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Buechel Séverine D SD Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Sorge, Le Biophore, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland; Institute of Integrative Biology (IBZ), ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zürich, - - 2014
Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and ...
Weng Katherine A KA Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of - - 2014
Chromosome segregation errors in human oocytes are the leading cause of birth defects, and the risk of aneuploid pregnancy increases dramatically as women age. Accurate segregation demands that sister chromatid cohesion remain intact for decades in human oocytes, and gradual loss of the original cohesive linkages established in fetal oocytes ...
Al-Jaru Ayman A Molecular Biology and Genetics Laboratory, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab - - 2014
Chromosome configurations and chiasma frequency during the metaphase I stage of spermatogenesis in the male horse are characterized in this work. The genome-wide frequency and distribution of chiasmata was detected as 49.45 ± 2.07 for 14 fertile stallions. All X and Y chromosomes shared a single chiasma at their pseudoautosomal ...
Wilkinson Gerald S GS University of Maryland; Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin; - - 2014
We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane's rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that ...
Qin Qinbo - - 2014
The establishment of the tetraploid organism is difficult, however, is useful in genetics and breeding. In the present study, we have artificially established an autotetraploid fish line (F2-F8) derived from the distant hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. (RR, 2n=100) (female) × Megalobrama amblycephala (BB, 2n=48) (male). The autotetraploid line ...
Wells Dagan D Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, ...
Juchno Dorota D Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, M. Oczapowskiego 5 St., 10-718, Olsztyn, Poland, - - 2014
Crosses between 21 triploid hybrid Cobitis females and 19 C. taenia (2n = 48) males led to viable progeny; whereas no embryonic development was observed in crosses with tetraploid males (4n = 98). The ploidy status of 491 progenies randomly selected with flow cytometry (316) or chromosome analysis (175) revealed an average of 55.2 % ...
Molina-Luzón Maria Jesús MJ Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain, - - 2014
In this study we have developed protocols for induced triploidy and gynogenesis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a promising flatfish species for marine aquaculture, in order to: 1) identify the sex-determination mechanism; and 2) to improve its production by generating a) sterile fish, avoiding problems related with sexual maturation, and ...
Hornak Miroslav M Central European Institute of Technology - Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Repromeda, Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Vinicni 235, 615 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells ...
Schmid Michael M Department of Human Genetics, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, 97074, Würzburg, - - 2014
Chromosome aberrations (aneuploidies mostly) are the cause of the majority of spontaneous abortions in humans. However, little is known about defects in the underlying molecular mechanisms resulting in chromosome aberrations and following failure of preimplantation embryo development, initiation of implantation and postimplantation pregnancy loss. We suggest that defects of the ...
Kumar S - - 2014
The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = ...
Salimi Mahdieh M Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, - - 2014
Genome instability is a main cause of chromosomal alterations in both somatic and germ cells when exposed to environmental, physical and chemical genotoxicants. Germ cells especially spermatozoa are more vulnerable to suffering from DNA damaging agents during spermatogenesis and also more potent in transmitting genome instability to next generation. To ...
Wang Li - - 2014
Chromosome aneuploidies commonly arise in embryos produced by assisted reproductive technologies and represent a major cause of implantation failure and miscarriage. Currently, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is performed by array-based methods to identify euploid embryos for transfer to the patient. We speculated that a combination of next generation sequencing technologies ...
Cheng Hsin-Hsin HH Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123, Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung Dist., Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan, - - 2014
The objective of this study is to compare the chromosomal distribution of early miscarriages with or without embryonic poles. It was a retrospective study of 223 women who underwent dilation and curettage (D&C) between 1995 and 2013 for early miscarriages. The presence or absence of a fetal pole was evaluated ...
Vega Mario M Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai St. Luke's-Roosevelt, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. Electronic address: - - 2014
To test the hypothesis that the blastulation rate is higher in euploid embryos than in aneuploid embryos as assessed by cleavage-stage biopsy with array-comprehensive genomic hybridization (aCGH). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated institution. Forty-one patients with 48 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and 385 embryos that underwent cleavage-stage preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) ...
Kilani Z Z The Farah Hospital, Amman, - - 2014
This study included 173 young couples of proven fertility who had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for chromosomes X and Y for family balancing. Several months later, when the outcome of the pregnancies was already known, the blastomeres from the corresponding embryos transferred were reanalysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Tobler Kyle J KJ Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Phipps 264, 600 N. Wolfe Street, 21287, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
To compare single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) microarray platforms to evaluate embryos for parental translocation imbalances and aneuploidy. A retrospective review of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) results of 498 embryos from 63 couples undergoing 75 in vitro fertilization cycles due to parental carriers of ...
He Yajun Y Cotton Molecular Breeding Laboratory, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, 31793, - - 2014
We report a second major QTL for root-knot nematode resistance in the highly resistant Upland cotton line M-120RNR and show epistasis between two resistant QTLs with different mechanisms conferring resistance. In an earlier study, we identified a major QTL on Chromosome 11 associated with resistance to root-knot nematode in the ...
Du X Z XZ College of Life Science, Hubei University, Wuhan, - - 2014
In this paper, interspecific crosses among Crambe abyssinica, Crambe hispanica, and Crambe kralikii were reported. In the C. hispanica x C. abyssinica (H x A) cross, 118 F1 hybrids were produced without embryo rescue, while 5 F1 hybrids were obtained with embryo rescue, when C. hispanica was used as the ...
Liu Dandan D State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology; Institute of Zoology; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing, China; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; The Ottawa Hospital - General Campus; Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2014
The spindle assembly checkpoint, SAC, is a surveillance mechanism to control the onset of anaphase during cell division. SAC prevents anaphase initiation until all chromosome pairs have achieved bipolar attachment and aligned at the metaphase plate of the spindle. In doing so, SAC is thought to be the key mechanism ...
McPherson Marla C MC Department of Animal Science, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616, - - 2014
Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA ...
Moradian Hasan H Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, PB 76169-133, Kerman, Iran, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions, quantitative trait loci (QTL), affecting carcass traits on chromosome 1 in an F2 population of Japanese quail. For this purpose, two white and wild strains of Japanese quail (16 birds) were crossed reciprocally and F1 generation (34 birds) was created. ...
Jurewicz Joanna J Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Different environmental and lifestyle factors may interfere with the normal disjunction of sister chromatids/chromosomes during meiosis and may cause aneuploidy. The aim of the study was to examine the association between lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 healthy men under 45 years of age attending ...
Chen Chun-Kai CK Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital and Medical College, TaoYuan, - - 2014
The presence of reciprocal and Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement is often related to recurrent miscarriage. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis, the abortion rate can be decreased. Cases treated at our center were reviewed. A retrospective analysis for either Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations was performed on all completed cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis ...
Skinner Benjamin M BM School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, CT2 - - 2014
There is a growing interest in copy number variation (CNV) and the recognition of its importance in phenotype, disease, adaptation and speciation. CNV data is usually ascertained by array-CGH within-species, but similar inter-species comparisons have also been made in primates, mice and domestic mammals. Here, we conducted a broad appraisal ...
Kaser Daniel J DJ Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2014
Since report of the first live birth following preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in 1995, the procedure and available technologies for aneuploidy detection have rapidly evolved. Through these efforts, the biology of meiotic and mitotic segregation errors has been partially elucidated. A process that began with polar body biopsy and four-color ...
Ohnesorg T T Murdoch Children's Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., - - 2014
One of the defining events during human embryonic development with the most far-reaching effects for the individual is whether the embryo develops as male or female. The crucial step in this process is the differentiation of the bipotential embryonic gonads into either testes or ovaries. If the embryo inherits X ...
Hook Ernest B EB School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, - - 2014
We review the data pertinent to the hypothesis we proposed three decades ago, that all embryos that survive gestation as women with Turner syndrome and have an ostensibly non-mosaic 45,X karyotype, actually are cryptic mosaics for a "rescue line" that includes a viable karyotype. Reanalysis of the prevalence and frequency ...
Mania Anastasia A UCL Centre for PGD, Institute for Women's Health, University College London, 86-96 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, United Kingdom; Centre for Reproductive and Genetic Health (CRGH), The New Wing Eastman Dental Hospital, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
This is a retrospective study aiming to assess telomere length in human embryos 4days post fertilization and to determine whether it is correlated to chromosomal ploidy, embryo developmental rate and patient age. Embryos were donated from patients undergoing treatment in the assisted conception unit. Seven couples took part, generating 35 ...
Basile Natalia N IVI Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
To study the differences in the cleavage time between chromosomally normal and abnormal embryos and to elaborate an algorithm to increase the probability of noninvasively selecting chromosomally normal embryos. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated infertility center. Preimplantation genetic screening patients (n = 125; n = 77 with ET), including cases of ...
Ori R Jabbari RJ Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, PB 76169-133, Kerman, - - 2014
The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is an important agricultural species and is an animal model for genetic researches. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting live weight and growth rate on chromosome 3 in quail. Two strains of Japanese quail including wild and white were crossed ...
Yun Yan Y Centre for Reproductive Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, - - 2014
As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found ...
Novik Veronica V Genetics and IVF Institute, Fairfax, VA, USA. - - 2014
Most previous studies of chromosomal mosaicism in IVF embryos were performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. While there are reports implicating chromosome aneuploidy in implantation failure following transfer and pregnancy loss by spontaneous miscarriage, the significance of mosaicism for the developmental potential of growing embryos is unknown. However, ...
Bailey Travis J TJ Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, 027B Galvin Building, 46556, Notre Dame, IN, USA, - - 2014
In a screen to identify zebrafish eye mutants, we isolated the good effort (gef) mutant. The retina of gef embryos is characterized by the successful initiation of the optic primordium and normal retinal development over the first 2 days post fertilization (dpf). The mutant retina, however, fails to continue to ...
Kalmbach Keri K 0000-0001-9300-9941 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 180 Varick Street, No. 761, New York, NY 10014, - - 2014
Telomeres protect and cap linear chromosome ends, yet these genomic buffers erode over an organism's lifespan. Short telomeres have been associated with many age-related conditions in humans, and genetic mutations resulting in short telomeres in humans manifest as syndromes of precocious aging. In women, telomere length limits a fertilized egg's ...
Milachich Tanya T 0000-0002-7222-9651 SAGBAL Dr. Shterev, IVF Unit, Hristo Blagoev 25-31, 1330 Sofia, - - 2014
The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic ...
Soma Miki M Department of Epigenetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical & Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, - - 2014
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) equalizes gene expression between the sexes by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals. Xist has been considered as a major cis-acting factor that inactivates the paternally derived X chromosome (Xp) in preimplantation mouse embryos (imprinted XCI). Ftx has been proposed as a positive ...
Qi Shu-Tao ST Key Laboratory of Major Obstetrics Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, - - 2014
Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than ...
Wu Ming-Yih MY Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10002, - - 2014
Most in vitro fertilization (IVF) experts and infertility patients agree that the most ideal assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome is to have a healthy, full-term singleton born. To this end, the most reliable policy is the single-embryo transfer (SET). However, unsatisfactory results in IVF may result from plenty of factors, ...
Lixin Deng - - 2013
By using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), to analyze the aneuploidy of the single blastomeres from non-pronuclear embryos on cleavage-stage in IVF cycle. Four non-pronuclear embryos were got from an IVF cycle, and the each single cell was biopsied from the four cleavage-stage embryos on the third day after ...
Rosario M F - - 2013
Interval mapping (IM) implemented in QTL Express or GridQTL is widely used, but presents some limitations, such as restriction to a fixed model, risk of mapping two QTL when there may be only one and no discrimination of two or more QTL using both cofactors located on the same and ...
Yilmaz Ahmet A MUHC Reproductive Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2013
The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the incidence and clinical implications of multinucleation in blastomeres biopsied from cleavage-stage embryos obtained from patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for aneuploidies or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocations or single-gene defects (SGD). A total of 3515 embryos were obtained ...
Michalik O - - 2013
Although, brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill 1814) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus 1758) are able to cross and give fertile offspring, their androgenetic nucleocytoplasmic hybrids are not viable. To overcome incompatibility between the egg cytoplasm of one charr species and the sperm nucleus of another charr species, application of ...
Fragouli E - - 2013
Morphological assessments are the main way in which fertility clinics select in vitro generated embryo(s) for transfer to the uterus. However, it is widely acknowledged that the microscopic appearance of an embryo is only weakly correlated with its viability. Furthermore, the extent to which morphology is affected by aneuploidy, a ...
Oikawa Mami - - 2013
During mouse development, imprinted X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is observed in preimplantation embryos and is inherited to the placental lineage, whereas random XCI is initiated in the embryonic proper. Xist RNA, which triggers XCI, is expressed ectopically in cloned embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To understand these ...
Delhanty Joy D A - - 2013
Human fertility is low in comparison with that seen in other well-studied mammals. The main reason for this state of affairs seems to be the frequent occurrence and persistence of chromosomal errors in the human conceptus. Evidence obtained over the past two decades shows that the exceptionally high incidence of ...
Scriven Paul N - - 2013
Our study provides an analysis of the outcome of meiotic segregation of three-way translocations in cleavage-stage embryos and the accuracy and limitations of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. We propose a general model for estimating reproductive risks for carriers of this class of complex ...
Fitzharris Greg - - 2013
Errors in chromosome segregation in oocytes and early embryos lead to aneuploid fetuses which contributes to early pregnancy loss. At the heart of chromosome segregation is the spindle, a dynamic biomechanical machine fashioned from microtubules, which is tasked with gathering and sorting chromosomes and dispatching them to the daughter cells ...
Honkatukia Mervi - - 2013
A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low ...
Meldrum David R DR Reproductive Partners Medical Group, Redondo Beach, California 90277, USA. - - 2013
Aneuploidy screening of all chromosomes (preimplantation genetic screening) at each stage of embryo development, the techniques available, and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are reviewed.
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