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Results 401 - 450 of 845
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Seffah J D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study of transverse lie in labor of patients admitted to Korle Bu Hospital between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1998, was to identify the methods of delivery, the perinatal and maternal morbidities and mortalities, and to provide recommendations to improve the outcome. METHODS: This ...
Dunn A B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Two strategies have been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and approved by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology to help prevent group B streptococcal disease in the newborn. Both involve using penicillin in labor. However, the potential for allergic and even anaphylactic reactions to ...
Ishihara O - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of interleukin-1 related substances in amniotic fluid in normal term labor without intrauterine infection. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples were collected from forty-one patients with various backgrounds. A novel pre-assay treatment using Frigen II was introduced to improve the recovery rates of cytokines, i.e., interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta ...
Jazayeri A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine if birth weights greater than 4000 g can be predicted by ultrasound measurements of abdominal circumferences. METHODS: In 1996, 254 newborns delivered at Tampa General Hospital weighed at least 4000 g, 84 of whom had ultrasound examinations within 2 weeks of delivery. Those were compared with 84 ...
Stefanidis K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the folate status of pregnant women at labor, and to detect probable relationships with the gestational age at delivery, the birth weight of the newborns, as well as the mode of the delivery, taking into account any changes in the fetal ...
Nick J M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of residual blood and organic matter on "clean" stethoscopes in maternal-infant units. DESIGN: In this retrospective, nonexperimental study, stethoscopes were tested using qualitative measurements. SETTING: Using a nonprobability sampling technique, 11 acute care hospitals in a three-state area of the southwestern United States were studied. ...
Weismiller D G - - 1999
Preterm labor is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. It is characterized by cervical effacement and/or dilatation and increased uterine irritability before 37 weeks of gestation. Women with a history of preterm labor are at greatest risk. Strategies for reducing the incidence of preterm ...
Low J A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive value of each fetal heart rate (FHR) variable and of patterns of FHR variables for fetal asphyxia during labor. METHODS: This matched case-control study included an asphyxia group of 71 term infants with umbilical artery base deficit greater than 16 mmol/L and a control group ...
Stringer M - - 1999
Hydrotherapy is an effective, alternative intervention that can be used by care providers to provide a nonpharmacological method to assist low risk, laboring women cope with labor. This article provides a synthesis of the state of the science on the effects of hydrotherapy with labor and delivery. The indications, physiologic ...
Bocking A D - - 1999
There is a pressing need to develop accurate methods of diagnosing true preterm labor because of the availability of potent tocolytic drugs and the known beneficial effects of antenatal glucocorticoid administration on neonatal outcomes of premature infants. Maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations are elevated in women with threatened preterm labor ...
Wagner C L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of insurance status on method of delivery while controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of women delivering at a single medical center. STUDY DESIGN: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 878 women, who delivered their infants between 1985 and 1991 at a university hospital, were analyzed. ...
Jackson M - - 1998
Advances in the understanding of the endocrine and hormonal mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal labor have led to clinical research into the roles of hormones and cytokines in preterm labor. This article reviews the current status of assays for estriol, activin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, interleukin-6, and relaxin as predictors of ...
Weinschenk N P - - 1998
To understand better the development of the neonatal immune system, we evaluated the role of labor length, gestational age, and mode of delivery on the expression of the neonatal neutrophil cell surface antigens CD11b, CD11c, CD15, CD33, and CD66b in premature newborns. Peripheral blood samples from 68 apparently healthy preterm ...
Paul V K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to document the prevalence of maternal genital tract colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, and to assess its association with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity. METHODS: The high vaginal swabs of pregnant women in spontaneous labor after 26 weeks of gestation were cultured ...
- - 1998
The following recommendations are based on good and consistent scientific evidence (Level A): With term PROM, labor may be induced at the time of presentation or patients may be observed for up to 24-72 hours for the onset of spontaneous labor. Antibiotics prolong the latency period and improve perinatal outcome ...
Seaward P G - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine significant predictors for the development of neonatal infection in infants born to patients with premature rupture of membranes at term. STUDY DESIGN: Multivariate analysis was used to determine the significant predictors of neonatal infection in infants born to women with premature rupture of the ...
Hagelin A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: There has been some controversy regarding the effect that a long labor can have on fetal well-being. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of duration of labor both the first and second stage on the acid-base variables in the umbilical artery of the newborn. METHODS: Bloodsampling was ...
Murphy P A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of intended home birth in the practices of certified nurse-midwives. METHODS: Twenty-nine US nurse-midwifery practices were recruited for the study in 1994. Women presenting for intended home birth in these practices were enrolled in the study from late 1994 to late 1995. Outcomes for all ...
Kazda H - - 1998
A major route of tryptophan metabolism is via the hepatic and cerebral synthesis of kynurenine, a substance subsequently used by astrocytes in the brain for the production of the neuroactive substances kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid. Both kynurenic and quinolinic acids have been implicated in modulating the activity of excitatory ...
Ghidini A - - 1998
It is often believed that the frequency of clinical chorioamnionitis in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) increases with the duration of the interval between membrane rupture and delivery. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of histologic evidence of intrauterine infection increases proportionally to the duration of the latency ...
Mittendorf R - - 1998
The Magnesium and Neurologic Endpoints Trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) done to learn whether or not receiving magnesium sulfate during preterm labor could prevent cerebral palsy. Unexpectedly, in the tocolytic arms of the trial, seven (including one set of twins) of 46 cases assigned to receive magnesium ended ...
Lennox C E - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of breech labor management using the WHO partograph on fetal and maternal outcomes of labor. METHOD: All 1,740 breech presentations in a larger multicenter hospital-based study in South East Asia of the use of the WHO partograph in labor management were studied. The partograph was ...
Mirochnick M - - 1998
The safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of intrapartum and early newborn nevirapine were evaluated in 17 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women in labor and their newborns. No adverse effects of nevirapine were noted in any study mothers or infants. Following maternal dosing with 200 mg during labor, concentrations exceeding 100 ...
Harrigan JT - - 1998
Objective: To determine predictive variables identifying infants admitted to neonatal intensive care (NIC) following cesarean section for fetal distress in labor at term.Methods: Two hundred eight patients were studied. Sixty-six patients delivered by cesarean section at term for fetal distress were compared to 142 term patients not diagnosed as fetal ...
Joshi R - - 1998
Objective: To test the validity of the statement "We are busy because it is getting close to the full moon" often heard on labor ward, by analysis of birth statistics in relation to lunar cycles.Method: Data for births from spontaneous onset labors for 12 lunar cycles from January 1 to ...
Greci L S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to create a model for predicting amnionitis and rapid delivery in preterm labor patients by use of amniotic fluid interleukin-6 and clinical parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid was cultured and analyzed, and a clinical score (incorporating gestational age, amniotic fluid Gram stain, glucose, leukocyte esterase, and ...
Wing D A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare vaginally administered misoprostol (Cytotec) with intravenous oxytocin for labor induction in women with premature rupture of membranes beyond 36 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred subjects with rupture of membranes without labor were randomly assigned to receive vaginally administered misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin. Twenty-five ...
Facchinetti F - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the clinical response to prostaglandin-induced labor is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) activity. METHODS: Fifty-two cases of nulliparous women at term who delivered vaginally after prostaglandin E (PGE) induction of labor were enrolled. The induction was required mainly for amniotic fluid reduction or late-onset gestational hypertension. ...
Shahinian H K - - 1998
Lambdoid synostosis results in skull deformities of varying degrees characterized by occipital flattening over the involved suture and other compensatory changes in skull shape. Such changes include contralateral occipital bossing, contralateral frontal flattening, ipsilateral frontal bossing, and ipsilateral anteroinferior displacement of the pinna (ear shearing). These deformities tend to worsen ...
Gardberg M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To use intrapartum sonography as a tool to investigate the development of the persistent occiput posterior position during labor, as well as to identify parameters correlating with the outcome of labor. METHODS: A prospective study of 408 women in labor after 37 weeks' gestation with a singleton fetus in ...
Morley-Forster P K - - 1998
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has been used at our institution for the past 5 years, as an alternative labor analgesic when epidural analgesia is contraindicated. This retrospective study evaluates the effects of maternal PCA fentanyl on infants of greater than 32 weeks gestational age. The neonatal charts (n=32) were reviewed for ...
Hendrix N W - - 1998
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the accuracy of the Bishop score in predicting the likelihood of successful labor induction (entry into active phase) in nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS: During an index year, all patients having induction of labor and a preinduction Bishop score were included in a standard protocol for cervical ...
Sherer D M - - 1998
The objective of this article is to review current literature pertaining to intra- and early postpartum sonography. All the manuscripts published in the English language regarding this topic were selected from a MEDLINE search from 1966 through August 1997. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. Currently, intra- and early postpartum ...
Fait G - - 1998
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of labor induction in women with a breech presentation, and an unripe cervix. We conducted a retrospective, matched-paired study on patients with breech presentation and an unripe cervix (n = 23), who underwent induction of labor using extra-amniotic saline instillation. The ...
Lurie S - - 1998
The conventional treatment for arrest of protracted active phase dilatation is amniotomy and oxitocin. This kind of labor dystocia is associated with an increased incidence in Cesarean delivery. We describe the use of cervical balloon after amniotomy for protracted active phase dilatation. We have used this approach in five parturients. ...
Kimberlin D F - - 1998
We evaluated the effect of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on selected neonatal outcomes in < or =1000-g infants. In a 1-year (1992-1993) observational study, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units collected outcome data for 799 infants whose birth weights were < or ...
Durham R F - - 1998
Despite widespread efforts to prevent preterm birth in the United States, greater than 10% of the more than 4 million births that occur each year are preterm. Up to 75% of morbidity and mortality in infants is linked to preterm labor and birth. Bed rest, which may have adverse physical ...
Bartram D V - - 1998
"Beginning in 1993, Israel began importing large numbers of foreign workers, replacing its traditional Palestinian labor force. This article presents a descriptive history and theoretical analysis of the migration, placing it in the context of Israel's reliance on noncitizen labor from the occupied territories. Dual labor market theory is particularly ...
Surbek D V - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To test a simple method of intrapartum amnioinfusion to replace amniotic fluid during labor in cases of prolonged labor and severe variable fetal heart rate decelerations or thick meconium. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective study of intrapartum amnioinfusion in sixteen consecutive patients. A simple transcervically placed Foley bladder ...
Herbst A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between different types of acidemia in umbilical artery blood at birth, fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during labor, and infant long-term outcome. METHODS: Case-control study of 48 infants with pure high base deficit (base deficit (BD) > or = 12 mmol/L and pCO2 < 8.0 ...
Rosefielde S - - 1997
"Getty, Rittersporn and Zemskov recently claimed that no more than 2 million people could have perished from collectivization, famine, execution, terror, and forced labor in the USSR during the 1930s. Prior demographic confirmation of this estimate was provided by Anderson and Silver who contended that killings were unlikely to exceed ...
Kempe A - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Despite controversy regarding the efficacy of home uterine activity monitoring (HUAM), it is currently licensed for detection of preterm labor in women with previous preterm deliveries. In practice, however, it is being more widely utilized in an effort to prevent preterm delivery. This study seeks to determine which group ...
Warenski J C - - 1997
The suggestions offered in this article represent an effort to reduce the incidence of cesarean delivery for dystocia while maintaining a safe course to vaginal birth. Avoiding difficult labor induction in which a compelling indication is lacking, providing prompt and effective oxytocin therapy of arrested first stage labor, and liberalizing ...
Lajinian S - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between heat-humidity indexes and rates of preterm labor and preterm delivery. METHODS: Preterm labor and delivery rates were compared during the 2 summer and 2 winter weeks with the highest and lowest heat-humidity indexes for each season. ...
Ghidini A - - 1997
Antenatal administration of steroids (betamethasone 12 mg i.m. twice q 24 hr) enhances fetal lung maturation and reduces neonatal morbidity in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). However, the risks of repeated administration of steroids 7 days after the initial course are unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of histologic evidence ...
Strong T H TH - - 1997
To test the hypothesis that women receiving intrapartum amnioinfusion have more rapid labors than do controls. Prospective clinical trials of amnioinfusion published in major American obstetric and gynecologic journals between 1985 and 1995, identified through a literature search using MEDLINE and manual index review, were examined. Eleven studies that presented ...
Salafia C M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between the initial neonatal nucleated erythrocyte (nRBC) count and acute infection or ischemia in cases delivered before 32 weeks' gestation. METHODS: A set of 465 nonanomalous singleton live births delivered at 22-32 weeks' gestational age (GA) contained 386 cases with a complete blood count obtained ...
Jannet D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare the tocolytic action and the side effects of nicardipine to those of salbutamol in patients presenting premature labor in order to propose nicardipine as a promising alternative to salbutamol in the treatment of premature labor. STUDY DESIGN: Ninety patients admitted to the Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) for ...
Sandman C A - - 1997
Preliminary conclusions from our research include the possibility that each of the HPA products evaluated, even though correlated (e.g., ACTH and beta E), may be linked to unique and specific outcomes. Maternal stress during the 28-30 weeks of gestation is associated with birth outcome. Increased levels of psychosocial stress were ...
Crane J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sweeping or stripping membranes at 38-40 weeks' gestation leads to spontaneous labor within 7 days. METHODS: One hundred fifty antenatal low-risk patients at 38-40 weeks' gestation were assigned randomly to sweeping or control (ie, Bishop score only) groups and stratified based on the ability to pass ...
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