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Zhang Qing-He QH National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, - - 2014
Telomeres are specialized structures protecting chromosomes against genome instability. Telomeres shorten with cell division, and replicative senescence is induced when telomeres are badly eroded. Whereas TRF2, ATM and p53 have been identified involved in senescence induction, how it is triggered remains unclear. Here, we propose an integrated model associating telomere ...
Cranert Stacey S Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, OH 45267, - - 2014
Tetrahymena telomeres are protected by a protein complex composed of Pot1, Tpt1, Pat1 and Pat2. Pot1 binds the 3' overhang and serves multiple roles in telomere maintenance. Here we describe Pot2, a paralog of Pot1, which has evolved a novel function during Tetrahymena sexual reproduction. Pot2 is unnecessary for telomere ...
Schmidt Jens C JC Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, BioFrontiers Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, United - - 2014
Human chromosomes terminate in telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences bound by the shelterin complex. Shelterin protects chromosome ends, prevents recognition by the DNA damage machinery, and recruits telomerase. A patch of amino acids, termed the TEL-patch, on the OB-fold domain of the shelterin component TPP1 is essential to recruit telomerase to ...
Amiard Simon S Génétique, Reproduction et Développement, UMR CNRS 6293, Clermont Université, INSERM U1103, Aubière, France - - 2014
The telomeres of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by caps consisting of evolutionarily conserved nucleoprotein complexes. Telomere dysfunction leads to recombination of chromosome ends and this can result in fusions which initiate chromosomal breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, causing genomic instability and potentially cell death or cancer. We hypothesize that in the absence ...
Cho Nam Woo NW Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, - - 2014
Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, ∼10%-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multitelomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, ...
Arnoult Nausica N The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2014
Telomere clustering is required for the homologous recombination events that maintain chromosome ends in cells relying on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). New data demonstrate that damage signaling at telomeres, a likely step in activating maintenance mechanisms, induces directional movement and synapsis driven by the machinery responsible for recombination in ...
Mandrioli Mauro M Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, - - 2014
Several studies demonstrated that chromosome anchoring to nuclear structures is involved in the organization of the interphase nucleus. The Rabl configuration, a well-studied chromosome organization in the interphase nucleus, has been deeply studied in organisms with monocentric chromosomes but just slightly touched in species with holocentric chromosomes. In the present ...
Azzalin Claus M CM Institute of Biochemistry, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Long noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs - TERRAs - are transcribed in a regulated manner from telomeres throughout eukaryotes. TERRA molecules consist of chromosome end-specific subtelomeric sequences and telomeric repeats at their 3' ends. Recent work suggests that TERRA sustains several important functions at chromosome ends. TERRA can regulate telomere length ...
Chen Jun-Yu JY State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, 310006, - - 2014
A minor QTL for heading date located on the long arm of rice chromosome 1 was delimitated to a 95.0-kb region using near isogenic lines with sequential segregating regions. Heading date and grain yield are two key factors determining the commercial potential of a rice variety. In this study, rice ...
Doksani Ylli Y Laboratory for Cell Biology and Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York - - 2014
Telomeres have evolved to protect the ends of linear chromosomes from the myriad of threats posed by the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair pathways. Mammalian telomeres have to block nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), thus preventing chromosome fusions; they need to control homologous recombination (HR), which could change telomere lengths; ...
Poggio M G MG Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires (IEGEBA), Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (EGE), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEyN),Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA),Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos - - 2014
Members of the family Cimicidae (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha) are temporary bloodsuckers on birds and bats as primary hosts and humans as secondary hosts. Acanthocrios furnarii (2n=12=10+XY, male) and Psitticimex uritui (2n=31=28+X1X2Y, male) are two monotypic genera of the subfamily Haematosiphoninae, which have achiasmatic male meiosis of collochore type. Here, we examined ...
Labib Hany A HA Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, 9 Taleat Harb Street, Zagazig, 44155, Egypt, - - 2014
Addition of telomeres to the ends of broken chromosomes has been observed in many malignant cells through the capture of the ends of other chromosomes as a result of nonreciprocal translocations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the percentage of nuclei with telomere capture (TC%) as a prognostic marker ...
Afreixo Vera V Department of Mathematics, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, PortugalCIDMA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, PortugalIEETA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal - - 2014
Some previous studies suggest the extension of Chargaff's second rule (the phenomenon of symmetry in a single DNA strand) to long DNA words. However, in random sequences generated under an independent symbol model where complementary nucleotides have equal occurrence probabilities, we expect the phenomenon of symmetry to hold for any ...
Qin Qinbo - - 2014
BackgroundAllopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared ...
Tůmová Pavla P Department of Tropical Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, - - 2014
During mitotic prophase, chromosomes of the pathogenic unicellular eukaryote Giardia intestinalis condense in each of the cell's two nuclei. In this study, Giardia chromosomes were investigated using light microscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, and in situ hybridization. For the first time, we describe the overall morphology, condensation stages, ...
Emadzade Khatere K Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, - - 2014
Chromosomal evolution, including numerical and structural changes, is a major force in plant diversification and speciation. This study addresses genomic changes associated with the extensive chromosomal variation of the Mediterranean Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae), which includes four diploid cytotypes each with a unique combination of chromosome number (x = 5, ...
Terai Masanori M Research Team for Geriatric Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan; Department of Judotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo 135-0063, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
We have reported that telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) of established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human amnion (hAM933) and fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, and that the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among clones without chromosomal instability, although the ...
Rocha Laiane Corsini LC Department of Biology, Federal University of Lavras, P.O. Box 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais State, - - 2014
Lolium perenne is considered a high-quality forage widely used in temperate regions to meet the shortage of forage during the winter. In this species, some peculiarities related to cytogenetic aspects have already been described, as the variability in number and position of 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites and the expression ...
Park Gab Man GM Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung 210-701, - - 2014
The karyotypes of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied using the air-drying method. Somatic cells of this species had 2n=36. The 18 chromosome pairs were identified and classified into 3 groups. The diploid cell has 7 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs ...
Yano Cassia Fernanda CF Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís (SP 310) Km 235, São Carlos, SP, - - 2014
Studies have demonstrated the effective participation of repetitive DNA sequences in the origin and differentiation of the sex chromosomes in some biological groups. In this study several microsatellites and retrotranposable sequences were cytogenetically mapped in the Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) male genome (karyomorph C), focusing on the distribution ...
Adilardi Renzo Sebastián RS Laboratorio de Citogenética y Evolución - Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Intendente Güiraldes 2160 - C1428EGA CABA, - - 2014
Tityus trivittatus Kraepelin, 1898 is the most medically important scorpion species of Argentina, and parthenogenetic populations are present in the major cities of this country. We performed a detailed cytogenetic analysis of specimens of three synanthropic parthenogenetic populations, all distant about 900 km from each other, using Ag-NOR, C-banding, DAPI/CMA3 ...
Affonso Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello PR Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, 45206-150 Jequié, BA, - - 2014
Surgeonfishes are a species-rich group and a major biomass on coral reefs. Three species are commonly found throughout South Atlantic, Acanthurus bahianus, A. chirurgus, and A. coeruleus. In this paper, we present the first cytogenetic data of these species, revealing a sequential chromosomal diversification. A. coeruleus was characterized by a ...
de Silanes Isabel López IL Telomeres and Telomerase Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), C/Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029 Madrid, - - 2014
Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, ...
Subramanian Vijayalakshmi V VV Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York - - 2014
The generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a highly conserved process for sexually reproducing organisms that, in almost all cases, involves the extensive breakage of chromosomes. These chromosome breaks occur during meiotic prophase and are essential for meiotic recombination as well as the subsequent segregation of homologous chromosomes. However, ...
Calderón María Del Carmen Mdel C Plant Breeding Department, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, E-14080 Córdoba, - - 2014
The process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid daughter cells, each of which inherit a half of the diploid parental cells' genetic material. The ordered association of homologues (identical chromosomes) is a critical prerequisite for a successful outcome of meiosis. Homologue recognition and pairing are initiated at the ...
Religa Agnieszka A AA Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United - - 2014
Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage ...
Jun Kyung Ran KR Department of Laboratory Medicine, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, South - - 2014
Copy number variations at 2p11.2 have been rare and to our knowledge, no abnormal phenotype with an interstitial 2p11.2 duplication has yet been reported. Here we report the first case with syndromic intellectual disability associated with microduplication at 2p11.2. We revisited a white female subject with a chromosome translocation, t(8;10)(p23;q23)mat ...
Wahyuni Yuni Y Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands ; Research Centre for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jl. Raya Bogor KM. 46, Cibinong, Bogor, 16910 - - 2014
Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental accessions were selected based on their ...
Yu Bing B Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, - - 2013
Both the prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) are increasing, especially among African Americans, but no large-scale, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HF-related metabolites has been reported. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with metabolites previously reported to relate to HF incidence. GWASs of three ...
Balakirev Alexander E AE Joint Vietnam-Russian Tropical Research and Technological Centre, Nguyen Van Huyen, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam. A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia; Email: - - 2013
Tonkinomys daovantieni was recently described from Northern Vietnam, but very sparse information exists for the taxon. We report for the first time the karyotype of this species and investigate its phylogenetic position in the Dacnomys division using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data. The diploid chromosome number of the species ...
Warden Craig H - - 2012
Linkage mapping in a backcross of {Brown Norway [BN/Crl (BN)] × ZUC-Lepr (faSte) (ZUC)} × ZUC identified a male-specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for urinary albumin excretion (UAE) on rat chromosome 1. A homozygous ZUC.BN-(D1Rat42-D1Rat90)/Ste congenic was produced containing BN donor alleles from 135 to 276 Mb from chromosome 1 ...
Zunner Christian C Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. - - 2013
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) mapping of laboratory data is often a question of the effort of mapping compared with the benefits of the structure achieved. The new LOINC mapping assistant RELMA (version 2011) has the potential to reduce the effort required for semi-automated mapping. We examined quality, ...
Shariflou M R - - 2012
A genome scan was conducted to map the autosomal recessive lethal disorder brachygnathia, cardiomegaly and renal hypoplasia syndrome (BCRHS) in Poll Merino sheep. The scan involved 10 affected and 27 unaffected animals from a single Poll Merino/Merino sheep flock, which were genotyped with the Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChip. Association and ...
Rootsi Siiri S Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, - - 2012
Haplogroup G, together with J2 clades, has been associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European context. However, interpretations based on simple haplogroup frequency clines do not recognize underlying patterns of genetic diversification. Although progress has been recently made in resolving the haplogroup G phylogeny, a comprehensive survey ...
Meadows Robin - - 2012
Evidence for dosage compensation in Silene latifolia,a plant with 10-million-year-old sex chromosomes, reveals that dosage compensation can evolve rapidly in young XY systems and is not an animal-specific phenomenon.
de Jong Tom J - - 2012
• Pollen of the crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) can cross-fertilize ovules of Brassica rapa (AA), which leads to an influx of unpaired C-chromosomes into wild B. rapa populations. The presence of such extra chromosomes is thought to be an indicator of introgression. Backcrosses and F(1) hybrids were found in ...
Jelić Mihailo - - 2012
The genetic structure of Drosophila subobscura from the Balkan Peninsula was studied with respect to restriction site polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in populations from the Derventa River Gorge and Sicevo Gorge (Serbia). To investigate the role of cytonuclear interactions in shaping mitochondrial DNA variability in natural populations of this species, ...
Durkin Keith - - 2012
Colour sidedness is a dominantly inherited phenotype of cattle characterized by the polarization of pigmented sectors on the flanks, snout and ear tips. It is also referred to as 'lineback' or 'witrik' (which means white back), as colour-sided animals typically display a white band along their spine. Colour sidedness is ...
Broman Karl W - - 2012
Advanced intercross populations, in which multiple inbred strains are mated at random for many generations, have the advantage of greater precision of genetic mapping because of the accumulation of recombination events across the multiple generations. Related designs include heterogeneous stock and the diversity outcross population. In this article, I derive ...
Regueiro Maria - - 2012
Whether present-day European genetic variation and its distribution patterns can be attributed primarily to the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans during the Paleolithic, or to latter Near Eastern Neolithic input is still the subject of debate. Southeastern Europe has been a crossroads for several cultures since Paleolithic ...
Knott Simon R V - - 2012
The replication of eukaryotic chromosomes is organized temporally and spatially within the nucleus through epigenetic regulation of replication origin function. The characteristic initiation timing of specific origins is thought to reflect their chromatin environment or sub-nuclear positioning, however the mechanism remains obscure. Here we show that the yeast Forkhead transcription ...
Dostie Josée - - 2012
For more than a century, developments in light microscopy drove forward our understanding of how chromosomes are organized in the cell nucleus. Now, derivatives of the chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique have harnessed the power of molecular biology to provide more genome-wide perspectives on the spatial relationships of DNA sequences, ...
Delimitreva S - - 2012
A nonhuman primate model was applied to investigate the relationships between variations in the organization of microtubules, microfilaments, and chromatin in metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes. Marmoset oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and coincubation with sperm. Oocytes which failed to cleave were investigated for chromatin, tubulin, and ...
Albert Benjamin - - 2012
Over the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the spatial organization of genes and chromosomes. Nuclear organization can be thought of as information that is not encoded in DNA, but which nevertheless impacts gene expression. Nuclear organizational influences can be cell-specific and are potentially heritable. Thus, nuclear ...
O'Connell Christopher B CB Nikon Instruments Inc., Melville, NY 11747, United - - 2012
Kinetochores are complex macromolecular assemblies that link chromosomes to the mitotic spindle, mediate forces for chromosome motion, and generate the checkpoint signal delaying anaphase onset until all chromosomes are incorporated into the spindle. Proper execution of these functions depends on precise interactions between kinetochores and microtubules. While the molecular composition ...
Dambacher Silvia - - 2012
Centromeres are important structural constituents of chromosomes that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis by providing defined sites for kinetochore attachment. In higher eukaryotes, centromeres have no specific DNA sequence and thus, they are rather determined through epigenetic mechanisms. A fundamental process in centromere establishment is the incorporation of the ...
Wei Dan-Dan - - 2012
Booklice (order Psocoptera) in the genus Liposcelis are major pests to stored grains worldwide and are closely related to parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera). We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila and found that the typical single mt chromosome of bilateral animals has fragmented into and been replaced by ...
de Wit Elzo - - 2012
Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably simple idea that digestion and religation of fixed ...
Niederstätter Harald - - 2012
The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts ...
Koester Benjamin B Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2012
In this paper, we use a statistical estimator developed in astrophysics to study the distribution and organization of features of the human genome. Using the human reference sequence we quantify the global distribution of CpG islands (CGI) in each chromosome and demonstrate that the organization of the CGI across a ...
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