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Cherif Emira - - 2013
Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants ...
Yano Ayaka - - 2013
All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution ...
Govindarajulu R R Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2013
We studied the natural hybrid (Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia) between two sexually dimorphic octoploid strawberry species (Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis) to gain insight into the dynamics of sex chromosomes and the genesis of sexual dimorphism. Male sterility is dominant in both the parental species and thus will be ...
Mollah Md Bazlur Rahman - - 2013
The genetic architecture of organ weights is not well understood. In this study, we fine-mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting organ weights by characterizing six intersubspecific subcongenic mouse strains with overlapping and non-overlapping genomic regions on chromosome 2 derived from wild Mus musculus castaneus. QTLs for heart, lung, spleen and ...
Alam Mohammad Shafiqul - - 2012
In light of reproductive isolation being a fundamental aspect of the biological species concept, we performed crossing experiments using six species from three genera (Hoplobatrachus, Euphlyctis and Fejervarya) of family Dicroglossidae to explore postmating isolation in dicroglossid frogs. Our results revealed gametic isolation among these genera, although the intergeneric hybrids ...
Zhang Xiaofeng - - 2012
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is cultured worldwide and is a major contributor to the world's aquaculture production. The common carp has a complex tetraploidized genome, which may historically experience additional whole genome duplication than most other Cyprinids. Fine maps for female and male carp were constructed using a mapping ...
Quinn Alexander - - 2012
The process of sex determination in mammals normally unfolds in three distinct stages: (1) establishment of chromosomal sex at fertilization (XX or XY); (2) commitment to the appropriate pathway of gonadal differentiation with respect to chromosomal sex, through the action (or absence) of the Y chromosome gene SRY; and (3) ...
Song Wentao - - 2012
High-density genetic linkage maps of half-smooth tongue sole were developed with 1007 microsatellite markers, two SCAR markers and an F1 family containing 94. The female map was composed of 828 markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1447.3 cM, with an average interval 1.83 cM between markers. The ...
Song Wentao - - 2012
High-density genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 1624 microsatellite markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 resulted in the mapping of 1487 markers to 24 linkage groups, a result which was consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen ...
Liu Yu - - 2012
There is a heteromorphic alternative life in the brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica (Aresch.) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders ( = Laminaria japonica Aresch.), with macroscopic monoecious sporophytes and microscopic diecious gametophytes. Female gametophytes are genetically different from males. It is very difficult to identify the parent of a ...
Suto Jun-Ichi - - 2012
The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. The effect of the Ay allele on obesity has been extensively investigated, whereas its effect on body length is only poorly analyzed. To gain insight into the genetic control of body length, quantitative trait locus ...
Li Hongjun - - 2012
Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred ...
Harrison Peter W - - 2012
Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage ...
Lee M M Lifespan Health Research Center, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45420, USA. - - 2012
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) traits are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD), but predict risk for future fracture independent of BMD. Only a few studies, however, have sought to identify specific genes influencing calcaneal QUS measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative ...
Arnold Arthur P AP Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2012
A modern general theory of sex determination and sexual differentiation identifies the factors that cause sexual bias in gene networks, leading to sex differences in physiology and disease. The primary sex-biasing factors are those encoded on the sex chromosomes that are inherently different in the male and female zygotes. These ...
Arraouadi Soumaya - - 2011
In this study, QTL mapping of physiological traits in Medicago truncatula was performed using a set of RILs derived from LR5. Twelve parameters associated with Na(+) and K(+) content in leaves, stems and roots were measured. Broad-sense heritability of these traits was ranged from 0.15 to 0.83 in control and ...
Tian Lei - - 2011
Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and crop production. In the present study, salt tolerance at rice seedling stage was evaluated using 87 introgression lines (ILs), which were derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and an accession of common wild ...
Zhou Ping - - 2011
Studies in both humans and animals suggest detrimental effects of psychological stress on reproduction. Although our recent study shows that maternal-restraint stress diminishes oocyte developmental potential, the mechanism is unknown. This promoted us to study the potential role of maternal-restraint stress in the genesis of aneuploidy during meiosis I. At ...
Li Hongwei - - 2011
In order to explore the genetics of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid population developed from a cross between the varieties Hanxuan 10 (HX) and Lumai 14 (LM). The senescence parameters chlorophyll content (Chl a+b, ...
Papastefanou I - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To measure the intracranial translucency (IT) and the cisterna magna (CM), to produce reference ranges and to examine the interobserver and intraobserver variability of those measurements. To examine the possible association of IT with chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: Prospective study on pregnancies assessed at 11 to 14 weeks. IT was measured ...
Gu Junfei - - 2012
Photosynthesis is fundamental to biomass production, but sensitive to drought. To understand the genetics of leaf photosynthesis, especially under drought, upland rice cv. Haogelao, lowland rice cv. Shennong265, and 94 of their introgression lines (ILs) were studied at flowering and grain filling under drought and well-watered field conditions. Gas exchange ...
Idnurm Alexander - - 2011
The benefits of sexual reproduction that outweigh its costs have long puzzled biologists. Increased genetic diversity generated by new allelic combinations, as enhanced by recombination during meiosis, is considered to be a primary benefit of sex. Sex-determining systems have evolved independently on numerous occasions. One of the most familiar is ...
Phillips C - - 2011
Family studies can be used to measure the genetic distance between same-chromosome (syntenic) STRs in order to detect physical linkage or linkage disequilibrium. However, family studies are expensive and time consuming, in many cases uninformative, and lack a reliable means to infer the phase of the diplotypes obtained. HapMap provides ...
Sved John A - - 2011
SummaryThe covariance of heterozygosity serves as a measure of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes at two loci, although one that does not have as much information as a parameter such as r2. However, it may be extended to blocks of loci (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) along a chromosome. This has ...
Neethirajan Suresh - - 2011
Karyotype analysis and classification of buckwheat chromosomes were performed without chemical banding or staining using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and Fagopyrum tartaricum (Tartarian buckwheat) chromosomes were isolated from root tissues using an enzymatic maceration technique and spread over a glass substrate. Air-dried chromosomes had a surface ...
Malhotra Alka - - 2011
Numerous studies have been done to understand genetic contributors to BMI, but only a limited number of studies have been done in nonwhite groups such as American Indians. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BMI was therefore performed in Pima Indians. BMI measurements from a longitudinal study of 1,120 Pima ...
Hassan Mohammed O - - 2011
Background: We performed a genome-wide scan in a homogeneous Arab population to identify genomic regions linked to blood pressure (BP) and its intermediate phenotypes during mental and physical stress tests. Methods: The Oman Family Study subjects (N = 1277) were recruited from five extended families of ~10 generations. Hemodynamic phenotypes ...
Barone Chiara - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is an uncommon chromosomal anomaly with a range of phenotypes from normal males to cases of multiple congenital anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case with associated cleft lip and epispadias prenatally diagnosed with autopsy evidences. CONCLUSION: Our case, with an uncommon association of congenital anomalies, ...
Kirsch-Volders Micheline - - 2011
Micronuclei (MN) are small, extranuclear bodies that arise in dividing cells from acentric chromosome/chromatid fragments or whole chromosomes/chromatids lagging behind in anaphase and are not included in the daughter nuclei at telophase. The mechanisms of MN formation are well understood; their possible postmitotic fate is less evident. The MN assay ...
Galloway Sheila - - 2011
The selection of maximum concentrations for in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays was reviewed at the 5th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), 2009. Currently, the top concentration recommended when toxicity is not limiting is 10mM or 5mg/ml, whichever is lower. The discussion was whether to reduce the limit, and ...
Yang E N - - 2011
Leaf rolling occurs in some cereal genotypes in response to drought. We identified and made a phenotypic, cytological and physiological analysis of a leaf-rolling genotype (CMH83) of hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) that exhibited reduced plant height, rolled and narrow leaves. Gliadin electrophoresis of seed protein showed that CMH83 was ...
Stevens J B - - 2011
Chromosome fragmentation (C-Frag) is a newly identified MCD (mitotic cell death), distinct from apoptosis and MC (mitotic catastrophe). As different molecular mechanisms can induce C-Frag, we hypothesize that the general mechanism of its induction is a system response to cellular stress. A clear link between C-Frag and diverse system stresses ...
Shee Chandan C Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, - - 2011
Stress-induced mutation is a collection of molecular mechanisms in bacterial, yeast and human cells that promote mutagenesis specifically when cells are maladapted to their environment, i.e. when they are stressed. Here, we review one molecular mechanism: double-strand break (DSB)-dependent stress-induced mutagenesis described in starving Escherichia coli. In it, the otherwise ...
Forche A A Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, - - 2011
Genetic diversity is often generated during adaptation to stress, and in eukaryotes some of this diversity is thought to arise via recombination and reassortment of alleles during meiosis. Candida albicans, the most prevalent pathogen of humans, has no known meiotic cycle, and yet it is a heterozygous diploid that undergoes ...
Rivkees Scott A - - 2011
Turner syndrome (TS) occurs when an X-chromosome is completely or partially deleted or when X-chromosomal mosaicism is present. Girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and treatment with GH; however, many girls with TS are not detected until after 10 yr of age, resulting in delayed evaluation and treatment. We ...
Shen Bo - - 2010
Validation and dissection of a QTL region for leaf traits in rice which has been reported in a number of independent studies were conducted. Three sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) were originated from a residual heterozygous line derived the indica cross Zhenshan 97B/Milyang 46. They were overlapping and totally ...
Pimpinelli Sergio - - 2010
In this protocol, larval brains from Drosophila are incubated in vitro with colchicine, treated with hypotonic solution, fixed, and squashed in aceto-orcein. This procedure provides a large number of well-spread metaphase figures (200-400 per brain) that can be analyzed for chromosome morphology, the presence of chromosome aberrations, and the degree ...
Law Ga-Lai - - 2010
The emission intensity of a monocationic Tb or Eu(III) complex of a bis(1-azaxanthone) ligand is enhanced in the presence of serum albumin; the lanthanide complex stains dividing cells, allowing visualisation of mitotic chromosomes.
Tsuda J R - - 2010
Five specimens of Rhamdia quelen collected from the Lindóia Stream, PR, Brazil, were cytogenetically analyzed. The diploid chromosome number found was 58, including 30 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 10 subtelocentric, and 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Supernumerary or B chromosomes, frequently observed in this fish group, were not detected. One of the individuals ...
Papavasileiou Dimitrios - - 2009
Based on the prognostic role of Her-2 amplification and protein overexpression in breast cancer, various studies have been performed in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with inconsistent results. As in invasive breast carcinomas Her-2 overexpression has been related to an increased number of chromosome 17 copies, a common chromosomal alteration ...
Shao Chang-Wei - - 2010
Here we present a comparison of the different chromosome preparation methods, including the method of the single embryo or larva, the method of juvenile-swimming and the method of phytohemagglutinin injection, used for the different developmental stages of the half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis. The mean index of mitosis for the ...
Noothi Sunil K - - 2010
Studies on the physical nature of the structural heterogeneity of chromatin in their native states are few. The eukaryotic chromatin as observed by dye staining studies is of heterogeneous intensity when observed by fluorescent stains, where less and more bright regions apparently correspond to euchromatin and heterochromatin respectively. These are ...
He Junlin - - 2009
An improved method, which exhibited simultaneously clearly kinetochores and the nucleolar organizer regions of human chromosomes by pretreating of human metaphase chromosomes with HCl and NaOH, followed by staining with silver nitrate and visualizing using ammoniacal silver, is described in the present communication. It has important role for analysis of ...
Jikuzono Tomoo - - 2009
Cyclin D1 is an important cell-cycle regulator that drives the cell cycle from the G1 phase to the S phase. Elevated nuclear cyclin D1 expression has been found in human tumors, including thyroid carcinoma. Protein production is known to require DNA amplification in each cell, but reports of such amplification ...
Tsuchiya Dai - - 2009
The genus Daphnia has an intriguing reproductive mode of cyclical parthenogenesis. This reproductive mode has been studied for centuries, but cytogenetic information is lacking due to technical limitations of classical methods. We have developed methods for the preparation and examination of meiotic chromosomes of Daphnia pulex from oocytes and spermatocytes. ...
Zolan Miriam E - - 2009
The basidiomycete fungus Coprinus cinereus has naturally synchronous meiosis and is amenable to analysis using an array of well-developed genetic and molecular tools. In this chapter, we explain in detail the two methods most commonly employed for C. cinereus, staining of intact gill segments and chromosome spreads, with an example ...
Ghazizadeh Mohammad - - 2008
Observation of the internal ultrastructure of human chromosomes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has frequently been attempted in spite of the difficulties in detaching metaphase chromosome spreads from the glass slide for further processing. In this study we have used a method in which metaphase chromosome spreads were prepared on ...
Zhang Jian-Fei - - 2008
Until now there has been no definitive anatomical study of the boundary between hepatic subsegments IVa and IVb. In this study, we used a multicolor segmental corrosion cast technique and a multicolor segmental technique on plastinated slices, in combination with helical CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction on 15 donated fresh isolated ...
Vasanjee Sunil C - - 2008
This study was designed to identify and quantify synoviocyte phenotypes enveloping the canine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to test the hypothesis that there are at least two synoviocyte phenotypes, each with distinct quantities and topographical distributions. CD18 and HSP25 epitopes were colocalized in the synovium of 10 normal canine ACLs. ...
Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.
Chromosomes of Perna viridis were characterized by karyotype analysis, C-banding and nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). The diploid chromosome number was confirmed as 30 and the karyotype is composed of ten metacentric and five submetacentric chromosome pairs. Constitutive heterochromatin blocks were found on all chromosomal pairs except chromosomal pair 15, which ...
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