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Results 551 - 600 of 845
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Combs C A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that elective induction of labor, compared to spontaneous labor, reduces the cesarean rate in women with a sonographic diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. METHODS: Sonography results over a period of 27 months were used to select 262 consecutive patients who met the following inclusion criteria: singleton ...
Chelmow D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prolonged latent phase with cesarean risk, subsequent labor abnormalities, and other adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Patients with prolonged latent phase were compared to patients with normal latent phase. We studied 10,979 singleton vertex deliveries of at least 37 weeks' gestation. Patients with ...
Ellis M - - 1993
The impact of defense-related industry on labor migration within the United States is analyzed using census data for the period 1975-1980. The results "suggest that workers follow jobs in the defense industry, rather than vice versa, and indicate that a process of defense-related regional labor pool formation, amplified by interstate ...
Votta R A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality of prolonged pregnancies (> or = 294 days) compared with those of term gestations. We also evaluated the impact of induction of labor compared with spontaneous onset of labor. STUDY DESIGN: This observational study included consecutive cases treated at Chicago Lying-In Hospital from ...
Adkins R T - - 1993
We evaluated a program for prevention of preterm birth involving early detection and aggressive intervention with subcutaneous terbutaline pump therapy in a high-risk, private patient population. Risk factor screening, frequent cervical examinations, and intensive patient education were used to detect preterm labor before it progressed to an advanced stage. Home ...
Zlatnik F J - - 1993
A prospective, randomized clinical trial involving patients in premature labor (28 to 36 weeks' gestation) with breech presentation comparing 18 with immediate cesarean section with 20 with observed labor was undertaken at the University of Iowa from 1978 to 1983. The "observed labor" group had more deaths and lower Apgar ...
Parnell C - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Pushing in the second stage of labor can be forced or follow the spontaneous urge to bear down. Recent studies have shown that spontaneous pushing results in a longer second stage, fewer CTG changes, higher arterial pH and less damage to the birth canal. METHOD: Randomized trial of spontaneous ...
Lage J M - - 1993
A clinically unsuspected choriocarcinoma arose in a term placenta. The patient was hospitalized for 3 weeks antepartum with preterm labor. She was delivered of a normal female infant at 36 weeks' gestation. Mother and infant were discharged after 3 days. The placenta, 465 g, contained multiple white nodules, a single ...
Blake R L RL - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is the most common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. There is evidence that cervicovaginal infection could predispose to preterm labor. This study explored a possible association of evidence of inflammation on an otherwise normal Papanicolaou smear obtained during pregnancy with subsequent preterm ...
Nava S - - 1992
Acute diaphragmatic fatigue has been experimentally shown to occur in normal healthy subjects and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by asking them to modify their pattern of breathing or to breathe against high inspiratory resistances. During the expulsive period of labor women are asked periodically to make strong ...
Spaulding L B - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The safety of trial of labor after cesarean has been documented by numerous studies. Large series have demonstrated that in a properly chosen setting, 75% of women can achieve vaginal delivery without undue risk to the mother or fetus. In a small percentage of cases, trial of labor deviates ...
Rooks J P - - 1992
Part II of a three-part report of the National Birth Center Study describes care provided to 11,814 women and their newborns during and after labor and delivery until they were transferred or discharged from the birth centers. There were few low birth weight or preterm or postterm births, but more ...
Halevi A - - 1992
A sensitive assay was used to compare the biological activity of cord serum erythropoietin in two groups of infants born with or without labor-induced hypoxia. The mean cord serum erythropoietin activity in 161 infants delivered after vaginal labor was 116 +/- 36 mU/mL, and was indistinguishable from that observed in ...
Gjerdingen D K - - 1992
BACKGROUND: This paper, the first of a two-part series on premature labor, reviews the recent literature on the causes of and risk factors for preterm labor and methods of diagnosis. METHODS: A review of the literature on risk determination and diagnosis of preterm labor was conducted by searching MEDLINE files ...
Lefevre M L - - 1992
Preterm birth is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Although studies have been complicated by problems of definition and methodology, certain strategies have the potential to reduce both the incidence and the impact of preterm birth. These strategies include accurate assessment of gestational age, education about the signs ...
- - 1992
BACKGROUND: Beta-adrenergic agonists are commonly used to arrest premature labor. Although treatment of preterm labor with these agents can delay delivery by 24 to 48 hours, the potential risks and benefits to the mother and infant before and after delivery have not been adequately assessed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 708 ...
Bernat S H - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating biofeedback-assisted relaxation techniques into routine instruction in Lamaze classes. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design (static groups comparison) was used. SETTING: Lamaze classes. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 33 subjects recruited from 12 Lamaze classes. MEASURES: Duration of first-stage labor, amount of sedation ...
Morrison J C - - 1992
Some question whether tocolytic drugs reduce uterine activity and prolong gestation. The interval from discontinuance of tocolytics until spontaneous labor and delivery in patients (n = 69) with documented preterm labor (PTL) versus subjects receiving prophylactic tocolytic therapy (n = 41) was studied. Women with documented PTL delivered sooner after ...
Herson V C - - 1992
The ability of the neonate to mount an adequate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) response, either quantitatively or functionally, is impaired. To assess whether neonatal PMN number and function are altered by labor and delivery, three groups of infants were studied: cesarean section without labor (10), cesarean section after labor (10), and ...
Waldenström U - - 1992
Increasing numbers of pregnant women take a warm bath during labor. Yet few evaluations have addressed benefits claimed and possible risks of this practice. Using retrospective data from a continuing trial at a birth center in Stockholm, we compared 89 women who took a warm bath after spontaneous rupture of ...
Hill W C - - 1992
Despite tremendous improvements in maternal and neonatal care, preterm delivery remains the leading cause of infant mortality. Widespread use of tocolytics and aggressive preterm labor management have had little effect on reducing the overall neonatal mortality. To improve the success of tocolysis and preterm labor management, it is critical that ...
McGregor J A - - 1992
PPROM is directly associated with 30% to 40% of preterm births. Reproductive tract infection, inflammation, or both may be primary causes or occur secondarily after PPROM and hasten the onset of labor. Recent carefully controlled trials demonstrate that antibiotic treatment (erythromycin, ampicillin) can significantly lengthen the "beneficial latency period" and ...
Graf R A - - 1992
Preterm birth has been identified by the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality (1988) as the primary cause of the increased infant mortality rate in the United States. An analysis of what is currently known about four areas of preterm labor including (1) definition and causes, (2) identification of patients ...
Riley L - - 1992
Sonography of the cervix and lower uterine segment has been used in evaluating pregnancies at risk for incompetent cervix and premature labor. Shortened cervix (less than 3 cm) and open internal os with funneling of the membranes into the endocervical canal are sonographic features associated with premature delivery. We identified ...
Cahill D J - - 1992
To assess the influence of high-dose oxytocin augmentation of spontaneous labor, a consecutive series of 30,874 primigravid term deliveries were analyzed for adverse perinatal outcome. In spite of a longer mean duration of labor, the frequencies of asphyxial perinatal death, neonatal seizures, and abnormal neonatal neurologic behavior were not significantly ...
Romero R - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, microbiologic characteristics, and clinical significance of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in women with premature rupture of membranes at term. STUDY DESIGN: Amniocentesis was performed in 32 women with term premature rupture of membranes and amniotic fluid cultured ...
Von Reichert C - - 1992
"A survey of residents of and migrants to 15 fast-growing wilderness counties [in the United States] showed that only 25 percent of the migrants increased their income, while almost 50 percent accepted income losses upon their moves to high-amenity counties. Concomitantly, amenities and quality of life were more important factors ...
Mazor M - - 1992
Two women with preterm labor and intraamniotic infection with Listeria Monocytogenes are presented. In both patients, the prenatal diagnosis of Listeriosis was made by transabdominal amniocentesis. The immediate prominent observation was meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. We propose that an amniocentesis should be performed in women with premature labor ...
Kurki T - - 1992
To assess the value of prophylaxis with penicillin in women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and the long-term outcome of children born after prolonged PROM, we studied 221 women with this condition. Penicillin (5 mu twice, 6 hours apart) was given intravenously to 50 women and placebo to 51 ...
Guise J M - - 1992
The purpose of this prospective investigation was to evaluate a protocol for management of term patients with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and a cervix unfavorable for induction of labor (Bishop score 4 or less). Patients initially were observed for 24 to 36 hours for the spontaneous onset of labor. ...
Pinto A - - 1992
A 3680-g term male neonate developed bilateral bronchopneumonia at 9 days of age. The labor, delivery, and immediate postnatal period had been unremarkable. Despite standard antibiotic therapy, the patient progressed to respiratory failure and died 4 days later. Adenovirus particles were found in oropharyngeal secretions 1 day prior to death. ...
Dowling D D - - 1991
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of whole amniotic fluid (AF) and fractions of AF on amnion cell prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Amnion cells were grown to confluence and then incubated in the presence of AF, or fractions thereof, obtained at 17-19 weeks gestation (MID), at term ...
Tay S K - - 1991
This is a retrospective case controlled study comparing the outcome of labor and neonates in pregnancies complicated by spurious labor at term. The first stage of labor was significantly longer and the proportion of cases requiring oxytocin augmentation was higher in the study group when compared to the controls. More ...
Boylan P - - 1991
The hypothesis that introduction of a defined policy of managing labor in nulliparas, active management of labor, would reduce the incidence of cesarean section (CS) for dystocia was examined by the introduction of active management at Hermann Hospital, the University of Texas affiliated hospital in Houston. The study was conducted ...
Wittels B - - 1991
The progress of labor ideally leads to a normal, spontaneous, vaginal delivery. Many factors--maternal, fetal, obstetrical and anesthetic--may collectively contribute to delaying or precluding an ideal outcome. Adverse outcomes of labor and delivery must be clearly defined in terms of maternal, fetal, or neonatal morbidity or mortality, and should be ...
Jackson G M - - 1991
Once considered universally fatal, the hypoplastic left heart syndrome is now being surgically treated in the newborn period. To help formulate an appropriate management plan for the labor and delivery of these patients, we reviewed the intrapartum course and immediate neonatal outcome of 13 fetuses with known hypoplastic left heart ...
Pello L C - - 1991
Observer variation in visual analysis of fetal heart rate (FHR) records is reportedly high, but can be avoided by computerized numerical analysis. The FHRs of 394 women in labor at 37 or more weeks' gestation were recorded on-line and analyzed to examine how different patterns related to outcome, as judged ...
Hoskins I A - - 1991
A total of 3158 patients at greater than or equal to 34 weeks' gestation undergoing nonstress tests and amniotic fluid index determinations were divided into six groups according to the amniotic fluid index and the nature of the decelerations. Fetuses with antepartum decelerations had statistically significantly increased incidences of intrapartum ...
Hauth J C - - 1991
An adequate trial of labor preceding cesarean delivery for arrest of cervical dilatation in the active phase of labor has not been defined precisely. We reviewed the records of 85 consecutive women at term who received oxytocin for induction or augmentation of labor and who subsequently delivered by cesarean for ...
Dysart M - - 1991
The annual incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was analyzed for changes in a total obstetric sample of 45,115 singleton, vertex, liveborn infants over a 7-year study period. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid for the total obstetric population was calculated for each year of the study period. The sample was ...
Reynolds H D - - 1991
Preterm delivery continues to occur in 5% to 10% of all births, with a perinatal mortality rate between 50% and 80%. In recent years, the role of infection with lower genital tract organisms in precipitating preterm labor/delivery and premature rupture of membranes has come under considerable study. This article reviews ...
Combs C A - - 1991
Although retained placenta is a major cause of postpartum hemorrhage, there is no general agreement regarding when manual placental extraction is indicated to prevent hemorrhage. We sought to determine the following: 1) what duration of the third stage of labor is abnormal, 2) what duration is associated with complications, and ...
van der Elst C W - - 1991
Spontaneous preterm labor remains a significant cause of high morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Chorioamnionitis with an associated rise in prostaglandins (PGs) is thought to be one of the factors responsible for the onset of preterm labor. In this study, 52 placentas and membranes from gestations of 35 weeks' ...
Kennell J J Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, - - 1991
The continuous presence of a supportive companion (doula) during labor and delivery in two studies in Guatemala shortened labor and reduced the need for cesarean section and other interventions. In a US hospital with modern obstetric practices, 412 healthy nulliparous women in labor were randomly assigned to a supported group ...
Tyson H - - 1991
A retrospective descriptive study of 1001 midwife-attended home births in Toronto, Ontario, was carried out between January 1983 and July 1988. Interviews with 26 midwives and reviews of client records provided data on maternal age, socio-economic status, gestation, ruptured membranes, length of labor, episiotomies and perineal lacerations, transfer to hospital ...
Wu B T - - 1991
The presence of meconium-stained amniotic-fluid (MSAF) during labor in cephalic presentation is a potentially ominous sign of fetal distress and, a direct cause of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). The authors designed a new method of intrapartum amnioinfusion for replacement (IAR) of the MSAF with normal saline solution. A total of ...
Bartlett A V - - 1991
We identified high rates of intrapartum and neonatal mortality among children born in a traditional indigenous community in rural Guatemala. To examine the potential association of maternal characteristics and obstetric and newborn care practices with this mortality, we conducted a retrospective case-control study. Case were infants born in 1986 and ...
Romero R - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to determine whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid is a marker for microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. Amniocentesis was performed on 707 patients presenting with preterm labor and intact membranes. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was present in 4.2% (30/707) of patients with preterm labor. The prevalence ...
Waldenström U - - 1991
Two hundred ninety-four women were randomly allocated to a group in which the use of a birthing stool (experimental group) or a conventional semirecumbent position (control group) was encouraged. The birthing stool was 32 cm high and allowed the parturient to sit upright and to squat. The husband could sit ...
Biancuzzo M - - 1991
Retrospective chart review was conducted for four low-risk women with full-term, healthy fetuses in the occiput posterior position. The first woman pushed for over two hours and delivered a 6 lb, 8 3/4 oz baby by cesarean section. The second woman delivered a 5 lb, 2 3/4 oz baby posteriorly ...
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