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Martin H - - 2000
Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of adult hypertension. To elucidate whether this association reflects altered vascular physiology already at birth, we studied acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Forty newborn infants and their mothers were studied 3 d after delivery. Vasodilation in skin was induced by local application of acetylcholine ...
Carlson E - - 2000
Between 1988 and 1991, years of political and economic crisis, Bulgaria reported a 25% increase in infant mortality. From 1991 to 1995, the rate then dropped slightly. Analysis of detailed unpublished vital statistics shows that the reported increase could not have been a result of more complete reporting of early ...
Putet G - - 2000
Intravenous lipid emulsions often provide substance for the very low-birth weight or extremely low-birth weight infant that need total parenteral nutrition. The process used in this type of treatment as well as the effects of such treatment are discussed at length in this article. Some of the main compounds of ...
Conley D - - 2000
This paper uses intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to address the black-white difference in propensities toward low birth weight (LBW). We determine that socioeconomic conditions account for some variation in low birth weight across race. Further, while race differences in the risk of low birth ...
Kavitha K - - 2000
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) levels were estimated in cord blood of 30 neonates born with birth weight less than or equal to 2.5 kg and 30 neonates born with birth weight greater than 2.5 kg. The mean ADA levels in low birth weight (LBW) group was found to be 6.94 U/L ...
Leitch C A - - 2000
Information about energy requirements of extremely low-birth weight infants is sparse, despite the rapidly improving survival rates of this population. Metabolizable energy intake can be estimated from energy balance studies and the percentage of caloric intake that is actually absorbed by these infants is approximately 87%. Data on energy expenditure ...
Xiang H - - 2000
A landscape approach using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies was developed to identify the proximity of maternal residence to agricultural areas, and the association between crop production patterns around mothers residences and low birth weight was evaluated. Satellite data obtained for Weld County, Colorado, in 1991 ...
Ditzenberger G R - - 1999
Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants less than 1,000 g often experience hyperkalemia and hyperglycemia during the initial hospital course. Hyperkalemia has been noted in 44% to 50% of infants less than 800 g birth weight or less than 28 to 29 weeks' gestation. Hyperglycemia occurs 18 times more frequently ...
Catalano R - - 1999
Little attention has been paid to the ecological effects of unemployment, despite strong theory suggesting that being socially or economically connected to unemployed persons can induce illness. Theory suggests, for example, that the labor market experience of adult males should affect maternal and infant health. We advance this line of ...
McAllister A S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight has been associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adult life, but the precise mechanism is debated. The endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in each of the above conditions with abnormalities being detectable before the development of overt disease. To ...
Mvula M M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship of phencyclidine (PCP) and pregnancy outcome, as judged by low birth weight (< 2,500 g). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, case-control study of PCP use was conducted among pregnant women who delivered at a large hospital in New Orleans. PCP use was ascertained by urine screening ...
BiegaƄski T - - 1999
The pattern of alternating dense and lucent bands, with straight outer edges, at the youngest metaphysis of long bones, the "Afghan turban" sign, occurs when incompletely treated rickets has recurred and been retreated. Recognition of this, and other, rickets patterns allows the radiologist to influence treatment, as described in a ...
Campbell J - - 1999
This study sought to determine the risk of low birth weight from intimate partner abuse. The case-control design was used in a purposively ethnically stratified multisite sample of 1,004 women interviewed during the 72 hours after delivery between 1991 and 1996. Abuse was determined by the Index of Spouse Abuse ...
Neu J - - 1999
Very low-birth-weight infants have minimal endogenous nutritional reserves and are at high risk for stresses that induce further breakdown of these diminished reserves. They frequently receive very little glutamine because enteral feedings are often delayed and glutamine is not included in parenteral nutrition. Here we describe studies of glutamine supplementation ...
De Felice C - - 1999
Chorioamnionitis, a major cause of preterm birth with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality, frequently occurs in mothers who are free of symptoms. A combined clinical, radiologic, and pathologic study of 129 very low birth weight infants indicated a significant association between a markedly decreased thymic size at birth and subclinical ...
Latif A H - - 1999
Infant mortality rate (IMR) and disability indices were compared in 16 y birth cohorts (1979-1994) inclusive) from two neighbouring but contrasting boroughs in Bro Taf. The comparison was extended to children with mild learning difficulties. Children with and without learning problems were compared for birth weight (BW). Further data on ...
Finer N N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The limited literature available to date suggests that the use of delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) is associated with very poor outcomes, especially for extremely low birth weight infants. We reviewed the cumulative experience of the Vermont Oxford Network to determine the actual utilization of DR-CPR and the neonatal ...
Jacobson Z - - 1999
A case involving an infant with very low birth weight in whom an umbilical venous catheter led to pericardial tamponade, a rare but commonly fatal complication, is reported. This is one of only six reported cases in which the infant survived such a complication. Usage of echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis under ...
Pattenden S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight. To assess the relative benefits of measuring socioeconomic status by individual occupation, socioeconomic deprivation status of area of residence, or both, for describing inequalities and targeting resources. DESIGN: Analysis of birth registrations by registration status: joint compared with ...
Fernandez F M - - 1999
A predominantly white, suburban, indigent population of pregnancy women were followed up to determine the incidence of domestic violence and its effect on preterm delivery, low birth weight, and outcome of pregnancy (infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 489 gravidas were screened for domestic violence ...
Worku B - - 1999
All low birth weight infants admitted to the neonatal unit of the Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital (ESCH), Addis Ababa from September 1995 to August 1996 were followed until discharge. There were 604 babies with birth weight of less than 2,500 grams and 198 of them died in the hospital making the ...
Kanayama N - - 1999
The purpose of this research was to study the changes in the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid in Wharton's jelly altered by necrotizing funisitis. Umbilical cords were collected at delivery from 20 newborns without funisitis, 6 newborns with acute funisitis, and 4 newborns with necrotizing funisitis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of ...
Ziskin M C - - 1999
Ultrasound imaging has been used clinically as an effective diagnostic tool over the past 30 years. In spite of literally millions of examinations, there is no verified documented evidence of adverse effects in patients caused by exposure to diagnostic ultrasound. A number of epidemiological studies of intrauterine ultrasound exposure have ...
de Voogt W G - - 1999
Pacing leads remain the "weaker link" of the permanent pacing system. Lead failure has been an issue since the beginning of implantable pacemaker therapy. Modern electronics have brought about considerable progress in pacing technology, but lead design has been slower to evolve and problems persist. IS-1 standardization must be considered ...
Karlsson R - - 1999
The low-dose ACTH test seems to reveal mild cases of adrenal insufficiency and is beginning to be preferred over the standard ACTH test in the evaluation of adrenal suppression both in infants and in adults. The concentration-time profile of plasma cortisol in infants after a low ACTH dose is obscure. ...
Sentipal-Walerius J - - 1999
We investigated the effect of dexamethasone on parenteral lipid tolerance in 7-day-old extremely low birth weight infants (n = 28) in a randomized, double-blind trial. Serum triglycerides were measured before and after 3 days of dexamethasone or placebo treatment. Infants treated with dexamethasone responded with higher triglyceride concentrations and greater ...
Miller J M JM - - 1999
The intent of this study was to explore the relationship of patient knowledge about the signs and symptoms of preterm labor and low birth weight. To this end, 538 women were interviewed in the postpartum period. Five aspects of preterm labor knowledge (abdominal tightness, vaginal discharge, cramping, diarrhea, and bleeding) ...
Mahmud A B - - 1999
An analysis of birth weight was undertaken on secondary data derived from the Malaysian Family Life Survey II. A total of 1629 last singleton live birth infants was analysed with the aim of identifying from the variables available potential risk factors for low birth weight. Univariate and subsequently multivariate analyses ...
Mondal B - - 1998
Records of 151 Tangsa singleton live births over a period of 4 years at the Nampong Primary Health Centre of Nampong Circle of the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh were analysed to examine the effect of sex of baby, mother's age and parity on the incidence of low birth weight. ...
McCarton C - - 1998
Low birth weight infants are at increased risk for behavioral and emotional problems. The Infant Health and Development Program was designed to evaluate the efficacy of intense pediatric and family support on reducing developmental and behavioral problems in low birth weight, premature infants. The major findings of this and other ...
Fuentes-Afflick E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although immigrants to the United States are usually ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged, foreign-born women generally have lower rates of low birth weight infants than do US-born women. OBJECTIVE: To measure the relationship between maternal birthplace, ethnicity, and low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of birth certificate ...
Roth J - - 1998
This article reviews recent medical research on the relationship between young maternal age and the incidence of low birth weight infants. One line of research, "nature," emphasizes biological factors in early adolescence such as immaturity of the female reproductive system and inadequate prenatal weight gain. "Nurture," another research focus, stresses ...
Sasidharan P - - 1998
Corticosteroids are commonly administered during the perinatal period because of their diverse actions on various organ systems, both at the cellular and molecular level, and because of their effect on maturational physiology. In particular, in situations of refractory cardiovascular collapse, corticosteroids are used by many clinicians as a last-chance therapeutic ...
Taylor H G - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of outcome in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) children. The very low birth weight sample consisted of 68 children weighing less than 750 g at birth and 65 children weighing 750 to 1499 g at birth who had been ...
Menard M K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight (500 to 1499 g) infants born in South Carolina differ by level of perinatal services available at the hospital of birth. STUDY DESIGN: Linked live birth certificates and infant death certificates for ...
Ng P C - - 1998
Systemic corticosteroids prescribed for treatment of pulmonary diseases in preterm, very low birth weight infants caused severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and produced serious physiological and metabolic disturbances. However, the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on their pituitary-adrenal functions is not known. We prospectively evaluate the pituitary-adrenal function using the ...
Fanaroff A A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Septicemia is a major antecedent of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (501- to 1500-g) infants. Our purpose was to determine prospectively the incidence, clinical presentation, laboratory features, risk factors, morbidity and mortality associated with late onset septicemia in infants 501 to 1500 g. METHODS: Clinical data ...
Kingma I - - 1998
Asymmetric lifting is associated with an increased risk of low back disorders. Especially in lifting movements, characterized by a small amount of asymmetry, it is still the question if asymmetric lumbosacral torques occur, or if subjects try to avoid asymmetric back loading by twisting their pelvis with respect to the ...
Brooks-Gunn J - - 1998
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of family and neighborhood income on health care use of young children born prematurely and of low birth weight (N = 619). A birth cohort was enrolled in a clinical randomized trial of early childhood educational and family services. Infant ...
Kaushik S L - - 1998
A total of 2063 live births were studied during one year period from July 1994 to June 1995. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 35.4 per thousand live births. The case fatality rate among low birth weight and preterms was 10.1% and 18.1% respectively. Though, low birth weight babies accounted for ...
Piecuch R E - - 1998
Low birth weight infants have an increased incidence of death after discharge from the intensive care nursery (ICN). To evaluate factors associated with death, and especially unexpected death, we conducted a study on 724 infants discharged from our ICN with a birth weight 1500 g or less. Twenty-four infants died ...
Schraeder B D - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine the respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and airway reactivity in school-age survivors of very-low-birth-weight and to describe the influence of birth weight and perinatal illness on their pulmonary function. Thirty (of 39) 10- to 11-year-old survivors of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) recruited at birth into ...
Das S - - 1998
A prospective study on 90 neonates born to age matched normal mothers (set I) and mothers (set II) with pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET) was undertaken to assess and compare the humoral immunity status of the neonates. All of them had normal vaginal delivery. IgG, IgA and IgM were estimated by radial ...
Adamkin D H - - 1998
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) premature infants who populate intensive care nurseries today often receive such overriding attention to their acute respiratory illness that appropriate attention to certain other adjunctive needs; adequate nutrition is often delayed. The outcome for these ELBW infants may be influenced by the intensity and length ...
Wu P Y - - 1998
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid for low-birth-weight (LBW) and very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants by virtue of its ability to serve as a primary respiratory fuel for proliferating cells, a carrier of nitrogen between tissues, maintain acid-base balance, promote the growth and integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and promote ...
Baier R J - - 1998
To determine whether vancomycin added to parental nutrition (PN) fluids could prevent nosocomial infections in very low birth weight newborns and which infants would benefit most from prophylaxis. Double blind, randomized controlled study. Very low birth weight infants receiving PN in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Thirty-eight infants with ...
Ray W A - - 1998
CONTEXT: The abrupt initiation of capitated Medicaid care in Tennessee (TennCare) in 1994 prompted many questions about changes in quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect on perinatal outcomes of the transition to TennCare in 1994. DESIGN: Before and after retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING AND POPULATION: Births to women ...
Shirahata A - - 1998
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs most frequently during the neonatal period. We have already established criteria for the early diagnosis of DIC in newborn infants, based on the analysis of clinical and laboratory findings in neonates with and without DIC. In that study, laboratory findings for subjects without DIC were ...
Forbes L S - - 1997
Human mothers an efficient screening system to eliminate genetically abnormal embryos. However, the incidence of certain birth defects - most notably Down's syndrome - rises with maternal age. Conventional eplanations have focused on a rising production of defective zygotes; in contrast, an evolutionary approach suggest a relaxed maternal screen. Relaxed ...
Engebretson J C - - 1997
Nonnutritive sucking can provide low-birth-weight infants with an opportunity to organize their behavior, an important component of developmental care. A pacifier specifically designed for low-birth-weight infants facilitates their nonnutritive sucking to more fully meet their needs. The research and development of a pacifier for low-birth-weight infants incorporated a naturalistic approach ...
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