Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 746
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Lane Sandra D - - 2003
This case-racial and ethnic disparity in low birth weight-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American ...
Gaudoin Marco - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to determine the outcome of singleton pregnancies conceived through ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination using a partner's (OI/IUI) or donor sperm (OI/IUID) by comparison with naturally conceived singletons within a national cohort. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study in primigravid women who were treated with OI/IUI ...
Vernacchio Louis - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To describe sleep positions among low birth weight infants, variations in sleep position according to birth weight, and changes in sleep position over time. To analyze risk factors and influences associated with prone sleep. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Massachusetts and Ohio, 1995-1998. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Mothers of 907 low ...
Keller A - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether supine positioning of infants born preterm in a hammock instead of the prone position affects their neuromuscular maturity, growth, and autonomic stability. METHODS: Twenty healthy infants who were born premature with very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500 g) were randomized into two ...
Itabashi K - - 2003
We prospectively investigated serum zinc (Zn) concentrations and clinical factors in 118 very-low-birth-weight infants with a gestational age of 29.5 +/- (SD) 2.5 weeks and a birth weight of 1,194 +/- 254 g at near-term postmenstrual age. The 25th percentile of the serum Zn concentration was 7.0 micromol/l. The infants ...
Parise Monica E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To develop a rapid field assessment methodology to address the burden of malaria during pregnancy and the options for intervening within the existing antenatal care system in Kenya. METHODS: Surveys consisting of questionnaires, sampling of blood for parasitaemia and anaemia, and birth outcome assessment were conducted in antenatal clinics, ...
Beyer Kimberly - - 2003
A qualitative study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the perceived stress levels of new parents in interacting with their infant and the parental implementation of infant massage techniques. A sample of four new parents demonstrated decreased perceived stress levels following involvement in a month long ...
Yang Chun-Yuh - - 2002
A few previous studies have looked at the relationship between pregnancy outcome and magnesium nutritional intake and found that magnesium supplementation which could have beneficial effects on perinatal outcome. We performed a study to examine the relationship between the levels of magnesium in drinking water and the risk of delivering ...
McGrath Margaret - - 2002
In this prospective longitudinal study, birth weight and neonatal morbidities were evaluated relative to a broad range of school age outcomes. Fully 188 infants, 151 who were preterm, were recruited at birth, stratified by birth weight and socioeconomic status, and were followed until age 8 with a 97% retention rate. ...
Hashimoto Laura Nickles - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that benefits of antenatal glucocorticoids to reduce death or major morbidities are similar in very low birth weight multiple and singleton infants. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with birth weight of 401 to 1500 g who were born from May 1991 ...
Bianca Sebastiano - - 2002
Hyperphenylalaninemias (HPAs) are due to autosomal recessive inherited deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and include three different biochemical and clinical phenotypes: classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria and persistent HPA. Recently the relationship between birth weight and HPA has been investigated. We performed an evaluation of birth weight in our 260 HPA patients. ...
Borders Gloria - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To describe the magnitude of the problem of low birth weight in the U.S. and the State of Connecticut. To describe the temporal trends of selected risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) from 1992-1998. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study utilizing reports from birth certificate data from National Center ...
Tuomala Ruth E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection increases the risk of premature birth and other adverse outcomes of pregnancy. METHODS: We studied pregnant women with HIV-1 infection who were enrolled in seven clinical studies and delivered their infants ...
Baschat Ahmet A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between very low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels (MSAFP), neonatal size, and possible associations with obstetric complications. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in a population managed prospectively by a standardized protocol. Perinatal outcomes were compared between patients with unexplained very low MSAFP (less than or ...
Schieve Laura A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The increased risk of low birth weight associated with the use of assisted reproductive technology has been attributed largely to the higher rate of multiple gestations associated with such technology. It is uncertain, however, whether singleton infants conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technology may also have a ...
Monterosso Leanne - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive literature review of neuromotor development and related physiologic effects of positioning in very low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINHAL, Health Star, Current Contents, and the Australian Medical Index (1966-2000) databases were searched. Unpublished studies (e.g., dissertations, conference proceedings) and all relevant references listed ...
Ndwiga D N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high ...
Alarcón-Waess O - - 2002
We have studied the orientational structure of a dipolar hard-spherical colloid on a homogeneous isotropic phase. The results are expressed as a function of the dipolar strength mu and volume fraction phi of dipolar colloids, and the refractive index of the scattering medium, n(s). The study is based on the ...
Hack Maureen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Very-low-birth-weight infants (those weighing less than 1500 g) born during the initial years of neonatal intensive care have now reached young adulthood. METHODS: We compared a cohort of 242 survivors among very-low-birth-weight infants born between 1977 and 1979 (mean birth weight, 1179 g; mean gestational age at birth, 29.7 ...
Seckl J R - - 2001
It has been long recognised that the glucocorticoid administration to pregnant mammals (including humans) reduces offspring birth weight. Epidemiologically, low weight or thinness at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in adult life. So, does fetal exposure to glucocorticoids produce such 'programming' of adult ...
Yates A B - - 2001
A 3-month-old, full-term female infant was hospitalized with pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Laboratory studies revealed a profoundly low level of IgG (41 mg/dL) and low level of IgA (< 6.67 mg/dL). Other causes of immunodeficiency were ruled out, and there was no evidence of protein loss to account for the low ...
D'Netto M A - - 2001
Phrenic nerve paralysis due to iatrogenic injury is not uncommon in neonates. We report an unusual case of acquired unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm in a very-low-birth-weight infant, associated with a thrombus secondary to percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization. Conservative management resulted in complete resolution of the paralyzed diaphragm.
Wannous S - - 2001
The incidence and determinants of low birth weight were studied in a stratified sample of 10,585 deliveries at 18 Syrian government hospitals. For each low-birth-weight baby born, two normal-birth-weight babies were recruited as a comparison group. A questionnaire was given to mothers and clinical examinations were performed on the neonates. ...
Gaylord M S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare fluid and electrolyte management in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified versus nonhumidified incubators. STUDY DESIGN: Setting--tertiary intensive care nursery. Subjects--all infants with birth weight < 1000 g admitted 1/95 to 1/99 who were treated with incubators and survived for > 96 hours (N ...
Neu J - - 2001
Of all the amino acids, glutamine is the most versatile. Studies in the maternal-fetal-placental unit demonstrate that both glutamine and glutamate play an important role in fetal and placental metabolism. If an infant is born very prematurely, the supply of glutamine from the mother is suddenly interrupted. The infant is ...
Cloonan H A - - 2001
Advances in neonatal care have led to survival of more Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants weighing < 1,500 grams with growing concerns about neuro-developmental outcomes. To identify relationships between outcomes and birth weight, we evaluated 213 VLBW infants over a six-year period using a standardized test to identify relationships ...
Kalhan S - - 2001
A large number of studies in recent years have described protein and nitrogen metabolism in the neonate. However, the majority of these data are difficult to interpret because of a number of confounding variables, particularly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In contrast, application of state-of-the-art tracer isotopic and ...
Letamo G - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic, biological and behavioural factors influencing low birth weight and prematurity in Botswana. Data were from the Botswana Obstetric Record covering the years 1990 to 1995, and were analysed with both descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The study found that the ...
Gera T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early predictors of mortality in very low birth weight neonates. SETTING: Teaching hospital. DESIGN: Case control study. METHODS: Hospital born very low birth weight newborns (500-1500 g) enrolled for study and followed up till death or 28 days. Infants' birth data and data on physiologic alterations, investigation ...
Engle W D - - 2001
Few aspects of management of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) neonates have generated as much controversy as the assessment of blood pressure (BP) and need for treatment of perceived abnormalities of this physiologic variable. The approach to this problem may differ greatly among various institutions and even among ...
Shiff Y - - 2001
We determined the levels of circulating bone turnover markers in preterm infants during the first weeks of life. Twenty premature infants (mean gestational age 27+/-2.2 weeks, mean birth weight 894+/-231 g) hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Meir General Hospital, Israel, participated in the study. Measurements ...
Giussani D A - - 2001
The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. ...
Petrou S - - 2001
The high rates of morbidity and mortality arising from preterm birth and low birth weight impose an immense burden on the health, education and social services, and on families. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the published and unpublished evidence regarding the long-term economic implications of ...
Cook C - - 2001
There has been an increase of the use of low molecular weight heparin in the treatment of thrombotic events. This case report describes a complication of a pelvic mass biopsy performed whilst the patient was being treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Despite an uncomplicated biopsy procedure and confirmation ...
Poston L - - 2001
The importance of the Barker hypothesis, relating faulty maternal nutrition to low birth weight and subsequent disease in adult life, is examined in relation to vascular function.
Wegner E L - - 2001
This study examines rates of low birth weight (LBW) in the state of Hawaii and changes in the association of LBW with socioeconomic status from 1970 to 1990. The analysis is based on aggregate data for census tracts. Rates of low birth weight were calculated for each census tract. Relative ...
Counsell C - - 2001
Low molecular weight heparins and heparinoids may be associated with lower risks of haemorrhage and more powerful antithrombotic effects than standard unfractionated heparin. The objective of this review was to compare the effects of low molecular weight heparins or heparinoids with those of unfractionated heparin in people with acute confirmed ...
Todd Johnston W - - 2000
Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis is a well-recognized complication in low-birth-weight premature infants. The incidence of systemic candidiasis in premature and low-birth-weight infants is approximately 3%. As many as half of these infants will develop Candida endophthalmitis. Eye involvement typically presents as one or more tiny white "fungal ball" chorioretinal lesions with ...
Kumar R - - 2000
Seventy nine traditional birth attendants (TBAs) of Raipur Rani community development block, Haryana were interviewed to assess the effectiveness of continuing training in changing their knowledge and practices regarding maternal and newborn care. Seventy three percent of them reported participation in continuing training sessions. However, analysis of attendance register showed ...
De Laet M H - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: Early postnatal treatment with high doses of corticosteroids may be effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, serious side effects may occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study on 5 very low birth weight neonates, mean ...
Stocker M - - 2000
At the age of 8 weeks, an extremely low birth weight infant (gestational age 26 0/7 weeks, birth weight 740 g) had non-obstructing bilateral renal fungal balls. Urine cultures had repeatedly grown Candida albicans. Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B intravenously and fluconazole orally was administered for 6 weeks. Monotherapy ...
LeFlore J L - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To define the range of normal blood pressures (BP) for very low birth weight (VLBW;</=1500 g) neonates and to study perinatal variables affecting BP measurements after birth, including the effects of antenatal steroids. STUDY DESIGN: Antenatal steroids were rarely administered at Parkland Memorial Hospital before May 1994, permitting us ...
Winterbourn C C - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine whether protein carbonyls and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) are elevated in plasma from very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants, whether they are affected by selenium supplementation, and whether they are associated with poor respiratory outcome or retinopathy. The study ...
Juster-Reicher A - - 2000
AmBisome (2.5-7 mg/kg/day as a continuous 1 h infusion) was evaluated prospectively from September 1994 to January 1998 in 24 very low birth weight infants (mean birth weight 847+/-244 g, mean gestational age 26 weeks) with systemic candidiasis. Mean age at onset of candidemia was 17 days. One patient had ...
Friedman S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe mortality, morbidity at discharge and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants with systemic Candida infection during intensive care stay. METHOD: We identified all extremely low birth weight (birth weight <1000 g) infants diagnosed with Candida sepsis and/or meningoencephalitis between 1988 ...
Lester B M - - 2000
This article examines the role of biologic and environmental factors in determining the long-term outcomes of extremely low-birth weight infants. Research focusing on follow-up to at least 4 years of age is reviewed. Methodologic issues related to sampling, the use of control groups, and diagnostic criteria are also discussed. The ...
Lorenz J M - - 2000
Survival of extremely premature infants has been significantly higher in the last decade than previously, and may well have improved during this time. The majority of infants greater than or equal to 25 weeks' gestation survive today. Survival of infants 23 and 24 weeks' gestation is significantly lower, but is ...
Hogan D P - - 2000
This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, ...
Collins J W JW - - 2000
We performed a hospital-based case-control study of African-American mothers to explore the relation between a mother's perception of exposure to racial discrimination during pregnancy and very low birth weight. We administered a structured questionnaire to low-income mothers of very low birth weight (<1500 gm; N = 25) and non-low birth ...
Chahine A A - - 2000
Infants with esophageal atresia (EA), with or without a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) frequently are of low birth weight. With advances in neonatal, respiratory, surgical, and anesthetic care, more infants with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight less than 1.5 kg) are surviving. The therapy of the VLBW neonate with ...
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