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Costa E M EM CBQF-Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, P-4200-072 Porto, - - 2014
A previous study showed that a chitosan mouthwash would be a valid alternative to current mouthwashes as it demonstrated, in vitro, significantly higher antibiofilm activity than two commercial mouthwashes. As such, the aim of this work was to verify the safety of the developed product and to validate, in vivo, ...
Statland Jeffrey J Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 265 Crittenden Boulevard, CU 420669, Rochester, NY 14642-0669, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a common type of adult muscular dystrophy and is divided into types 1 and 2 based on genetic mutation. Clinically, both FSHD types often show asymmetric and progressive muscle weakness affecting initially the face, shoulder, and arms followed by the distal then proximal lower extremities. ...
Fieremans Nathalie N Human Genome Laboratory, VIB Center for the Biology of Disease, Leuven, - - 2014
Xq28 microduplications of MECP2 are a prominent cause of a severe syndromic form of intellectual disability (ID) in males. Females are usually unaffected through near to complete X-inactivation of the aberrant X chromosome (skewing). In rare cases, affected females have been described due to random X-inactivation. Here, we report on ...
Choulet Frédéric F Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) UMR1095, Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals, 5 Chemin de Beaulieu, 63039 Clermont-Ferrand, France. University Blaise Pascal, UMR1095, Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals, 5 Chemin de Beaulieu, 63039 Clermont-Ferrand, France. - - 2014
We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome ...
Jugulam Mithila M Kansas State University - - 2014
Recent rapid evolution and spread of resistance to the most extensively used herbicide, glyphosate, is a major threat to global crop production. Genetic mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides largely determine the level of resistance, and the rate of evolution resistance. In a previous study, we determined that ...
Levine Michael M Division of Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lucas et al. report the visualization of V(D)J recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (Igh) in living pro-B cells. Despite the huge distances separating V coding sequences from D-J sequences (∼2 Mb), the authors document an astonishingly rapid rate of remote associations. The key to speed is contraction of the Igh ...
L'Abbate Alberto A Department of Biology, University of Bari, Bari, - - 2014
The mechanism for generating double minutes chromosomes (dmin) and homogeneously staining regions (hsr) in cancer is still poorly understood. Through an integrated approach combining next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array, fluorescent in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, we inferred the fine structure of MYC-containing dmin/hsr amplicons harboring sequences ...
Icsó Diána D Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, 2462, - - 2014
The established karyotype was generated by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total barley genomic DNA as labelled probe on mitotic metaphase bread wheat chromosomes. GISH produced specific banding signals on 16 of the 21 chromosome pairs. The following chromosomes showed distinctive banding patterns: 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, ...
Pérez-García Concepción - - 2014
Mussels of the genus Mytilus present morphologically similar karyotypes that are presumably conserved. The absence of chromosome painting probes in bivalves makes difficult verifying this hypothesis. In this context, we comparatively mapped ribosomal RNA and histone gene families on the chromosomes of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus and M. ...
Mustafa Ali Moaath K MK Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, King Hussein Cancer Center , Amman , Jordan , - - 2014
Abstract Dasatinib, which is an inhibitor of BCR-ABL and SRC family tyrosine kinases, is used for the treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positive leukemia, especially for those who develop resistance or who are intolerant to imatinib. The most common adverse effects attributed to its use are: myelosuppression, nausea, ...
Kim Seon Young SY Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of ; - - 2014
Cytogenetic testing is important to ensure patient safety before therapeutic application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the standardized methods and criteria for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities of MSCs have not yet been determined. We investigated the frequency of cytogenetic aberrations in MSCs using G-banding and fluorescence in situ ...
Elting Mary Williard MW Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA - - 2014
The spindle is a dynamic self-assembling machine that coordinates mitosis. The spindle's function depends on its ability to organize microtubules into poles and maintain pole structure despite mechanical challenges and component turnover. Although we know that dynein and NuMA mediate pole formation, our understanding of the forces dynamically maintaining poles ...
Sikirzhytski Vitali V Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY - - 2014
Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes' kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced ...
Chishti Hafsah Muhammad HM Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, - - 2014
Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genetic markers hold great potential in forensic investigations, molecular diagnostics and molecular genetics research. AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR amplification kit is a multiplex system for co-amplification of 15 STR markers used worldwide in forensic investigations. This study attempts to assess forensic validity of these STRs in Pakistani ...
Tada Sawaki S National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, - - 2014
We truncated the short arm of chromosome 3 to delete the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene homolog cluster using telomeric repeats in Aspergillus oryzae. The predicted deletion was confirmed by Southern blot analyses. This telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation method enables the development of an artificial chromosome in A. oryzae.
Lyozin George T GT Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2014
Current methods to isolate rare (1:10,000-1:100,000) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants require selectable markers. For seamless BAC mutagenesis, selectable markers need to be removed after isolation of recombinants through counterselection. Here we illustrate founder principle-driven enrichment (FPE), a simple method to rapidly isolate rare recombinants without using selectable markers, allowing ...
Simhadri Srilatha S Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, United - - 2014
PALB2 links BRCA1 and BRCA2 in homologous recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Mono-allelic mutations in PALB2 increase the risk of breast, pancreatic and other cancers, and biallelic mutations cause Fanconi anemia (FA). Like Brca1 and Brca2, systemic knockout of Palb2 in mice results in embryonic lethality. In ...
Makumi Angela A Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M(2)S), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, B-3001 Leuven, - - 2014
Flp mediated site specific recombination of frt-sites is frequently used in genetic engineering to excise, insert or invert DNA-cassettes in the chromosome. While constructs flanked by frt-sites are generally considered to be stable in the absence of the Flp enzyme, we observed that P22 chromosomes exceeding wild-type length tend to ...
Zhao Xiaoli X Department of Hematology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Road Central, Shanghai, 200040, - - 2014
The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene on chromosome region 11q23 is frequently involved in chromosomal translocations associated with various human hematologic malignant neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of 11q23 abnormalities in adult Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, 11q23 abnormalities were detected ...
Yamamoto Satoshi S Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, - - 2014
We developed a transgenic mouse line with Y chromosome-linked green fluorescent protein expressing transgenes (Y-GFP) by the conventional microinjection into the pronucleus of C57BL/6J fertilized oocytes. Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from Y-GFP mice enabled not only sexing but also the identification of 39, XO karyotype by the lack of ...
Sher Roger B RB University of Maine , Orono, - - 2014
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a late-onset degenerative disease affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. There is great variation in the expression of ALS symptoms even between siblings who both carry the same Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations. One important use of transgenic mouse models of ...
Guo Mei-Hua MH Kunming Medical University, and Institute of Dermatology & Venereology of Yunnan Province, Kunming, - - 2014
Severe acne presents sexual dimorphism in its incidence in Chinese population. It is more prevalent in males. To assess the possible Y chromosomal contribution to severe acne risk in Han Chinese males, we analyzed 2041 Y chromosomal SNPs (Y-SNPs) in 725 severe acne cases and 651 controls retrieved from our ...
Hamano Tohru T 1Laboratory of Dynamic Cell Biology,Department of Biotechnology,Graduate School of Engineering,Osaka University,Yamadaoka,Suita,Osaka - - 2014
Attempts to elucidate chromosome structure have long remained elusive. Electron microscopy is useful for chromosome structure research because of its high resolution and magnification. However, biological samples such as chromosomes need to be subjected to various preparation steps, including dehydration, drying, and metal/carbon coating, which may induce shrinkage and artifacts. ...
Ferree Patrick M PM W. M. Keck Science Department; Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges; Claremont, CA - - 2014
In eukaryotes, abnormally circularized chromosomes, known as 'rings,' can be mitotically unstable. Some rings derived from a compound X-Y chromosome induce mitotic abnormalities during the embryonic cleavage divisions and early death in Drosophila melanogaster, but the underlying basis is poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that a large region of 359-bp ...
Wang Kexi K University of Toledo, United - - 2014
The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bi-oriented at the ...
Takagi Masatoshi M RIKEN, - - 2014
Ki67 is a protein widely used as cell -proliferation marker, with its cellular functions being hardly unveiled. In this paper, we present the direct interaction between Ki67 and PP1γ, a protein phosphatase showing characteristic accumulation on anaphase chromosomes via the canonical PP1-binding motif within Ki67. In cells depleted of Ki67, ...
Panzera Francisco F Sección Genética Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address: - - 2014
Chagas disease, one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the Americas, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted to humans by insects of the subfamily Triatominae. An effective control of this disease depends on elimination of vectors through spraying with insecticides. Genetic research can help insect control programs by ...
Buchan Jillian G JG Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, 63110, - - 2014
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex genetic disorder that causes spinal deformity in approximately 3% of the population. Candidate gene, linkage, and genome-wide association studies have sought to identify genetic variation that predisposes individuals to AIS, but the genetic basis remains unclear. Copy number variants are associated with several ...
Przybytkowski Ewa - - 2014
Chromosomal breakage followed by faulty DNA repair leads to gene amplifications and deletions in cancers. However, the mere assessment of the extent of genomic changes, amplifications and deletions may reduce the complexity of genomic data observed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). We present here a novel approach to ...
Noto Fallon K - - 2014
The characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) routinely includes analyses of chromosomal integrity. The belief is that pluripotent stem cells best suited to the generation of differentiated derivatives should display a euploid karyotype; although, this does not appear to have been formally tested. While ...
Capilla Laia L Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB 08193, Barcelona, Spain Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB 08193, Barcelona, - - 2014
Despite the existence of formal models to explain how chromosomal rearrangements can be fixed in a population in the presence of gene flow, few empirical data are available regarding the mechanisms by which genome shuffling contributes to speciation, especially in mammals. In order to shed light on this intriguing evolutionary ...
Honda H H Department of Disease Model, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, - - 2014
The recurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in a specific subtype of cancer strongly suggests that dysregulated gene expression in the corresponding region has a critical role in disease pathogenesis. -7/7q-, defined as the entire loss of chromosome 7 and partial deletion of its long arm, is among the most frequently observed ...
Mogessie Binyam B MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, - - 2014
Nuclear envelope breakdown in metazoan cells is thought to be facilitated by microtubules, which pull on the nuclear membranes. Unexpectedly, an F-actin meshwork helps to tear down the large nucleus of starfish oocytes and to prevent chromosome loss in meiosis.
M Bellani Lorenza L Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Copper bromide (CuBr2) effects on seed germination and plantlet development of Vicia sativa L. are evaluated through mitotic index, chromosome aberrations, nucleolar activity and mineral profile. CuBr2 induces a significant presence of micronuclei, sticky and c-metaphases, anaphase bridges and chromosome breaks. Increased number of nucleoli and scattering of AgNOR proteins ...
Miyazaki Takehiro T Biological Science Course, Graduate School of Science, National University Corporation Shizuoka University, Ohya 836, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, - - 2014
Spontaneous testicular teratomas (STTs) composed by various kinds of tissues are derived from primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the fetal testes of the mouse. In contrast, intra-testicular grafts of the mouse strain (129/Sv-Ter (+/+)) fetal testes possessed the ability to develop the experimental testicular teratomas (ETTs), indistinguishable from the STTs ...
Ruiz-Estévez Mercedes M Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, - - 2014
The genetic inertness of supernumerary (B) chromosomes has recently been called into question after finding several cases of gene activity on them. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans harbors B chromosomes containing large amounts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, some of which are eventually active, but the amount of rRNA transcripts contributed ...
Gajski Goran G Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Haloperidol (HLP) is a potent antipsychotic drug that is commonly used for the treatments of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders but has a tendency to cause adverse effects. In the present study, the cyto/genotoxic potential of clinically relevant concentrations of HLP was evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) as sensitive ...
Gokhman Vladimir E VE Botanical Garden, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia, - - 2014
Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of ...
Cao Hieu Xuan - - 2014
Homoeologous sequences pose a particular challenge if bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs shall be established for specific regions of an allopolyploid genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs) may represent a suitable screening tool for such purposes, since they do not only identify homoeologous sequences but ...
Liang Desheng D State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, - - 2014
Detection of chromosomal copy number variation (CNV) plays an important role in the diagnosis of patients with unexplained clinical symptoms and for the identification of chromosome disease syndromes in the established fetus. In current clinical practice, karyotyping, in conjunction with array-based methods, is the gold standard for detection of CNV. ...
Zhang Z Z Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, - - 2014
A recent genome-wide association study identified two genetic variants (rs12425791 and rs11833579) on chromosome 12p13 that confer risk of ischaemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these two polymorphisms are associated with stroke onset and prognosis in a Chinese population. rs12425791 and rs11833579 were genotyped using ...
Dokic Ivana - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To investigate chromosomal instability and radiation response mechanisms in glioblastoma cells. Methods and Materials: We undertook a comparative analysis of two patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines. Their resistance to low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was assessed using clonogenic survival assay and their intrinsic chromosome instability status ...
Kolumbayeva Saule S Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 av. Al-Farabi, Almaty, 050040, Kazakhstan, - - 2014
An assessment of the health status of ecosystems exposed to man-made pollution is a vital issue for many countries. Particularly it concerns the consequences of contamination caused by the activity of the space industry. Each rocket launch is accompanied by the introduction of parts of the rocket propellant into the ...
Gürsoy Gamze G Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, - - 2014
The global architecture of the cell nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin play important roles in gene expression and nuclear function. Single-cell imaging and chromosome conformation capture-based techniques provide a wealth of information on the spatial organization of chromosomes. However, a mechanistic model that can account for all observed ...
Söderhäll Cilla C 1] Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden [2] Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional ...
Omrani Mir Davood MD Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2014
A 3-month old girl with monosomy for distal part of the short arm of chromosome 3 is described. Physical examination showed growth retardation, microcephaly, ptosis, micrognathia, low set ears, broad nasal bridge, Simian crease, long philtrum, thin lips and hypertelorism. The patient's clinical phenotype largely resembled that of 3p- syndrome ...
Kamalakar Archana A Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, - - 2014
The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal ...
Tapia-Alveal Claudia C Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Box 1130, New York, NY, 10029, - - 2014
Chromosomes are subjected to massive reengineering as they are replicated, transcribed, repaired, condensed, and segregated into daughter cells. Among the engineers are three large protein complexes collectively known as the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes: cohesin, condensin, and Smc5/6. As their names suggest, cohesin controls sister chromatid cohesion, condensin ...
Vos Seychelle M SM Department of Molecular and Cell - - 2014
Precise control of supercoiling homeostasis is critical to DNA-dependent processes such as gene expression, replication, and damage response. Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling commonly thought to act independently in the recognition and modulation of chromosome superstructure; however, recent evidence has indicated that cells tightly regulate topoisomerase activity to ...
David Ariane A CNRS, Centre de Génétique Moléculaire, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, - - 2014
The segregation of bacterial chromosomes follows a precise choreography of spatial organisation. It is initiated by the bipolar migration of the sister copies of the replication origin (ori). Most bacterial chromosomes contain a partition system (Par) with parS sites in close proximity to ori that contribute to the active mobilisation ...
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