urbanized counties in the United States from 1979 through 1985. Thirty-eight million people, including 37% of black Americans and 14% of white Americans, lived in these densely developed countries. The pattern of white ...
Friedman A S - - 1991
In a longitudinal study, the substance use/abuse histories were obtained on a community sample of 640, (mean age of 24.9 years) randomly selected from the 8,000 Philadelphia black subjects who had been studied comprehensively from birth to seven years of age in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP). Among other ...
Poerksen A - - 1991
Recent studies have not shown adverse effects of employment during pregnancy on the pregnancy outcome, but most have not successfully distinguished factors due to work-related physical and mental strain from differences in social, economic and cultural characteristics between employed and non-employed women. We analyzed data from the Alameda County Case-Control ...
Steinberg M H - - 1991
Sickle cell anemia is present in about 1 in 600 Black Americans at birth. It claims the life of many infants, causes pain and suffering in adults, and usually culminates in premature death. We currently understand a great deal about this disease on a molecular, cellular, and clinical basis. The ...
Reid G G Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Occupational Health, - - 1990
A pilot study on the health effects of environmental exposure to asbestos (in particular the development of mesothelioma) is almost complete. This is a record linkage study, using birth and death records as the primary sources of data. The vital status and, if applicable, the cause of death was examined ...
Duncan G J - - 1990
This article presents a model of teenage out-of-wedlock births that incorporates the effects of both welfare and nonwelfare economic opportunities. We construct measures of the likely "medium-run" income available to a teenage girl in the event of an out-of-wedlock birth and in the absence of a birth and then estimate ...
Wineberg H - - 1990
Analysis of data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey reveals that although marriage continues to be an important setting for childbearing, the strength of this relationship varies considerably by the mother's race, education and age at first birth. The largest proportion of white births occurs during first marriages, with ...
Kanazawa E - - 1990
The frequency of occurrence of anomalous cusps or tubercles on human upper first molars was investigated in seven racial populations using moiré contourography, which permits the three-dimensional measurement of minute cusps. Tubercles on the mesial marginal ridge were more frequently found in Mongoloid populations (Japanese and Eskimo) than in others. ...
Ferguson R - - 1990
This population study examines racial differences in the relationship between birth weight and fetal death. An earlier report showed that a birth weight that results in a fourfold increased risk of stillbirth is not a constant birth weight percentile (2nd percentile at 25 weeks, 17th percentile at 42 weeks). This ...
Langkamp D L - - 1990
During a 2-year period in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, black infants were admitted to the NICU 2.6 times as often as white infants. The relative risk of NICU admission among black low birthweight infants was 9.2 times that of normal birthweight black infants. The relative risk ...
Kleinman J C - - 1990
Infant mortality varies considerably among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. For groups other than whites and blacks, previously published rates based on the vital statistics system have been underestimated because of inconsistencies in the classification of race and Hispanic status on birth and death certificates. For this report, infant ...
Mayberry R M - - 1990
The birthweight distributions of Black and White infants in South Carolina were compared for the paired-year periods 1975-76 and 1985-86. No discernible changes in birthweight distributions between the two time periods were observed especially among Black infants. The distributions among White infants reflected an overall improvement in birthweight most noticeably ...
Omotade O O - - 1990
Inner and outer canthal distances, palpebral fissure length, occipitofrontal circumference, and canthal index values were determined and compared between 252 white newborns in Cardiff and 256 black newborns in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study showed that the white and black newborns had the same inner canthal distance while the outer canthal ...
Paneth N - - 1990
We describe the neuropathologic and ultrasonographic findings in 22 very low birth weight infants (mean weight 948 gm) who survived at least 6 days and for whom cranial ultrasonography had been performed three or more times in life. White matter necrosis was found in 15 of the 22 subjects and ...
Collins J W JW - - 1990
We analyzed 103,072 White and Black births in Chicago from the 1982 and 1983 Illinois vital records, using 1980 median family income of mother's census tract as an ecologic variable. Thirty-one percent of Blacks and 4 percent of Whites resided in census tracts with median family incomes less than or ...
Malan A F AF Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape - - 1990
Birth weights and perinatal deaths for the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service were analysed for 1974-1987. There were differences in birth-weight distribution between the ethnic groups, and within the white group, over time, and these influenced the crude perinatal mortality rates. Once birth weight had been adjusted for, there was ...
- - 1990
With a population-based case-control study in Alameda County, we studied the difference in the risk of low birth weight in black and white smokers, the risk of preterm birth in smokers, and the time during pregnancy when smoking must cease to prevent low birth weight. The cases were 311 black ...
Oyen N - - 1990
Differences in risk factors for sudden unexplained infant death (SUID) were studied among American Indian and White infants in North and South Dakota. From 1977 to 1984, the incidence of SUID was 3.9 times higher among Indians compared with Whites. Indian SUID cases appeared to die at a slightly younger ...
Kennedy J P - - 1990
This retrospective study, based on a chart and radiographic review of blacks treated for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), showed a 93.2% incidence of excellent or good results, and an incidence of only 2.3% of major complications with poor results. Blacks can generally be expected to have a good result ...
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