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Results 451 - 500 of 1339
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Kristensen Ines A IA Skejby University Hospital/Viborg Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. - - 2006
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are an important cause of infant morbidity in both developing and developed countries, and they are the leading cause of death in poorer parts of the world. Respiratory viruses appear to be the most frequent microbiological pathogens, especially respiratory syncytial virus. It has been suggested that ...
Dorea Jose G - - 2006
Women pass on low levels of hazardous environmental contaminants and naturally occurring substances during pregnancy and nursing. In addition to estrogenic activity, these substances exhibit antiestrogenic, antiandrogenic, and androgenic actions, and because they can affect thyroid metabolism, they are described as endocrine-active substances (EAS). Specific topics related to EAS metabolism ...
Di Napoli Anteo - - 2006
AIM: To evaluate the effects of parental smoking and level of education on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding in a prospective cohort study on mother-infant pairs. METHODS: We studied 543 mother-infant pairs enrolled after delivery at a hospital in Rome. Information about parents' characteristics were obtained from a questionnaire ...
Acharya Ram N - - 2006
This study examined the effect of the "TrEAT Yourself Well" campaign on diners'menu choices using data from four restaurant chains in California. Within each chain, two locations in the greater San Diego area were selected as experimental sites and either one or two locations outside the greater San Diego area ...
Awi D D - - 2006
(I) To determine the barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding in mothers who Hospital. (2). To determine if there is any statistical association between the time of initiation of breastfeeding and certain socio-demographic, obstetric, psychosocial and environmental factors in the mother-baby pairs. METHODOLOGICAL: A prospective, hospital-based study of 500 consecutive ...
Tu Mai Thanh - - 2006
Daily stress and sleep deprivation can influence the diurnal pattern of cortisol, which normally consists of high morning levels and a gradual decline throughout the day. While most individuals have consistent declining cortisol concentrations over days, others display either flat or inconsistent profiles. Postpartum mothers experience considerable home demands and ...
Bystrova K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Few investigations have considered evaluating the effects of certain combinations of ward routines like swaddling of the baby and separation of mother and baby on infant variables such as neonatal weight loss. AIMS: To study the effect of different ward routines in respect to proximity to mother and type ...
Bodnarchuk Jennifer L - - 2006
This study addressed a key question for assessing breastfeeding duration: at what point is an infant considered no longer exclusively breastfed or no longer breastfed at all? Mothers provided longitudinal infant feeding data via daily checklists. Transitions between exclusive to partial breastfeeding and partial to no breastfeeding were compared across ...
Wilson Warren - - 2006
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life, primarily because of potential immunological benefits which are deemed to outweigh nutritive costs for infants. This recommendation is controversial, as studies of the relationship between the term of EBF and infant and child health ...
Wilhelm Susan L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using motivational interviewing to promote sustained breastfeeding by increasing a mother's intent to breastfeed for 6 months and increasing her breastfeeding self-efficacy. DESIGN: A longitudinal experimental two-group design with repeated measures was selected to explore the feasibility of using motivational interviewing to promote sustained ...
Larocque Renée - - 2006
WHO recommends antenatal (after the first trimester) deworming for pregnant women who live in areas where the prevalence of hookworm infection exceeds 20-30%. However, deworming has not been included in antenatal care packages in most developing countries. A review of articles publishing original data identified primarily through Medline was conducted ...
Kulakac Ozen - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of the study was to identify the changes employed mothers of infants aged 0-24 months made in their nutrition with the aim of increasing their milk production and extending their breastfeeding period. METHODS: The 135 full-time employed mothers enrolled in this study came to the Well-Child ...
Virtanen S M - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence for the role of infant feeding in the development of beta cell autoimmunity is inconsistent. We set out to study the effects of breastfeeding and of age at introduction of supplementary foods on the development of beta cell autoimmunity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective birth cohort of 3,565 ...
Ryan Alan S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare rates of breastfeeding between women who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with those of non-WIC mothers from 1978 to 2003. METHODS: The Ross Laboratories Mothers Survey is a national survey designed to determine patterns of milk ...
Jackson Kelly M - - 2006
Breastfeeding provides unsurpassed natural nutrition to the newborn and infant. Human breast milk also contains numerous protective factors against infectious disease and may influence immune system development, as noted in previous studies of infant response to vaccination and thymus gland development. If immune system development is significantly improved with the ...
- - 2006
AIM: To document how children in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) complied with feeding criteria and describe the breastfeeding practices of the compliant group. METHODS: The MGRS longitudinal component followed 1743 mother-infant pairs from birth to 24 mo in six countries (Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the ...
Gudnadottir Maria - - 2006
AIM: To examine in an affluent and healthy population the association between sociodemographic factors and the adherence to key infant dietary recommendations. METHODS: In a longitudinal prospective study, healthy newborns were selected randomly in maternity wards around Iceland and their diet recorded every month for one year (n = 124). ...
Scott Jane A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To report the duration of breastfeeding among a population of Australian women and to identify factors that are associated with the duration of full breastfeeding to 6 months and any breastfeeding to 12 months. METHODS: Participants were 587 women who were recruited from 2 maternity hospitals in Perth and ...
Langan Robert C - - 2006
Physicians should use a checklist to facilitate discussions with new parents before discharging their healthy newborn from the hospital. The checklist should include information on breastfeeding, warning signs of illness, and ways to keep the child healthy and safe. Physicians can encourage breastfeeding by giving parents written information on hunger ...
Kent Jacqueline C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide information that can be used as a guide to clinicians when advising breastfeeding mothers on normal lactation with regard to the frequency and volume of breastfeedings and the fat content of breast milk. METHODS: Mothers (71) of infants who were 1 to 6 months of ...
Chertok Ilana R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine maternal satisfaction with nipple shield use and maternal and infant physiological outcomes of breastfeeding with and without nipple shields. DESIGN: A descriptive study using a structured telephone survey to examine maternal satisfaction of nipple shield use and a within-subject design to compare maternal and infant physiological outcomes ...
Isaacson Laura J - - 2006
The birth of a premature infant causes emotional upheaval for parents. They often wonder what they can do to help their infant during the critical newborn period. Providing breast milk is one of the most important physiologic benefits a mother can give her premature infant. The advantages of breast milk ...
Schaal Benoist - - 2006
In humans, areolar skin glands (AG) enlarge during pregnancy and lactation. Their role in mother-infant interactions may pertain to protective, mechanical, and communicative functions. It was questioned here whether more profuse AG could be related to more optimal adaptation to breastfeeding. A morphological study of the areolae was undertaken between ...
Scott Jane A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Regular identification of factors that predict a woman's infant feeding choice is important so that breastfeeding promotion interventions can be targeted at those women least likely to breastfeed. The objective of this study was to compare determinants of breastfeeding at discharge from hospital in 2002/2003 with those reported for ...
Cricco-Lizza Roberta - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To describe reports of low-income Black non-Hispanic women about the promotion of infant-feeding methods by nurses and physicians. DESIGN: Ethnographic research conducted over 18 months with interviewing and participant observation of informants. SETTING: The study took place in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinic ...
Edmond Karen M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding promotion is a key child survival strategy. Although there is an extensive scientific basis for its impact on postneonatal mortality, evidence is sparse for its impact on neonatal mortality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the contribution of the timing of initiation of breastfeeding to any impact. METHODS: This ...
Gibson-Davis Christina M - - 2006
We investigated how couples' immigration status and ethnicity determined the decision to initiate breastfeeding and to breastfeed at 6 months. From data collected on 4207 mothers and 3013 fathers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study, we used linear regression and covariate-adjusted proportions to estimate the determinants of breastfeeding behaviors. ...
Ergenekon-Ozelci P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A qualitative investigation and a population survey were conducted to explore the breastfeeding beliefs and practices of mothers who were forced to migrate from their original villages and were currently living in the slums of Diyarbakir in Turkey. METHODS: Qualitative data collection on breastfeeding beliefs was conducted using in-depth ...
THAIRU, LUCY
The three ethnographic case studies described in this dissertation provide a cultural description of breastfeeding behavior with respect to HIV/AIDS and newborn care, and with a focus on early infancy. Study 1: Influences on infant feeding decisions were investigated in-depth interviews with a sample of 22 HIV-positive mothers from Kwa-Zulu ...
Chamberlain Laura Beth - - 2006
An effective electric breast pump is an important tool for the management of breastfeeding challenges such as provision of human milk to sick or premature infants. A breast pump is also, in Western culture, critical for breastfeeding mothers who return to work. Obtaining an effective electric breast pump can be ...
Wagner Carol L - - 2006
The objective of the study was to measure the impact of personality and other factors on the decision to initiate breastfeeding. Mothers were enrolled (24-96 hours postpartum) and were classified as fully breastfeeding, formula-feeding, or combination-feeding. A semi-structured interview about maternal sociodemographics and attitudes and a standardized personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) ...
Franssen E J F - - 2006
We present a case of intensified therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of citalopram in mother and newborn infant after clinically observed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-associated symptoms 2 weeks until 2 months after delivery. The SSRI-associated symptoms observed in the infant (up to 3 weeks after delivery) were irregular breathing, sleep ...
Szajewska Hania H Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. - - 2006
To systematically evaluate the effect of supplemental fluids or feedings during the first days of life on the overall breastfeeding duration and rate of exclusive breastfeeding among healthy infants. Medical subject headings and free-language terms were used to search the following electronic databases for studies relevant to breastfeeding: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ...
Ly C T CT Organisme de Recherche sur l'Alimentation et la Nutrition Africaines (ORANA), Dakar, Senegal, - - 2006
Early supplementation of breastfed infants may have consequences both for the mother and the child. We hypothesised that it would result in decreased maternal weight loss and in shorter durations of breastfeeding and birth intervals. Controlled randomised population-based trial. Six villages in the Sine area of Senegal, West Africa. Healthy ...
Hendricks Kristy - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal/child characteristics associated with important practices of feeding US infants and toddlers aged 4 to 24 months. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Maternal/child characteristics associated with compliance to American Academy of Pediatrics feeding guidelines, and maternal/child characteristics associated ...
Xu Fenglian - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There have been considerable changes in breastfeeding practices in China over the past forty years. However China is a very large country, and breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably. The objective of this paper is to identify and compare breastfeeding types and rates between 1994-1996 and ...
Nankunda Jolly - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The ...
Kruse Lakota - - 2006
Breastfeeding, in spite of proven benefits and energetic promotion, lags behind national goals, is less prevalent in disadvantaged populations, and declines across successive children in a family. Using longitudinally linked data from the New Jersey Electronic Birth Certificate (EBC) from 1996 to 2001, we found considerable fluidity in breastfeeding status ...
Amir Lisa H - - 2006
About 3% of infants are born with a tongue-tie which may lead to breastfeeding problems such as ineffective latch, painful attachment or poor weight gain. The Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (HATLFF) has been developed to give a quantitative assessment of the tongue-tie and recommendation about frenotomy (release ...
Memmott Margaret M - - 2006
We interviewed women who participated in a breast-feeding promotion intervention study about whether and how participation affected their infant feeding choices, and if they would recommend such an intervention to others. The larger study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an individualized, pre- and post-natal lactation consultant (LC) intervention, enrolled ...
Torvaldsen Siranda - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest that the addition of fentanyl (an opioid) to epidural analgesia for women during childbirth results in difficulty establishing breastfeeding. The aim of this paper is to determine any association between epidural analgesia and 1) breastfeeding in the first week postpartum and 2) breastfeeding cessation during the ...
Gijsbers Barbara - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months postpartum is promoted internationally as the preferred method of feeding infants. Infants of parents with a history of asthma in particular could benefit from a longer period (6 months) of breastfeeding, because this may reduce the chance of developing an allergic disease. ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by Hispanic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. DESIGN: Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary ...
Shaikh Ulfat - - 2006
Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if ...
Wight Nancy E - - 2006
Healthy, full-term infants are programmed to make the transition from their intrauterine constant flow of nutrients to their extrauterine intermittent nutrient intake without the need for metabolic monitoring or interference with the natural breastfeeding process. Homeostatic mechanisms ensure adequate energy substrate is provided to the brain and other organs, even ...
Funkquist E L - - 2006
The effect of protein enrichment of mother's milk on growth of low birthweight infants needs further exploration in order to optimize feeding strategies. The aim of this study was to describe feeding and growth of infants weighing <1,900 g at birth, up to a corrected age of 18 months, with ...
Schultz Stephen T - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and ...
Nickerson Krista - - 2006
Toxic environmental contaminants can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a family of lipophilic stable chemicals that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue and create a lasting toxic body burden. Breastfeeding provides a significant source of exposure to POPs early in human life, the effects ...
Moore Elizabeth R - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore women's prenatal attitudes, perception of support, anticipated barriers, facilitators, and breastfeeding self-efficacy beliefs and how their attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of support changed as a result of their postpartum experiences. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive design with qualitative data collection methods was ...
Win Nwet N - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The expression of breast milk allows a mother to be away intermittently from her infant while continuing to breastfeed. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between expression of breast milk and breastfeeding duration METHODS: A cohort study of 12 months duration. The mothers were recruited ...
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