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Arnold Arthur P AP Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles. Electronic address: - - 2014
A sophisticated mechanistic understanding of physiology and disease requires knowledge of how sex-biasing factors cause sex differences in phenotype. In therian mammals, all sex differences are downstream of the unequal effects of XX vs. XY sex chromosomes. Three major categories of sex-biasing factors are activational and organizational effects of gonadal ...
Shao Changwei C Yellow Sea Fisheries Research - - 2014
Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using ...
Vernet Nadège N MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, - - 2014
Outbred XY(Sry-) female mice that lack Sry due to the 11 kb deletion Sry(dl1Rlb) have very limited fertility. However, five lines of outbred XY(d) females with Y chromosome deletions Y(Del(Y)1Ct)-Y(Del(Y)5Ct) that deplete the Rbmy gene cluster and repress Sry transcription were found to be of good fertility. Here we tested ...
Warr Nick N Mammalian Genetics Unit - - 2014
Disorders of sex development (DSD) in the human population range in severity from mild genital defects to gonadal sex reversal. XY female development has been associated with heterozygous mutations in several genes, including SOX9, WT1 and MAP3K1. In contrast, XY sex reversal in mice usually requires complete absence of testis-determining ...
Hall A Brantley AB Department of Biochemistry, Virginia - - 2014
The preservation of a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome in some organisms without transformation into a heteromorphic sex chromosome is a long-standing enigma in evolutionary biology. A dominant sex-determining locus (or M-locus) in an undifferentiated homomorphic chromosome confers the male phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Genetic evidence suggests that ...
Kuparinen A A Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, - - 2014
Mechanisms of hybridization between bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus were studied within the native range of the species in a lake in southern Finland. Through the genetic analysis of A. brama, R. rutilus and putative hybrids, hybridization is shown to have occurred between female A. brama and male ...
Fujii Jun J Department of Biology, Waseda University, Tokyo, - - 2014
In mice and humans, the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located on the X chromosome, is not known to be involved in sex determination. In the Japanese frog Rana rugosa the AR is located on the sex chromosomes (X, Y, Z and W). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AR on the ...
Dufresnes Christophe C Department of Ecology and evolution, Biophore Building, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case ...
Leamy Larry J LJ Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte , Charlotte, NC , - - 2014
Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 ...
Takehana Yusuke Y 1] Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan [2] Department of Basic Biology, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Okazaki 444-8585, - - 2014
Sex chromosomes harbour a primary sex-determining signal that triggers sexual development of the organism. However, diverse sex chromosome systems have been evolved in vertebrates. Here we use positional cloning to identify the sex-determining locus of a medaka-related fish, Oryzias dancena, and find that the locus on the Y chromosome contains ...
Galizi Roberto R 1] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK [2] Centro di Genomica Funzionale, University of Perugia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale Via Gambuli, Edificio D, 3° Piano, 06132 Perugia, - - 2014
It has been theorized that inducing extreme reproductive sex ratios could be a method to suppress or eliminate pest populations. Limited knowledge about the genetic makeup and mode of action of naturally occurring sex distorters and the prevalence of co-evolving suppressors has hampered their use for control. Here we generate ...
Scerbo María J MJ Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC-CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Córdoba, - - 2014
The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the ...
Olivier-Van Stichelen Stéphanie S Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Health Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) catalyzes protein O-GlcNAcylation, an abundant and dynamic nuclear and cytosolic modification linked to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The steady-state levels of O-GlcNAc are influenced by extracellular glucose concentrations suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation may serve as a metabolic sensor. Intriguingly, human OGT is located on the X-chromosome (Xq13) ...
Hemmat Morteza M Cytogenetics Department, Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 33608 Ortega Hwy, 92675 San Juan Capistrano, CA, - - 2014
Advances in genome-wide molecular cytogenetics allow identification of novel submicroscopic DNA copy number alterations (aCNAs) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) resulting in homozygosity for known gene mutations in myeloid neoplasms. We describe the use of an oligo-SNP array for genomic profiling of aCNA and cnLOH, together with sequence analysis ...
Moumni Imen I 0000-0003-0914-3916 Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Hematology, Pasteur Institute of Tunis, El Belvedere, 1002 Tunis, - - 2014
β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of β (S) Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. ...
Wang Lixiang L Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Plant Resources in Arid Regions, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011 China ; Key State Laboratory of Plant Cell & Chromosome Engineering Center of Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 286 Huaizhong Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050021 - - 2014
In the present study, genetic linkage analysis was carried out to map the fiber color loci Lc 1 and Lc 2 on two brown cotton cultivars with SSR and EST-SSR markers in the reference map by F2 segregation populations. The Lc 1 locus carried by Xincaimian6 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ...
Shandilya Jayasha J Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, Cooke Hall, North Campus, Buffalo, New York 14260, - - 2014
Tumour suppressors safeguard the fidelity of the mitotic checkpoint by transcriptional regulation of genes that encode components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here we report a new role for the tumour suppressor and transcription factor, WT1, in the mitotic checkpoint. We show that WT1 regulates the MCC by directly ...
Silkaitis Katherine - - 2014
Several autoimmune and neurological diseases exhibit a sex bias, but discerning the causes and mechanisms of these biases has been challenging. Sex differences begin to manifest themselves in early embryonic development, and gonadal differentiation further bifurcates the male and female phenotypes. Even at this early stage, however, there is evidence ...
Lybæk Helle H Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine; Haukeland University Hospital; Bergen, - - 2013
It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, ...
Anık Ahmet A Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, İzmir, Turkey. E-mail: - - 2013
The main factor influencing sex determination of an embryo is the sex-determining region Y (SRY), a master regulatory gene located on the Y chromosome. The presence of SRY causes the bipotential gonad to differentiate into a testis. However, some individuals carry a Y chromosome but are phenotypically female (46,XY females) ...
Møller R S - - 2013
Submicroscopic duplications along the long arm of the X-chromosome with known phenotypic consequences are relatively rare events. The clinical features resulting from such duplications are various, though they often include intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, hypogonadism and feeding difficulties. Female carriers are often phenotypically normal or show a similar ...
Heyer E - - 2013
Genetic data corresponding to four negrito populations (two Aeta and two Agta; n = 120) from the Luzon region of the Philippines have been analyzed. These data comprise mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 haplotypes and haplogroups, Y-chromosome haplogroups and short tandem repeats (STRs), autosomal STRs, and X-chromosome STRs. The ...
Aryal Rishi R Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ...
Macdonald A J - - 2013
The emerging availability of microsatellite markers from mammalian sex chromosomes provides opportunities to investigate both male- and female-mediated gene flow in wild populations, identifying patterns not apparent from the analysis of autosomal markers alone. Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), once spread over the southern mainland, have been isolated on several islands ...
Liew Woei Chang - - 2013
In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of ...
D'Amico Fabio - - 2013
Systemic sclerosis is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease. Genetic and environmental factors are known to interplay in the onset and progression of systemic sclerosis. Sex plays an important and determinant role in the development of such a disorder. Systemic sclerosis shows a significant female preponderance. However, the reason for this ...
Rocco L - - 2013
Sex determination and differentiation are key events in the development of either the testis or ovary in fish. Sex determination mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. Research on sex determination systems and their related genes have been implemented in the teleost species, but the amount of information about these genes ...
Reinhold Klaus - - 2013
Sex differences in the mean trait expression are well documented, not only for traits that are directly associated with reproduction. Less is known about how the variability of traits differs between males and females. In species with sex chromosomes and dosage compensation, the heterogametic sex is expected to show larger ...
Marissal-Arvy Nathalie - - 2013
Since a reduction of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade extends life span in many species and IGF-1 signaling might partly mediate the effects of caloric restriction (CR), an experimental intervention for increasing longevity, the purpose of the present study was to use quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, an unbiased genetic approach, ...
Mank Judith E - - 2013
Sex chromosomes often entail gene dose differences between the sexes, which if not compensated for, lead to differences between males and females in the expression of sex-linked genes. Recent work has shown that different organisms respond to sex chromosome dose in a variety of ways, ranging from complete sex chromosome ...
Savic I - - 2013
Although it has been shown that cortical thickness (Cth) differs between sexes, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Seeing as XXY males have 1 extra X chromosome, we investigated the possible effects of X- and sex-chromosome dosage on Cth by comparing data from 31 XXY males with 39 XY and 47 ...
Foley B R - - 2013
Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate ...
Bonthuis Paul J - - 2013
Like many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in ...
Ellis Ronald E - - 2013
A century ago, Bridges proposed that male genes on the autosomes and female genes on the X chromosome compete to determine sexual identity. New genetic and molecular studies establish Caenorhabditis elegans as the first animal known to use this mechanism.
Wang J - - 2013
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), ...
Stöck M - - 2013
Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles ...
Rodrigues N - - 2013
In sharp contrast with birds and mammals, the sex chromosomes of ectothermic vertebrates are often undifferentiated, for reasons that remain debated. A linkage map was recently published for Rana temporaria (Linnaeus, 1758) from Fennoscandia (Eastern European lineage), with a proposed sex-determining role for linkage group 2 (LG2). We analysed linkage ...
Wang Xueying - - 2013
The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we analyze the dynamical system model of the TYC strategy, with the aim of studying the viability of the TYC eradication and control strategy of an invasive species. In ...
Kersten B - - 2013
In the dioecious genus Populus, sex determination has been located to chromosome 19. However, despite a high degree of genome collinearity, various Populus species seem to differ with regard to the location of the sex-determining region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex. In this study, the boundaries ...
Suto Jun-Ichi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-Ay littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-Ay females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-Ay males are ...
Sukumaran Anju - - 2013
Abstract Background: The sex chromosome composition of the primordial gonad, either 46XX or 46XY, determines its differentiation as ovaries or testes. Local hormones secreted by developing gonads and tissue specific transcription factors influence the differentiation of external and internal genital structures. Dosage sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region ...
Alekseyenko Artyom A AA Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2013
Dosage compensation has arisen in response to the evolution of distinct male (XY) and female (XX) karyotypes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the MSL complex increases male X transcription approximately twofold. X-specific targeting is thought to occur through sequence-dependent binding to chromatin entry sites (CESs), followed by spreading in cis to active ...
Moore S S Multiple Sclerosis Program, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
In addition to androgen differences between males and females, there are genetic differences that are caused by unequal dosage of sex chromosome genes. Using the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, we recently showed that surgical gonadectomy of adult mice resulted in decreased normal myelination and remyelination compared to gonadally intact animals, suggesting ...
Connallon Tim - - 2013
X inactivation-the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome copy per female somatic cell-is universal among therian mammals, yet the choice of which X to silence exhibits considerable variation among species. X inactivation strategies can range from strict paternally inherited X inactivation (PXI), which renders females haploid for all maternally inherited ...
Battilana Juri - - 2013
Cultivars used for wine and table grape have self-fertile hermaphrodite flowers whereas wild European vines and American and Asian species are dioecious, having either male or female flowers. Consistent with previous studies, the flower sex trait was mapped as a single major locus on chromosome 2 based on a pure ...
Liu Angela Y - - 2013
ABSTRACT Objective To identify chromosomal regions harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) for waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). Design and Methods We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and regional association study WC and BMI among 633 Chinese families. Results A significant linkage signal for WC was observed at ...
Badenhorst Daleen - - 2013
Reptiles display a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms ranging from temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) to genotypic sex determination (GSD) with either male (XY) or female (ZW) heterogamety. Despite this astounding variability, the origin, structure, and evolution of sex chromosomes remain poorly understood. In turtles, TSD is purportedly ancestral while GSD ...
Riggio V V The Roslin Institute and RDSVS, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK. - - 2013
The genetic architecture underlying nematode resistance and body weight in Blackface lambs was evaluated comparing genome-wide association (GWA) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches. The traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC) and immunoglobulin A activity against third-stage larvae from Teladorsagia circumcincta, as indicators of nematode resistance, and body weight ...
Herman Sean B - - 2013
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is caused by truncating mutations or deletions in the X linked gene, WTX, and is characterized by sclerotic striations of the metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones, pelvis, and scapula, along with craniofacial hyperostosis. Females typically manifest with craniofacial dysmorphisms including macrocephaly, hypertelorism, depressed ...
Cantú Eduardo S - - 2013
Distorted sex ratios occur in hematologic disorders. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) displays disproportionate sex ratios with a large male excess. However, the underlying genetics for these disparities are poorly understood, and gender differences for specific cytogenetic abnormalities have not been carefully investigated. We sought to provide an initial ...
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