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Results 401 - 450 of 770
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Gera T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early predictors of mortality in very low birth weight neonates. SETTING: Teaching hospital. DESIGN: Case control study. METHODS: Hospital born very low birth weight newborns (500-1500 g) enrolled for study and followed up till death or 28 days. Infants' birth data and data on physiologic alterations, investigation ...
Engle W D - - 2001
Few aspects of management of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) neonates have generated as much controversy as the assessment of blood pressure (BP) and need for treatment of perceived abnormalities of this physiologic variable. The approach to this problem may differ greatly among various institutions and even among ...
Shiff Y - - 2001
We determined the levels of circulating bone turnover markers in preterm infants during the first weeks of life. Twenty premature infants (mean gestational age 27+/-2.2 weeks, mean birth weight 894+/-231 g) hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Meir General Hospital, Israel, participated in the study. Measurements ...
Giussani D A - - 2001
The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. ...
Petrou S - - 2001
The high rates of morbidity and mortality arising from preterm birth and low birth weight impose an immense burden on the health, education and social services, and on families. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the published and unpublished evidence regarding the long-term economic implications of ...
Cook C - - 2001
There has been an increase of the use of low molecular weight heparin in the treatment of thrombotic events. This case report describes a complication of a pelvic mass biopsy performed whilst the patient was being treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Despite an uncomplicated biopsy procedure and confirmation ...
Poston L - - 2001
The importance of the Barker hypothesis, relating faulty maternal nutrition to low birth weight and subsequent disease in adult life, is examined in relation to vascular function.
Wegner E L - - 2001
This study examines rates of low birth weight (LBW) in the state of Hawaii and changes in the association of LBW with socioeconomic status from 1970 to 1990. The analysis is based on aggregate data for census tracts. Rates of low birth weight were calculated for each census tract. Relative ...
Counsell C - - 2001
Low molecular weight heparins and heparinoids may be associated with lower risks of haemorrhage and more powerful antithrombotic effects than standard unfractionated heparin. The objective of this review was to compare the effects of low molecular weight heparins or heparinoids with those of unfractionated heparin in people with acute confirmed ...
Todd Johnston W - - 2000
Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis is a well-recognized complication in low-birth-weight premature infants. The incidence of systemic candidiasis in premature and low-birth-weight infants is approximately 3%. As many as half of these infants will develop Candida endophthalmitis. Eye involvement typically presents as one or more tiny white "fungal ball" chorioretinal lesions with ...
Kumar R - - 2000
Seventy nine traditional birth attendants (TBAs) of Raipur Rani community development block, Haryana were interviewed to assess the effectiveness of continuing training in changing their knowledge and practices regarding maternal and newborn care. Seventy three percent of them reported participation in continuing training sessions. However, analysis of attendance register showed ...
De Laet M H - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Early postnatal treatment with high doses of corticosteroids may be effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, serious side effects may occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study on 5 very low birth weight neonates, mean ...
Stocker M - - 2000
At the age of 8 weeks, an extremely low birth weight infant (gestational age 26 0/7 weeks, birth weight 740 g) had non-obstructing bilateral renal fungal balls. Urine cultures had repeatedly grown Candida albicans. Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B intravenously and fluconazole orally was administered for 6 weeks. Monotherapy ...
LeFlore J L - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To define the range of normal blood pressures (BP) for very low birth weight (VLBW;</=1500 g) neonates and to study perinatal variables affecting BP measurements after birth, including the effects of antenatal steroids. STUDY DESIGN: Antenatal steroids were rarely administered at Parkland Memorial Hospital before May 1994, permitting us ...
Winterbourn C C - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine whether protein carbonyls and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) are elevated in plasma from very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants, whether they are affected by selenium supplementation, and whether they are associated with poor respiratory outcome or retinopathy. The study ...
Juster-Reicher A - - 2000
AmBisome (2.5-7 mg/kg/day as a continuous 1 h infusion) was evaluated prospectively from September 1994 to January 1998 in 24 very low birth weight infants (mean birth weight 847+/-244 g, mean gestational age 26 weeks) with systemic candidiasis. Mean age at onset of candidemia was 17 days. One patient had ...
Friedman S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe mortality, morbidity at discharge and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants with systemic Candida infection during intensive care stay. METHOD: We identified all extremely low birth weight (birth weight <1000 g) infants diagnosed with Candida sepsis and/or meningoencephalitis between 1988 ...
Lester B M - - 2000
This article examines the role of biologic and environmental factors in determining the long-term outcomes of extremely low-birth weight infants. Research focusing on follow-up to at least 4 years of age is reviewed. Methodologic issues related to sampling, the use of control groups, and diagnostic criteria are also discussed. The ...
Lorenz J M - - 2000
Survival of extremely premature infants has been significantly higher in the last decade than previously, and may well have improved during this time. The majority of infants greater than or equal to 25 weeks' gestation survive today. Survival of infants 23 and 24 weeks' gestation is significantly lower, but is ...
Hogan D P - - 2000
This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, ...
Collins J W JW - - 2000
We performed a hospital-based case-control study of African-American mothers to explore the relation between a mother's perception of exposure to racial discrimination during pregnancy and very low birth weight. We administered a structured questionnaire to low-income mothers of very low birth weight (<1500 gm; N = 25) and non-low birth ...
Chahine A A - - 2000
Infants with esophageal atresia (EA), with or without a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) frequently are of low birth weight. With advances in neonatal, respiratory, surgical, and anesthetic care, more infants with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight less than 1.5 kg) are surviving. The therapy of the VLBW neonate with ...
Martin H - - 2000
Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of adult hypertension. To elucidate whether this association reflects altered vascular physiology already at birth, we studied acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Forty newborn infants and their mothers were studied 3 d after delivery. Vasodilation in skin was induced by local application of acetylcholine ...
Carlson E - - 2000
Between 1988 and 1991, years of political and economic crisis, Bulgaria reported a 25% increase in infant mortality. From 1991 to 1995, the rate then dropped slightly. Analysis of detailed unpublished vital statistics shows that the reported increase could not have been a result of more complete reporting of early ...
Putet G - - 2000
Intravenous lipid emulsions often provide substance for the very low-birth weight or extremely low-birth weight infant that need total parenteral nutrition. The process used in this type of treatment as well as the effects of such treatment are discussed at length in this article. Some of the main compounds of ...
Conley D - - 2000
This paper uses intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to address the black-white difference in propensities toward low birth weight (LBW). We determine that socioeconomic conditions account for some variation in low birth weight across race. Further, while race differences in the risk of low birth ...
Kavitha K - - 2000
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) levels were estimated in cord blood of 30 neonates born with birth weight less than or equal to 2.5 kg and 30 neonates born with birth weight greater than 2.5 kg. The mean ADA levels in low birth weight (LBW) group was found to be 6.94 U/L ...
Leitch C A - - 2000
Information about energy requirements of extremely low-birth weight infants is sparse, despite the rapidly improving survival rates of this population. Metabolizable energy intake can be estimated from energy balance studies and the percentage of caloric intake that is actually absorbed by these infants is approximately 87%. Data on energy expenditure ...
Xiang H - - 2000
A landscape approach using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies was developed to identify the proximity of maternal residence to agricultural areas, and the association between crop production patterns around mothers residences and low birth weight was evaluated. Satellite data obtained for Weld County, Colorado, in 1991 ...
Ditzenberger G R - - 1999
Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants less than 1,000 g often experience hyperkalemia and hyperglycemia during the initial hospital course. Hyperkalemia has been noted in 44% to 50% of infants less than 800 g birth weight or less than 28 to 29 weeks' gestation. Hyperglycemia occurs 18 times more frequently ...
Catalano R - - 1999
Little attention has been paid to the ecological effects of unemployment, despite strong theory suggesting that being socially or economically connected to unemployed persons can induce illness. Theory suggests, for example, that the labor market experience of adult males should affect maternal and infant health. We advance this line of ...
McAllister A S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight has been associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adult life, but the precise mechanism is debated. The endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in each of the above conditions with abnormalities being detectable before the development of overt disease. To ...
Mvula M M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship of phencyclidine (PCP) and pregnancy outcome, as judged by low birth weight (< 2,500 g). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, case-control study of PCP use was conducted among pregnant women who delivered at a large hospital in New Orleans. PCP use was ascertained by urine screening ...
BiegaƄski T - - 1999
The pattern of alternating dense and lucent bands, with straight outer edges, at the youngest metaphysis of long bones, the "Afghan turban" sign, occurs when incompletely treated rickets has recurred and been retreated. Recognition of this, and other, rickets patterns allows the radiologist to influence treatment, as described in a ...
Campbell J - - 1999
This study sought to determine the risk of low birth weight from intimate partner abuse. The case-control design was used in a purposively ethnically stratified multisite sample of 1,004 women interviewed during the 72 hours after delivery between 1991 and 1996. Abuse was determined by the Index of Spouse Abuse ...
Neu J - - 1999
Very low-birth-weight infants have minimal endogenous nutritional reserves and are at high risk for stresses that induce further breakdown of these diminished reserves. They frequently receive very little glutamine because enteral feedings are often delayed and glutamine is not included in parenteral nutrition. Here we describe studies of glutamine supplementation ...
De Felice C - - 1999
Chorioamnionitis, a major cause of preterm birth with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality, frequently occurs in mothers who are free of symptoms. A combined clinical, radiologic, and pathologic study of 129 very low birth weight infants indicated a significant association between a markedly decreased thymic size at birth and subclinical ...
Latif A H - - 1999
Infant mortality rate (IMR) and disability indices were compared in 16 y birth cohorts (1979-1994) inclusive) from two neighbouring but contrasting boroughs in Bro Taf. The comparison was extended to children with mild learning difficulties. Children with and without learning problems were compared for birth weight (BW). Further data on ...
Finer N N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The limited literature available to date suggests that the use of delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) is associated with very poor outcomes, especially for extremely low birth weight infants. We reviewed the cumulative experience of the Vermont Oxford Network to determine the actual utilization of DR-CPR and the neonatal ...
Jacobson Z - - 1999
A case involving an infant with very low birth weight in whom an umbilical venous catheter led to pericardial tamponade, a rare but commonly fatal complication, is reported. This is one of only six reported cases in which the infant survived such a complication. Usage of echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis under ...
Pattenden S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight. To assess the relative benefits of measuring socioeconomic status by individual occupation, socioeconomic deprivation status of area of residence, or both, for describing inequalities and targeting resources. DESIGN: Analysis of birth registrations by registration status: joint compared with ...
Fernandez F M - - 1999
A predominantly white, suburban, indigent population of pregnancy women were followed up to determine the incidence of domestic violence and its effect on preterm delivery, low birth weight, and outcome of pregnancy (infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 489 gravidas were screened for domestic violence ...
Worku B - - 1999
All low birth weight infants admitted to the neonatal unit of the Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital (ESCH), Addis Ababa from September 1995 to August 1996 were followed until discharge. There were 604 babies with birth weight of less than 2,500 grams and 198 of them died in the hospital making the ...
Kanayama N - - 1999
The purpose of this research was to study the changes in the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid in Wharton's jelly altered by necrotizing funisitis. Umbilical cords were collected at delivery from 20 newborns without funisitis, 6 newborns with acute funisitis, and 4 newborns with necrotizing funisitis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of ...
Ziskin M C - - 1999
Ultrasound imaging has been used clinically as an effective diagnostic tool over the past 30 years. In spite of literally millions of examinations, there is no verified documented evidence of adverse effects in patients caused by exposure to diagnostic ultrasound. A number of epidemiological studies of intrauterine ultrasound exposure have ...
de Voogt W G - - 1999
Pacing leads remain the "weaker link" of the permanent pacing system. Lead failure has been an issue since the beginning of implantable pacemaker therapy. Modern electronics have brought about considerable progress in pacing technology, but lead design has been slower to evolve and problems persist. IS-1 standardization must be considered ...
Karlsson R - - 1999
The low-dose ACTH test seems to reveal mild cases of adrenal insufficiency and is beginning to be preferred over the standard ACTH test in the evaluation of adrenal suppression both in infants and in adults. The concentration-time profile of plasma cortisol in infants after a low ACTH dose is obscure. ...
Sentipal-Walerius J - - 1999
We investigated the effect of dexamethasone on parenteral lipid tolerance in 7-day-old extremely low birth weight infants (n = 28) in a randomized, double-blind trial. Serum triglycerides were measured before and after 3 days of dexamethasone or placebo treatment. Infants treated with dexamethasone responded with higher triglyceride concentrations and greater ...
Miller J M JM - - 1999
The intent of this study was to explore the relationship of patient knowledge about the signs and symptoms of preterm labor and low birth weight. To this end, 538 women were interviewed in the postpartum period. Five aspects of preterm labor knowledge (abdominal tightness, vaginal discharge, cramping, diarrhea, and bleeding) ...
Mahmud A B - - 1999
An analysis of birth weight was undertaken on secondary data derived from the Malaysian Family Life Survey II. A total of 1629 last singleton live birth infants was analysed with the aim of identifying from the variables available potential risk factors for low birth weight. Univariate and subsequently multivariate analyses ...
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