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Timmons Lisa L Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, - - 2014
Rare Caenorhabditis elegans males arise when sex chromosome non-disjunction occurs during meiosis in self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. Non-disjunction is a relatively rare event, and males are typically observed at a frequency of less than one in five hundred wild-type animals. Males are required for genetic crosses and phenotypic analysis, yet current methods ...
Cheung Catis Hin Ying CH Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, - - 2014
Hypoxia caused by eutrophication is amongst the most pressing global problems in aquatic systems. Notably, more than 400 "dead zones" have been identified worldwide, resulting in large scale collapse of fisheries and major changes in the structure and trophodynamics. Recent studies further discovered that hypoxia can also disrupt sex hormone ...
Evans Ben J BJ Biology Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada - - 2014
In species with separate sexes, social systems can differ in the relative variances of male versus female reproductive success. Papionin monkeys (macaques, mangabeys, mandrills, drills, baboons, and geladas) exhibit hallmarks of a high variance in male reproductive success, including a female-biased adult sex ratio and prominent sexual dimorphism. To explore ...
Huang C Q CQ Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement in Southern China, Ministry of Agriculture, Danzhou, 571737, Hainan, China, - - 2014
Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a new molecular marker technology developed based on polymerase chain reaction. The authenticity of 84 progenies of 8 hybrid combinations of Stylosanthes guianensis was identified by SRAP markers to select the true hybrids used in the present study. A total of 35 SRAP primer combinations ...
Tavaniello S S Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, University of Molise, Via F. De Sanctis snc, 86100 Campobasso, - - 2014
The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 ...
Dor Lior L Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Agricultural Research - - 2014
The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a promising candidate for domestication and aquaculture due to its fast growth, excellent taste and high market price. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for economic traits, and study of genome evolution. DNA of a single individual was deep-sequenced and ...
Pentinpuro Raija Helena RH Oral Development and Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, University of - - 2014
Abstract Objective. Previous results regarding human sex chromosome aneuploidies have shown that the X and Y chromosomes affect tooth size and morphology. This study looked for the effect of sex chromosome deficiency on permanent tooth crown heights. Materials and methods. The material, from the Finnish KVANTTI Research Project, consisted of ...
Brown Emily J EJ Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, - - 2014
The chromatin landscape is key for gene regulation, but little is known about how it differs between sexes or between species. Here, we study the sex-specific chromatin landscape of Drosophila miranda, a species with young sex chromosomes, and compare it with Drosophila melanogaster. We analyze six histone modifications in male ...
Kiuchi Takashi T Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2014
The silkworm Bombyx mori uses a WZ sex determination system that is analogous to the one found in birds and some reptiles. In this system, males have two Z sex chromosomes, whereas females have Z and W sex chromosomes. The silkworm W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination, ...
Arboleda Valerie A VA University of California, Los - - 2014
To identify novel genomic regions that regulate sex determination, we utilize the powerful C57BL/6J-Y(POS) (B6-Y(POS)) model of XY sex reversal where mice with autosomes from the B6 strain and a Y-chromosome from a wild-derived strain, Mus domesticus poschiavinus (Y(POS)), show complete sex reversal. In B6-Y(POS), the presence of a 55-Megabase ...
Zhang Jisen J FAFU and UIUC-SIB Joint Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, - - 2014
Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes ...
Robinson Stephen P - - 2014
One proposed consequence of inbreeding is a skewed sex ratio arising from sex specific mortality in the homogametic sex caused by inbreeding on the sex chromosome. However, recent work suggests that random distortions in sex ratio due to autosomal inbreeding may be of greater importance. In this study, we investigate ...
Pokorná Martina M Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Charles University in Prague, Viničná 7, 128 44, Praha 2, Czech Republic, - - 2014
It is notable that the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes differs significantly between major lineages of amniote vertebrates. In this respect, birds are especially conspicuous, as multiple sex chromosomes have not been observed in this lineage so far. On the other hand, in mammals, multiple sex chromosomes have evolved many ...
Cursino Marina Suzuki - - 2014
The red brocket deer, Mazama americana, has at least six distinct karyotypes in different regions of South America that suggest the existence of various species that are today all referred to as M. americana. From an evolutionary perspective, the red brockets are a relatively recent clade that has gone through ...
Pokorná M M Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Geckos (Gekkota) are a highly diversified group of lizards with an exceptional diversity in sex-determining systems. Despite this intriguing documented variability, data on sex determination in many lineages is still scarce. Here, we document the previously overlooked heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the thick-tailed gecko, Underwoodisaurus milii, a member of ...
Shukla Jayendra N JN University of Kentucky, United - - 2014
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum follows XX (female) and XY (male) sex determination system. Maternal supply of Transformer (Tra) is required for XX insects to follow the female pathway. The nature and the source of signal that regulates male sex determination in XY beetles are not known. Parental RNAi ...
Graves Jennifer A Marshall JA La Trobe Institute of Molecular Science, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Sex chromosomes in mammals, birds, reptiles and fish represent many independent evolutionary events, but there is spectacular convergence and stunning parallels. A new study details the early stages of ZW differentiation and sex determination in a flatfish and the establishment of dosage compensation and sex reversal by epigenetic mechanisms including ...
McLachlan Sandra M SM Cedars-Sinai Research Institute & UCLA, Endocrinology, 8700 Beverly Blvd, B-131, Los Angeles, California, United States, 90048, (1) 310 423 7680, 310 423 0221 ; - - 2014
Background: Previously, we studied the genetic basis for variability in total thyroxine (TT4) as part of investigating induced Graves' hyperthyroidism in large panels of genetically diverse recombinant inbred (RI) mice. Because Graves' disease occurs predominantly in women, we used female mice. A limitation of this approach is that thyrotropin (TSH) ...
Saunders Paul A PA Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, UMR 5554, Université Montpellier II, Montpellier, France. - - 2014
All therian mammals have a similar XY/XX sex determination system except for a dozen species. The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, harbors an unconventional system in which all males are XY, and there are three types of females: the usual XX but also XX* and X*Y ones (the asterisk designates ...
Otto S P SP Department of Zoology & Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
A hallmark of many sex chromosomes is the dramatically reduced rate of recombination between them in the heterogametic sex (e.g. between the X and Y). Sexually antagonistic selection is thought to be the main selective driver of this reduced recombination, with tighter linkage strengthening the association between alleles favourable to ...
Gamble Tony T Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, - - 2014
A major barrier to evolutionary studies of sex determination and sex chromosomes has been a lack of information on the types of sex-determining mechanisms that occur among different species. This is particularly problematic in groups where most species lack visually heteromorphic sex chromosomes, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, because ...
Arnold Arthur P AP Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles. Electronic address: - - 2014
A sophisticated mechanistic understanding of physiology and disease requires knowledge of how sex-biasing factors cause sex differences in phenotype. In therian mammals, all sex differences are downstream of the unequal effects of XX vs. XY sex chromosomes. Three major categories of sex-biasing factors are activational and organizational effects of gonadal ...
Shao Changwei C Yellow Sea Fisheries Research - - 2014
Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using ...
Vernet Nadège N MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, - - 2014
Outbred XY(Sry-) female mice that lack Sry due to the 11 kb deletion Sry(dl1Rlb) have very limited fertility. However, five lines of outbred XY(d) females with Y chromosome deletions Y(Del(Y)1Ct)-Y(Del(Y)5Ct) that deplete the Rbmy gene cluster and repress Sry transcription were found to be of good fertility. Here we tested ...
Warr Nick N Mammalian Genetics Unit - - 2014
Disorders of sex development (DSD) in the human population range in severity from mild genital defects to gonadal sex reversal. XY female development has been associated with heterozygous mutations in several genes, including SOX9, WT1 and MAP3K1. In contrast, XY sex reversal in mice usually requires complete absence of testis-determining ...
Hall A Brantley AB Department of Biochemistry, Virginia - - 2014
The preservation of a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome in some organisms without transformation into a heteromorphic sex chromosome is a long-standing enigma in evolutionary biology. A dominant sex-determining locus (or M-locus) in an undifferentiated homomorphic chromosome confers the male phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Genetic evidence suggests that ...
Kuparinen A A Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, - - 2014
Mechanisms of hybridization between bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus were studied within the native range of the species in a lake in southern Finland. Through the genetic analysis of A. brama, R. rutilus and putative hybrids, hybridization is shown to have occurred between female A. brama and male ...
Silkaitis Katherine - - 2014
Several autoimmune and neurological diseases exhibit a sex bias, but discerning the causes and mechanisms of these biases has been challenging. Sex differences begin to manifest themselves in early embryonic development, and gonadal differentiation further bifurcates the male and female phenotypes. Even at this early stage, however, there is evidence ...
Fujii Jun J Department of Biology, Waseda University, Tokyo, - - 2014
In mice and humans, the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located on the X chromosome, is not known to be involved in sex determination. In the Japanese frog Rana rugosa the AR is located on the sex chromosomes (X, Y, Z and W). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AR on the ...
Dufresnes Christophe C Department of Ecology and evolution, Biophore Building, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case ...
Leamy Larry J LJ Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte , Charlotte, NC , - - 2014
Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 ...
Takehana Yusuke Y 1] Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan [2] Department of Basic Biology, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Okazaki 444-8585, - - 2014
Sex chromosomes harbour a primary sex-determining signal that triggers sexual development of the organism. However, diverse sex chromosome systems have been evolved in vertebrates. Here we use positional cloning to identify the sex-determining locus of a medaka-related fish, Oryzias dancena, and find that the locus on the Y chromosome contains ...
Galizi Roberto R 1] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK [2] Centro di Genomica Funzionale, University of Perugia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale Via Gambuli, Edificio D, 3° Piano, 06132 Perugia, - - 2014
It has been theorized that inducing extreme reproductive sex ratios could be a method to suppress or eliminate pest populations. Limited knowledge about the genetic makeup and mode of action of naturally occurring sex distorters and the prevalence of co-evolving suppressors has hampered their use for control. Here we generate ...
Scerbo María J MJ Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC-CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Córdoba, - - 2014
The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the ...
Lybæk Helle H Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine; Haukeland University Hospital; Bergen, - - 2013
It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, ...
Anık Ahmet A Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, İzmir, Turkey. E-mail: - - 2013
The main factor influencing sex determination of an embryo is the sex-determining region Y (SRY), a master regulatory gene located on the Y chromosome. The presence of SRY causes the bipotential gonad to differentiate into a testis. However, some individuals carry a Y chromosome but are phenotypically female (46,XY females) ...
Møller R S - - 2013
Submicroscopic duplications along the long arm of the X-chromosome with known phenotypic consequences are relatively rare events. The clinical features resulting from such duplications are various, though they often include intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, hypogonadism and feeding difficulties. Female carriers are often phenotypically normal or show a similar ...
Heyer E - - 2013
Genetic data corresponding to four negrito populations (two Aeta and two Agta; n = 120) from the Luzon region of the Philippines have been analyzed. These data comprise mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 haplotypes and haplogroups, Y-chromosome haplogroups and short tandem repeats (STRs), autosomal STRs, and X-chromosome STRs. The ...
Aryal Rishi R Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ...
Macdonald A J - - 2013
The emerging availability of microsatellite markers from mammalian sex chromosomes provides opportunities to investigate both male- and female-mediated gene flow in wild populations, identifying patterns not apparent from the analysis of autosomal markers alone. Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), once spread over the southern mainland, have been isolated on several islands ...
Liew Woei Chang - - 2013
In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of ...
D'Amico Fabio - - 2013
Systemic sclerosis is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease. Genetic and environmental factors are known to interplay in the onset and progression of systemic sclerosis. Sex plays an important and determinant role in the development of such a disorder. Systemic sclerosis shows a significant female preponderance. However, the reason for this ...
Rocco L - - 2013
Sex determination and differentiation are key events in the development of either the testis or ovary in fish. Sex determination mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. Research on sex determination systems and their related genes have been implemented in the teleost species, but the amount of information about these genes ...
Reinhold Klaus - - 2013
Sex differences in the mean trait expression are well documented, not only for traits that are directly associated with reproduction. Less is known about how the variability of traits differs between males and females. In species with sex chromosomes and dosage compensation, the heterogametic sex is expected to show larger ...
Marissal-Arvy Nathalie - - 2013
Since a reduction of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade extends life span in many species and IGF-1 signaling might partly mediate the effects of caloric restriction (CR), an experimental intervention for increasing longevity, the purpose of the present study was to use quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, an unbiased genetic approach, ...
Mank Judith E - - 2013
Sex chromosomes often entail gene dose differences between the sexes, which if not compensated for, lead to differences between males and females in the expression of sex-linked genes. Recent work has shown that different organisms respond to sex chromosome dose in a variety of ways, ranging from complete sex chromosome ...
Savic I - - 2013
Although it has been shown that cortical thickness (Cth) differs between sexes, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Seeing as XXY males have 1 extra X chromosome, we investigated the possible effects of X- and sex-chromosome dosage on Cth by comparing data from 31 XXY males with 39 XY and 47 ...
Foley B R - - 2013
Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate ...
Bonthuis Paul J - - 2013
Like many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in ...
Ellis Ronald E - - 2013
A century ago, Bridges proposed that male genes on the autosomes and female genes on the X chromosome compete to determine sexual identity. New genetic and molecular studies establish Caenorhabditis elegans as the first animal known to use this mechanism.
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