Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 844
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Lieberman E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have documented an increase in maternal temperature associated with use of epidural analgesia during labor, none have investigated the impact of epidural use on the rate of intrapartum fever or the consequences for the fetus and newborn of this elevated maternal temperature. This study evaluates the ...
Windrim R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and gastrointestinal tolerance of misoprostol taken orally for induction of labor, against our established protocol, with the interval from induction to vaginal birth as the primary outcome measure. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-five women who presented with indication for induction of labor were assigned randomly ...
Leaphart W L - - 1997
Since our institution has a low cesarean rate (14%), it was our hypothesis that the rate of cesarean delivery in patients who underwent induction for macrosomia would be similar to the cesarean rate in patients with similar birth weights who entered labor spontaneously. A retrospective analysis of cases seen from ...
Wenstrom K D - - 1997
To determine the efficacy of the terbutaline pump for the prevention of preterm delivery, patients in preterm labor defined by progressive cervical change underwent intravenous magnesium sulfate tocolysis (with or without oral indomethacin, as necessary), and once labor was arrested, were randomized to one of three treatment arms: terbutaline by ...
Schabel J E - - 1997
Lumbar epidural analgesia has become the preferred method of pain relief for labor and delivery. Proper administration of epidural analgesia offers many advantages for both mother and fetus. With the availability of various local anesthetics, opioids, and infusion techniques, the analgesia can be tailored to the specific needs of the ...
Doody D R - - 1997
Premature rupture of the amniotic membranes (PROM) occurs in up to 20% of all births. Although many studies have examined risk factors for PROM and, in particular, preterm PROM (PPROM, if less than 37 weeks' gestation), the aetiology of PROM recurrence has not been examined as closely. This study investigated ...
Lurie S - - 1997
This prospective study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone (PTH) might be involved in preterm or term labor. Four groups of patients were formed, 15 patients in each group. The preterm labor group were patients who were admitted to our perinatal care unit with preterm labor and ...
Ayebo A - - 1997
The incidence of infant methemoglobinemia reported in three counties of Transylvania, Romania, was evaluated from medical records, field visits, and interviews. Well water was the main source of nitrate for induction of acquired infant methemoglobinemia, which occurred post-breast-feeding when the infants consumed nitrate-contaminated water used in mixing formula. The average ...
Roy A S - - 1997
"Some previous Canadian studies have shown that considering the labor market as a whole and also pooling all immigrants as a group, immigrants do not have any job displacement effects on the Canadian born. This study presents some new evidence. It disaggregates immigrants by country of origin and by occupation ...
Wong D - - 1997
"Foreigners constitute 15 percent of the population and over 20 percent of the labor force in Singapore.... This large foreign labor force is managed by a comprehensive and highly selective foreign labor policy, which is described in this paper. The strict enforcement of a guestworker policy of transience on the ...
Matsuda Y - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that neonatal bone abnormalities occur as a result of long-term intravenous magnesium administration (MgSO4) to pregnant women. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the frequency of such abnormalities and the clinical background of both mothers and neonates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed ...
March M R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the utility of a modification of the Mueller-Hillis maneuver in predicting abnormalities of the second stage of labor. METHODS: The Mueller-Hillis maneuver was modified by limiting its use to the second stage of labor during a contraction. The maneuver was performed by one examiner; descent of ...
Garry D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate amniotic fluid lactate dehydrogenase level in comparison with other rapid markers in prediction of microbial invasion of the uterine cavity and preterm delivery < or = 36 hours after amniocentesis. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred thirty-one women in preterm labor with intact ...
Smith-Levitin M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the safety, efficacy and cost of three cervical cytology sampling devices in pregnant women presenting for prenatal care to the obstetrics clinic, at Medical College of Pennsylvania Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: From September 7, 1993, to November 5, 1993, 61 cervical cytologic smears were obtained using ...
Rush J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Showers and tubs in labor were not generally used in our center. When three whirlpool baths (Jacuzzis) were ordered as part of our renovations, a randomized, controlled trial was initiated to explore their effects on narcotic and epidural requirements. METHODS: This study employed an intent-to-treat design, and the sample ...
Malone F D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To define factors causing prolonged labor in nulliparous women undergoing active management of labor. METHODS: We included all nulliparas delivered during 1990-1994 with spontaneous onset of labor lasting more than 12 hours, singleton gestation, cephalic presentation, and labor at greater than 37 weeks. Each patient was matched with the ...
Lang J M - - 1996
This study estimates the effects of 23 factors on the prevalence of premature labor and fetal growth retardation across the entire birthweight spectrum. We studied risk factors for premature labor within the domain of babies of appropriate size for their gestational age (N = 9,490). We also studied risk factors ...
Gilson G J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a synthetic intracervical hygroscopic dilator, Dilapan (Gynotech, Inc., Middlesex, N.J.), on ripening the cervix before medically indicated induction of labor. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred forty patients with a Bishop score of < or = 4 were prospectively randomized to ...
Pecha R E - - 1996
We describe a case of colonic pseudo-obstruction occurring in a pregnant patient whose preterm labor was being treated with intravenous magnesium and nifedipine. Sequential colonoscopies were required to manage the recurrent colonic dilations prior to delivery of healthy twins. There was no recurrence after delivery and discontinuation of the tocolytics.
Thorp J A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular because it is the most effective method of providing pain relief during labor. Much attention is given to its safety and efficacy, and many health care providers and consumers are unaware of its potential drawbacks. This article reviews the literature about the ...
Lowe N K - - 1996
The fetus as "patient" during labor and birth has become an increasingly important concept during the past 20 years. However, what is understood about fetal status during labor and how the fetus prepares for its approaching separation from its mother? Current information indicates that not only is the term fetus ...
Roubal P J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Serious injury can result from improper use of the birthing bar. CASE: A 31-year-old woman delivered a neonate using a birthing bar for her entire second stage of labor. Shortly after delivery, she experienced bilateral upper extremity weakness from compression of the radial nerve. She was treated with physical ...
Hannah M E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: As the interval between rupture of the fetal membranes at term and delivery increases, so may the risk of fetal and maternal infection. It is not known whether inducing labor will reduce this risk or whether one method of induction is better then another. METHODS: We studied 5041 women ...
Smith C V - - 1996
The short-acting opioid fentanyl has been shown to be a useful analgesic during labor. The purpose of this prospective, comparative investigation was to determine whether fentanyl influenced fetal biophysical parameters during labor. Twenty-four uncomplicated pregnancies at 37-41 weeks were studied during the early active phase of labor. Those patients who ...
Viamontes C M - - 1996
Preterm birth accounts for the majority of neonatal morbidity and mortality not associated with congenital anomalies. Its incidence has remained relatively unchanged over the past 15 to 20 years. Tocolytic therapy has been shown to be ineffective in the prevention of preterm labor but can delay delivery by approximately 48 ...
Wu R W - - 1996
In order to evaluate the neonatal outcomes of infants who had prolonged fetal heart rate (FHR) deceleration during the second stage of labor, the neonatal outcomes of 24 infants born after vaginal delivery at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation with prolonged FHR deceleration during the second stage of labor ...
Hannah M E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Several randomized, controlled trials compared the policies of induction of labor and expectant management for women who reach 41 weeks' gestation, and although they suggest a better outcome for mothers and infants with such a policy in place, controversy continues as to which is the better form of care. ...
Chen W Y - - 1996
Diminished actin response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) has been used to explain the impaired chemotaxis of neonatal neutrophils, but the effect of labor on this response has not been evaluated before. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that labor stress may have an effect on actin response of cord blood neutrophils to ...
Colonna-Romano P - - 1996
Maternal tachycardic responses to the intravenous injection of epinephrine 15 micrograms were compared with tachycardic responses induced by the pain of labor in a double-blind, prospective study of 15 women in active labor. After placement of an epidural catheter, maternal heart rate was continuously recorded. Each patient received, in uterine ...
Turrentine M A - - 1996
Objective: We sought to determine if changing the surgeon's gloves after delivery of the infant and prior to manual placental removal decreases the incidence of postcesarean endometritis.Methods: Laboring women undergoing cesarean delivery between September 1, 1994, and August 31, 1995, were prospectively randomized into either a change or no-change glove ...
Poma P A - - 1996
The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome ...
Kramer M S - - 1995
Previous studies suggest that women with asthma are at increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, drugs (especially beta-agonists) used to treat asthma are also used to treat preterm labor. The authors carried out a case-control study of 555 women from three hospital centers with idiopathic preterm labor (< 37 weeks), ...
Ahner R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the presence of fetal fibronectin in cervicovaginal secretions can be used as a selection criterion for induction of labor at term. STUDY DESIGN: Cervicovaginal secretions of 64 women who were scheduled for induction of labor were examined for fetal fibronectin and divided into group A (positive ...
Colton T - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess by metaanalysis the evidence from randomized clinical trials regarding home uterine activity monitoring. STUDY DESIGN: Six randomized controlled trials of home uterine activity monitoring, the same six trials reviewed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force on home uterine activity monitoring, were studied. Data ...
McFarland M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between labor abnormalities and shoulder dystocia. STUDY DESIGN: All consecutive cases of shoulder dystocia from January 1986 to August 1994 were reviewed (n = 276). For purposes of comparison a control group of vaginally delivered patients was randomly selected in a 2:1 ...
- - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the efficacy of a home uterine activity monitoring system for early detection of preterm labor and reduction of preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial was performed in which pregnant women between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation and at high risk for ...
Perry K G KG - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects of terbutaline sulfate when administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion in women with arrested preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: Over a 6-year period records from 8709 women prescribed this therapy for preterm labor that had previously been arrested with ...
Chauhan S P - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if the discriminatory intrapartum amniotic fluid index can reliably predict respiratory or metabolic acidosis in the newborn. STUDY DESIGN: Among 256 parturients at 37 weeks' gestation or more, the intrapartum amniotic fluid index was obtained in early labor, and umbilical arterial ...
Eller D P - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrauterine sound pressure levels produced by vibroacoustic stimulation were associated with distance from an intrauterine hydrophone in human parturients and to evaluate the effects of distance on the spectrum of the stimulus. STUDY DESIGN: Measurements of intrauterine sound were taken ...
Keirse M J - - 1995
Preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) continues to account for the vast majority of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The incidence of preterm birth can be reduced by appropriate social interventions and antenatal care. Currently available tocolytic agents suffer from low uterospecificity and prolong pregnancy only marginally, although postponement ...
Iams J D - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the utility of cervicovaginal expression of fetal fibronectin in the diagnosis of preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: Women seen between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation with symptoms of preterm labor, intact membranes, and cervical dilatation < 3 cm were enrolled at five university medical centers. ...
Diegmann E K - - 1995
Several authors of standard obstetric texts state that engagement occurs before the onset of labor in a majority of nulliparas at term, and failure of the fetal head to engage in early labor is a greater indicator for operative birth. A pilot clinical descriptive study was done at University Hospital, ...
Baron C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the value of routine intrapartum amniotic fluid volume assessment on perinatal outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Patients admitted for labor and delivery who were ultimately delivered between January 1988 and June 1989 with a gestational age > or = 26 weeks and who had an intrapartum ...
de Veciana M - - 1995
Chart review of 73 patients with 3.5 cm or more dilation, intact membranes, and regular contractions at less than 36 weeks. Forty-four (group A) received tocolysis with magnesium sulfate, and 13 of the 44 also received indomethacin. Twenty-nine (group B) received no tocolysis. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. Demographic ...
Baskett T F - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the antecedents of shoulder dystocia, the risk of recurrence, and the perinatal morbidity associated with the different maneuvers used for its management. METHODS: We conducted a 10-year (1980-1989) retrospective case record review of all instances of shoulder dystocia in a teaching maternity hospital. RESULTS: There were 254 ...
Ben-David Y - - 1995
Subclinical infection is suspected to be an important etiologic factor in the initiation of preterm labor in women with intact membranes. We present a case of acute clinical chorioamnionitis followed by preterm labor and fetal distress in a woman with intact membranes. The bacteriologic data on the mother and neonate ...
Naef R W RW - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor and attempted vaginal birth after prior low-segment vertical cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: During a 10-year period in a single tertiary hospital, all patients with a prior low-segment uterine incision (whether vertical or transverse) were ...
Friedman S A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether maternal preeclampsia per se has a beneficial effect on neonatal outcome after delivery before 35 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: A matched cohort study design was used. Two hundred twenty-three infants of strictly defined preeclamptic women were matched for gestational age, race, gender, and mode ...
Videla F L - - 1995
A disciplined approach to labor management has resulted in a low cesarean rate (9%) in our population. We wondered if this management scheme was applicable and safe applied to women with previous cesareans. Women with a previous cesarean delivering in a 5-year period were included. Labor management included encouragement of ...
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