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Results 501 - 550 of 842
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Wehbeh H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether peripartum cocaine use shortens labor. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1220 gravidas delivering at an urban county hospital (November 1991 through April 1992) had urine specimens sent for toxicology studies. Cervical dilatation on admission and time intervals during the course of labor ...
Macones G A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the available data on the efficacy of oral beta-agonist maintenance therapy in delaying delivery and in decreasing the incidence of preterm birth and its complications. DATA SOURCES: A computer search of English-language abstracts using MEDLINE (medical subject heading terms: labor, premature and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, therapeutic use) ...
Andronikou S - - 1995
Creatine kinase-brain isoenzyme activity (CK-BB) was measured longitudinally in the serum of 31 pregnant women in the first stage of labor (early and advanced), at delivery, and 1, 6 and 24 h after delivery, in the umbilical cord and in the serum of their neonates on the first day of ...
Regenstein A C - - 1995
The aims of this study were to examine data from an institution at which the goal has been to pursue vaginal delivery in patients with a preterm gestation and preeclampsia and to test the hypothesis that labor does not increase the risk of poor outcome for the preterm infant of ...
Nathanielsz P W - - 1995
Recent experimental studies in a wide range of animal species have shown that the fetus determines the duration of pregnancy. The mechanism by which the birth process is initiated is closely linked to the normal maturation of vital fetal organs, such as the lungs. Thus, under normal circumstances, the fetus ...
Golub M S - - 1995
We investigated whether opiate analgesics as commonly administered to women during labor would affect later response to maternal separation in infant guinea pigs. Meperidine hydrochloride (10-15 mg/kg i.m.) was administered to late-pregnant guinea pigs 5 min prior to labor induction with oxytocin. On Day 11 or 12 postnatal, pup distress ...
Yasumizu T - - 1994
We elucidated several controversial problems surrounding the vaginal trial in patients with prior abdominal delivery under the diagnosis of failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, by conducting a prospective 6-year survey on the basis of patients who underwent prior operation for arrest disorders of labor (ADL). Of 45 full-term women ...
Buonocore G - - 1994
Superoxide anion (.O2-) production was investigated in whole blood of mothers in the peripartal period and in neonates. Blood samples from 14 mothers undergoing vaginal delivery (VD) were tested at the beginning of labor, during labor, after delivery, and 4 d after delivery. Nine mothers undergoing elective cesarean section (ECS) ...
King D E - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between religious affiliation and obstetric outcome. We reviewed 1,919 records of patients whose infants were born at a university medical center. Data obtained from maternal and newborn records included demographic information, prenatal history, labor and delivery records, and religious affiliation. ...
Molberg P - - 1994
The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of the peripheral white blood count (WBC) drawn during labor as a predictor of postpartum morbidity. Hospital charts on 309 consecutive obstetrical deliveries performed by residents of the Cox Family Practice Residency were reviewed for evidence of maternal or neonatal ...
Benedetti T J - - 1994
Ninety-four patients in documented preterm labor received three intramuscular injections of ritodrine hydrochloride over an interval of 6 hours. They subsequently received the tocolytic agent intravenously for a minimum of 6 hours. The effects of ritodrine on uterine activity and the cardiovascular system were determined. Intramuscular ritodrine hydrochloride elicited a ...
Iams J D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To describe the time relation between symptoms, contractions, and the clinical diagnosis of preterm labor. METHODS: We analyzed the records from 57 women who were enrolled in a previously reported trial of home uterine monitoring and who developed preterm labor while using the monitor. In a post hoc descriptive ...
Yoon B H - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Although several investigators have attempted to define the normal values of umbilical cord blood pH and gases, there is considerable controversy about the optimal cutoff values to diagnosis intrauterine asphyxia. A possible reason for this might be that several studies have included data from fetuses born after different duration ...
Iams J D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of preterm labor by comparing transvaginal sonography to digital examination of the cervix. METHODS: We performed transvaginal sonography in women with preterm labor who had completed a course of parenteral tocolysis. Cervical length was measured according to criteria reported previously. Cervical sonographic ...
Svare J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is a relationship between the uro-genital microbial colonization and threatening preterm delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The microflora in the urine and endocervix was studied in 43 women with preterm labor, 45 women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) and 80 normal pregnant women at ...
Oster M I - - 1994
Hypnotic preparation for labor and delivery is enjoying renewed interest. This interest lies in the mother's psychological comfort and sense of involvement in the birth process. In this paper I present a model of psychological preparation, illustrated with case examples, that appears to be superior to Lamaze. This model offers ...
Flamm B L - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To report a prospective multicenter comparison of outcomes of patients who attempted trial of labor and those who underwent elective repeat cesarean. METHODS: During the study interval, all pregnant women with previous cesarean delivery cared for at Kaiser Permanente Hospitals in Southern California were studied regardless of whether trial ...
Ohel G - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether continuous lumbar epidural analgesia administered in the early phase of labor leads to an increased incidence of instrumental vaginal deliveries. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis we have studied 563 consecutive term cephalic vaginal deliveries where an epidural was given for pain relief in labor. The type ...
Thorp J A - - 1994
Published studies assessing the effect of epidural analgesia in nulliparous labor on the frequency of cesarean delivery for dystocia are reviewed. There are at least four retrospective studies and two prospective studies that suggest that epidural analgesia may increase the risk of cesarean delivery for dystocia in first labors. The ...
Hueston W J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery. METHODS: Among 8829 deliveries at five participating hospitals, the charts of 1001 women who had a previous cesarean delivery were reviewed to determine whether a trial of labor or elective cesarean had been performed. Bivariate analysis ...
Santi M D - - 1994
Twelve infants born to mothers who received i.v. magnesium sulfate for > 6 weeks for the cessation of preterm labor were evaluated radiographically shortly after birth. All infants were born at > 33 weeks gestational age. All twelve infants demonstrated consistent and unique radiographic abnormalities in the metaphyses of their ...
Gardberg M - - 1994
In order to find out how often labor is complicated by persistent occiput posterior position, (OPP), and how it affects the course and outcome of labor, the records of 3648 deliveries were reviewed, a frequency of 4.7% was found. Also, the amount of operative deliveries was surprisingly high, less than ...
Wigton T R - - 1994
A retrospective analysis of elective induction of labor at term and routine induction after 42 completed weeks' gestation was conducted to assess neonatal and maternal outcome in a low-risk obstetric population at a tertiary care facility. In 1989, 639 labor inductions were performed at the Christ Hospital and Medical Center. ...
Yapar E G - - 1994
Digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) has been proposed to have a role in what seems to be the timely onset of labor. The relationship between the DLIS in patients with preterm labor and the success of tocolytic therapy with ritodrine and nifedipine has been studied. Using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit, ...
Fortunato S J - - 1994
Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) in the previable gestation is frequently associated with fetal or neonatal death. Passive expectant management is successful in only a small minority of cases. Women presenting with PROM at < or = 27 weeks' gestation were treated with tocolysis and prophylactic antibiotics and delivered ...
DiMatteo M R - - 1993
Focus groups were conducted to encourage and examine women's frank discussions of the events surrounding their experiences of labor, birth, and the postpartum period. Transcripts of the tape-recorded narratives of 41 new mothers were analyzed and five themes were identified: loss of autonomy and control; unexpected physical pain of childbirth; ...
Baker C A - - 1993
Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists. We present a case illustrative of the unique management problems posed by these patients during labor. A method of releasing the anterior vulvar scar tissue to allow vaginal delivery is described. Sensitivity and a nonjudgmental approach as to what is ...
Collins N L - - 1993
This prospective study examined the effects of prenatal social support on maternal and infant health and well-being in a sample of low-income pregnant women (N = 129). Three aspects of support (amount received, quality of support received, and network resources) and four outcomes (birth weight, Apgar scores, labor progress, and ...
Magann E F - - 1993
Forty-six women in active labour who developed fetal distress requiring abdominal delivery were randomized to receive 0.25 mg of terbutaline (subcutaneously) or magnesium sulphate as a 4-g bolus (intravenously) to decrease uterine activity. The terbutaline-treated group in contrast to the magnesium sulphate-treated group had reduced uterine activity as measured by ...
Sandmire H F - - 1993
During the past 15-20 years, ultrasonic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) has been used increasingly to make management decisions regarding the induction of labor or delivery route. The propriety of this approach depends on proof that its use improves newborn or maternal outcome without disproportionate increases in morbidity and mortality. ...
Watts D H - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, microbiologic, and histologic findings associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels among women in preterm labor or with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). METHODS: Obstetric data, serum C-reactive protein levels, and amniotic fluid (AF) and chorioamniotic membrane cultures and histology were obtained on 203 women ...
Parilla B V - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate in a prospective, randomized study the efficacy of oral terbutaline after successful intravenous tocolysis in reducing preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: Patients between 28 and 35 weeks' gestation with uterine contractions and change in cervical examination were treated with intravenous magnesium sulfate for 12 to ...
Thorp J M JM - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the utility of intrapartum Mueller-Hillis maneuvers in predicting labor abnormalities. METHODS: Patients underwent Mueller-Hillis maneuvers upon admission in active labor. Outcomes of each labor were assessed, and correlations were sought between the degree of descent and outcome. Labor curves were constructed for each patient, and labor ...
Bright D A - - 1993
Epidural analgesia offers excellent relief from the pain of uterine contractions during labor. It is well tolerated by both mother and baby. However, recent reports suggest that epidurals increase the rate of both cesarean sections and instrumental deliveries, with their attendant costs and morbidities. At our community hospital, 100 consecutive ...
Kjos S L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess whether a program of expectant management of uncomplicated pregnancies in mothers with insulin-requiring gestational or pregestational class B reduces the incidence of cesarean birth. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred women with uncomplicated, insulin-requiring diabetes at 38 weeks' gestation who were compliant with care and whose ...
Fox M D - - 1993
The objective of this study was to determine the risk of significant neonatal morbidity in women with preterm labor who deliver between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. A total of 101 women between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation with documented preterm labor met inclusion and exclusion criteria; 90 gave informed ...
Romero R - - 1993
PROBLEM: The purpose of this study was to determine if amniotic fluid concentrations of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) are of value in diagnosis of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and in the prediction of failure of tocolysis, preterm delivery and perinatal morbidity and mortality. METHOD: Amniotic fluid was obtained by ...
Daikoku N H - - 1993
The preterm birth of immature triplets before 28 weeks is associated with excess morbidity and mortality risks attributable to extreme immaturity. We report a case of fraternal triplets in preterm labor in which the second and third triplet births were delayed 11 days after the first birth, at 26 4/7 ...
Greenwald J L - - 1993
Premature rupture of the membranes is associated with considerable neonatal and maternal morbidity when it leads to premature birth. In most cases, this condition occurs at term, does not require medical intervention and has a benign course. Although few effective preventive measures are available, the family physician should screen pregnant ...
Ludka L M - - 1993
This literature review questions the routine practice of denying food and fluids to women in labor. Fasting in labor, an established practice throughout the United States since the 1940s, is now under careful scrutiny. Many clinical practices, especially those that offer midwifery services, are currently instituting policies to allow and ...
Nichols M R - - 1993
This study examined the responses given by first-time fathers who were asked to describe their feelings about their childbirth experience. The fathers answered three open-ended questions about their feelings concerning labor and childbirth, and the paternal behaviors believed to be most useful to their wives during labor and delivery. Data ...
Papke K R - - 1993
Preterm births continue to be the leading cause of perinatal mortality despite efforts to prevent preterm labor. Tocolytic therapy with beta-mimetic drugs was believed to be the solution for preterm labor, but the Canadian Preterm Labor Investigators Group recently reported that the use of ritodrine had no significant beneficial effect. ...
Golay J - - 1993
A cohort study was designed to assess the effects of maternal squatting position for the second stage of labor on the evolution and progress of labor, and on maternal and fetal well-being. Outcomes from 200 squatting births, randomly selected from a sample of 1000, were compared with 100 semirecumbent births, ...
Pascoe J M - - 1993
The effect of a birth companion on duration of labor was examined in a sample of 66 nulliparous women in Michigan. Two-thirds of the sample were single, 66% received Medicaid, and 88% were white. Using simple linear regression, support during labor explained a significant amount of variance in duration of ...
Lettieri L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: In an effort to elucidate possible causes of preterm labor, we undertook a prospective study of 50 patients consecutively admitted with intact membranes and preterm labor who eventually had a preterm delivery despite the use of tocolysis. STUDY DESIGN: A comprehensive evaluation plan was instituted. This included a detailed ...
Kirschbaum T - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Clinical evidence for a relationship between chorioamnionitis and the onset of preterm labor, supported by well developed biochemical models of that interaction, motivated a review of prospective, randomized trials of antibiotic use in its prevention. STUDY DESIGN: A literature search was made of antibiotic trials applied to women at ...
Paneth N - - 1993
The principal rationale for the almost universal use of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in labor is that its use can effectively prevent the full expression of brain-damaging birth asphyxia by timely intervention in labor. This central hypothesis of EFM has never been adequately tested, in part because of the difficulty ...
Combs C A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that elective induction of labor, compared to spontaneous labor, reduces the cesarean rate in women with a sonographic diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. METHODS: Sonography results over a period of 27 months were used to select 262 consecutive patients who met the following inclusion criteria: singleton ...
Chelmow D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of prolonged latent phase with cesarean risk, subsequent labor abnormalities, and other adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Patients with prolonged latent phase were compared to patients with normal latent phase. We studied 10,979 singleton vertex deliveries of at least 37 weeks' gestation. Patients with ...
Ellis M - - 1993
The impact of defense-related industry on labor migration within the United States is analyzed using census data for the period 1975-1980. The results "suggest that workers follow jobs in the defense industry, rather than vice versa, and indicate that a process of defense-related regional labor pool formation, amplified by interstate ...
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