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Bugno-Poniewierska Monika M Laboratory of Genomics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Balice n. Cracow, Poland. - - 2014
The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin ...
Książczyk Tomasz T Department of Environmental Stress Biology, Institute of Plant Genetics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479, Poznań, Poland, - - 2014
We focus on the identification of complete and recombined ribosomal DNA-bearing chromosomes, and the dynamics of chromosomal number and position of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci in the F2-F4 generations derived from the F1 hybrid of Festuca pratensis Huds. (2n = 4x = 28) × Lolium perenne L. (2n = 4x = 28). Lolium genomic DNA and rRNA genes ...
Camacho J P M JP Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva S/N, 18071, Granada, - - 2014
The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) has been used as material for numerous cytogenetic studies. Its genome size is estimated to be 8.55 Gb of DNA comprised in 11 autosomes and the X chromosome. Its X0/XX sex chromosome determinism therefore results in females having 24 chromosomes whereas males have 23. Surprisingly, little ...
Wood-Trageser Michelle A MA Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2014
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is genetically heterogeneous and manifests as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism either as part of a syndrome or in isolation. We studied two unrelated consanguineous families with daughters exhibiting primary amenorrhea, short stature, and a 46,XX karyotype. A combination of SNP arrays, comparative genomic hybridization arrays, and whole-exome sequencing ...
Banaei-Moghaddam Ali M AM Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben, Corrensstr. 3, 06466 Stadt Seeland, - - 2014
B chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable parts of the karyotype which appear in some individuals of some populations in some species. Often, they have been considered as 'junk DNA' or genomic parasites without functional genes. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, it became possible to investigate their DNA composition, transcriptional ...
Xavier Crislaine C Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Genética de Insetos, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas/ICB, Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Rua Arnóbio Marques 310, Santo Amaro, CEP 50100-130, Recife, PE, - - 2014
Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and ...
AlAsiri Saleh - - 2014
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder that includes individuals with manifestations ranging from primary amenorrhea to loss of menstrual function prior to age 40. POF presents as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and can be part of a syndrome or occur in isolation. Here, we studied 3 sisters ...
Covelo-Soto Lara L Dpto. Bioquímica, Xenética e Inmunoloxía, Universidade de Vigo, 36310, Vigo, Spain, - - 2014
This work explores both the chromatin loss and the differential genome methylation in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from a molecular cytogenetic point of view. Fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments on meiotic bivalents and mitotic chromosomes corroborate the chromatin loss previously observed during the development of the sea lamprey and ...
Peters David G DG Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Magee-Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, 204 Craft Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rapid progress in genomic medicine in recent years has made it possible to diagnose subtle genetic abnormalities in a clinical setting on routine basis. This has allowed for detailed genotype-phenotype correlations and the identification of the genetic basis of many congenital anomalies. In addition to the availability of chromosomal microarray ...
Aslam Muhammad L - - 2014
BackgroundThe domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat-type bird. Characterizing genetic variation in populations of domesticated species and associating these variation patterns with the evolution, domestication, and selective breeding is critical for understanding the dynamics of genomic change in these species. ...
Purgato Stefania S Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie (FABIT), Università di Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
The centromere directs the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. It is a distinct genetic locus whose identity is established through epigenetic mechanisms that depend on the deposition of centromere-specific centromere protein A (CENP-A) nucleosomes. This important chromatin domain has so far escaped comprehensive molecular analysis due to its ...
Wang Zheng Z a Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics; CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease; CAS Institute of Physics; Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale; School of Life Sciences; University of Science & Technology of China ; Hefei , - - 2014
Defective DNA damage response (DDR) is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. Abrogation of DDR leads to chromosomal instability, a most common characteristic of tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of DDR are still elusive. The ubiquitin ligase RNF8 mediates the ubiquitination of γH2AX and recruits 53BP1 and BRCA1 to DNA ...
Pratto Florencia F National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in meiosis to initiate recombination and generate crossovers, the reciprocal exchanges of genetic material between parental chromosomes. Here, we present high-resolution maps of meiotic DSBs in individual human genomes. Comparing DSB maps between individuals shows that along with DNA binding by PRDM9, additional factors ...
Azizian-Farsani Fatemeh F Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran Institute of Biotechnology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, - - 2014
Arsenic compounds can increase production of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species can induce double-strand breaks in DNA, which is a cause of chromosome aberrations (CAs). This study was conducted to determine the association between arsenic exposure and polymorphisms of genes involved in detoxification (glutathione S-transferase T1 [GSTT1], glutathione S-transferase ...
Rovatsos Michalis T MT Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2014
A new repeated DNA from Microtus thomasi, Mth-Alu2.2, was cloned and characterized and is presented here for the first time. Digestion of genomic DNA from M. thomasi with AluI restriction enzyme revealed a 2.2-kb repetitive DNA sequence with a high AT content (69%). This sequence consists of a tandemly repeated ...
Palacios-Gimenez Octavio M OM Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências/IB, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo, CEP 13506-900, - - 2014
A common placement for most sex chromosomes that is involved in their evolutionary histories is the accumulation of distinct classes of repetitive DNAs. Here, with the aim of understanding the poorly studied repetitive DNA organization in crickets and its possible role in sex chromosome differentiation, we characterized the chromosomes of ...
Xu Li-Xin LX Department of Neurosurgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM), University of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
According to the World Health Organization gangliogliomas are classified as well-differentiated and slowly growing neuroepithelial tumors, composed of neoplastic mature ganglion and glial cells. It is the most frequent tumor entity observed in patients with long-term epilepsy. Comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic data including high-resolution genomic profiling (single nucleotide polymorphism ...
Deng Chuanliang C a Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, - - 2014
To determine the appropriateness of chromosome painting for identifying genomic elements in rye, we microdissected the 1R and 1RS chromosomes from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King II) and wheat-rye addition line 1RS, respectively. Degenerate oligonucleotide primed - polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) amplification of 1R and 1RS products from dissected ...
He Zuyong Z State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, P.R. China; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, - - 2014
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as an intriguing new technology for genome engineering. It utilizes the bacterial endonuclease Cas9 which, when delivered to eukaryotic cells in conjunction with a user-specified small guide RNA (gRNA), cleaves the chromosomal DNA at the target site. Here we show that concurrent delivery of gRNAs ...
Gruber Stephan S Chromosome Organization and Dynamics, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
All living cells have to master the extraordinarily extended and tangly nature of genomic DNA molecules - in particular during cell division when sister chromosomes are resolved from one another and confined to opposite halves of a cell. Bacteria have evolved diverse sets of proteins, which collectively ensure the formation ...
Cárdenas Jorge Mario JM Unidade de Xenética, Departamento de Anatomía Patolóxica e Ciencias Forenses, and Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, - - 2014
We have analyzed the specific male genetic component of 226 Bolivians recruited in five different regions ("departments"), La Paz, Cochabamba, Pando, Beni, and Santa Cruz. To evaluate the effect of geography on the distribution of genetic variability, the samples were also grouped into three main eco-geographical regions, namely, Andean, Sub-Andean, ...
Borovko Sergey S State Committee of Forensic Examinations of the Republic of Belarus, Volodarskiy str. 2a, 220030 Minsk, Belarus. Electronic address: - - 2014
Study of gender markers is a part of routine forensic genetic examination of crime scene and reference samples, paternity testing and personal identification. Amelogenin locus as a gender marker is included in majority of forensic STR kits of different manufacturers. In current study we report 11 cases of amelogenin abnormalities ...
Ralf Arwin A Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3015 CN, The - - 2014
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the non-recombining part of the human Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are informative to classify paternal lineages in forensic, genealogical, anthropological, and evolutionary studies. Although thousands of Y-SNPs were identified thus far, previous Y-SNP multiplex tools target only dozens of markers simultaneously, thereby restricting the provided Y-haplogroup resolution and ...
Paço A A Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (IBB/CGBUTAD), Apdo 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, - - 2014
With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in Phodopus sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric ...
Hara Tomomi T Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601, - - 2014
The endosperm of cereal grains represents the most important source of human nutrition. In addition, the endosperm provides many investigatory opportunities for biologists because of the unique processes that occur during its ontogeny, including syncytial development at early stages. Rice endospermless 1 (enl1) develops seeds lacking an endosperm but carrying ...
Maffei Massimo M IRCCS AOU San Martino - IST, Genoa, - - 2014
DNA aneuploid sublines in sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) are quite frequent (about 85%) and likely the consequence of chromosomal instability and DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs). In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of the diploid-aneuploid transition in CRCs, we compared the CNA status in both diploid and aneuploid ...
Bouet Jean-Yves JY Laboratoire de Microbiologie et de Génétique Moléculaires, CNRS, F-31000 Toulouse, France; Université de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31000 Toulouse, - - 2014
Bacteria face the problem of segregating their gigantic chromosomes without a segregation period restricted in time and space, as Eukaryotes do. Segregation thus involves multiple activities, general or specific of a chromosome region and differentially controlled. Recent advances show that these various mechanisms conform to a "pair and release" rule, ...
Shamurailatpam Anju A Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793022, - - 2014
Heterochromatin regions are the most intensively studied and best known chromosome markers in plants. In Vigna species, blocks of constitutive heterochromatin were found either in the terminal or interstitial region of the chromosomes. The number and distribution of CMA(+) and DAPI(+) binding sites exhibit high chromosomal variability with characteristic unique ...
Glover Lucy L Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, - - 2014
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a parasitic protozoan that achieves antigenic variation through DNA-repair processes involving Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene rearrangements at subtelomeres. Subtelomeric suppression of DNA repair operates in eukaryotes but little is known about these controls in trypanosomes. Here, we identify a trypanosome histone acetyltransferase (HAT3) ...
Gianaroli Luca L SISMER Reproductive Medicine Unit, V. Mazzini 12, 40138 Bologna Italy - - 2014
To investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation in human oocytes, the level of heteroplasmy in the three products of meioses, polar bodies (PBs) and corresponding oocytes, was assessed by studying the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the D-loop region. The DNA from 122 PBs and 51 oocyte from 16 patients ...
Le Tung Bk TB Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
In all organisms, chromosomal DNA must be compacted nearly three orders of magnitude to fit within the limited volume of a cell. However, chromosomes cannot be haphazardly packed, and instead must adopt structures compatible with numerous cellular processes, including DNA replication, chromosome segregation, recombination, and gene expression. Recent technical advances ...
Zeesman Susan S Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
Malsegregation of chromosomes during reproduction can result in uniparental disomy when associated with trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue or gamete complementation. Pathogenicity stemming from uniparental disomy in liveborns results from imprinting disorders or autozygosity for autosomal recessive disorders. We report on a girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and Tay-Sachs disease resulting from ...
Mastro Tara L TL Program in Molecular and Computational BiologyUniversity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California - - 2014
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad16 is the ortholog of the XPF structure-specific endonuclease, which is required for nucleotide excision repair and implicated in the single strand annealing mechanism of recombination. We show that Rad16 is important for proper completion of meiosis. In its absence, cells suffer reduced spore viability and abnormal chromosome ...
Tchurikov Nickolai A NA Department of Epigenetic Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow 119334, Russia - - 2014
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are involved in many cellular mechanisms, including replication, transcription, and genome rearrangements. The recent observation that hot spots of DSBs in human chromosomes delimit DNA domains that possess coordinately expressed genes suggests a strong relationship between the organization of transcription patterns and hot spots of DSBs. ...
Hughes Stacie E SE Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri, United States of - - 2014
Heterochromatic homology ensures the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes during meiosis I in Drosophila melanogaster females, perhaps as a consequence of the heterochromatic threads that connect achiasmate homologs during prometaphase I. Here, we ask how these threads, and other possible heterochromatic entanglements, are resolved prior to anaphase I. We show that ...
Oke Ashwini A Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Center of Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of - - 2014
Crossovers (COs) play a critical role in ensuring proper alignment and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. How the cell balances recombination between CO vs. noncrossover (NCO) outcomes is not completely understood. Further lacking is what constrains the extent of DNA repair such that multiple events do not arise from ...
Lee Younghyun - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: We investigated the association between occupational radiation exposure and DNA methylation changes in nuclear power plant workers. We also evaluated whether radiation-induced DNA methylation alterations are associated with chromosome aberrations. Materials and methods: The study population included 170 radiation-exposed workers and 30 controls. We measured global, long interspersed ...
Gianaroli Luca L Reproductive Medicine Unit, Società Italiana Studi di Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate the presence of DNA in blastocyst fluids (BFs) and to estimate whether the chromosomal status predicted by its analysis corresponds with the ploidy condition in trophectoderm (TE) cells, the whole embryo, and that predicted by polar bodies (PBs) or blastomeres. Prospective study. In vitro fertilization unit. Seventeen couples undergoing ...
Saeung Atiporn A Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Twenty-nine isolines of Anopheles crawfordi were established from wild-caught females collected from cow-baited traps in Thailand and Cambodia. Three types of X (X1, X2, X3) and four types of Y (Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4) chromosomes were identified, according to differing amounts of extra heterochromatin. These sex chromosomes represent four ...
Gourdin Theodore S TS University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD; Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, - - 2014
FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most commonly in those with a normal karyotype, and are associated with short relapse-free survival. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of FLT3-ITD cell lines have demonstrated reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA ...
Titos Iris I Centre for Genomic Regulation, 08003 Barcelona, Spain Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, - - 2014
To allow chromosome segregation, topoisomerase II (topo II) must resolve sister chromatid intertwines (SCI) formed during deoxynucleic acid (DNA) replication. How this process extends to the full genome is not well understood. In budding yeast, the unique structure of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array is thought to cause late SCI ...
Balajee Adayabalam S AS Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, 168th Street, 630 West, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2014
Micronucleation of chromosomal DNA is an effective indicator of DNA damage and micronucleus (MN) analysis is a valuable tool for radiation biodosimetry studies. To gain a comprehensive knowledge of micronucleation process after ionising radiation (IR) exposure, whole genome-wide chromosome analysis is desirable. With this objective, multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization ...
Franzke Bernhard B Research Platform Active Ageing, Faculty of Life Sciences and Centre for Sport Science and University Sports, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, - - 2014
Ageing goes hand in hand with altered DNA repair and defence mechanisms against DNA damage. To improve the body's overall resistance against chromosomal damage, maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is of great concern, especially in the elderly. As more and more people are getting older, they change from home ...
Lin Bin B The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine and Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, PR - - 2014
We report on a patient with a 47,XXY karyotype who presents a normal female phenotype, which is an extremely rare observation worldwide. The patient is infertile. Type B ultrasound scans and other tests suggested that her ovaries had completely failed. Microsatellite DNA marker analysis revealed that the 2 X chromosomes ...
Bolon Yung-Tsi YT University of Minnesota; National Marrow Donor - - 2014
Fast neutron radiation has been used as a mutagen to develop extensive mutant collections. However, the genome-wide structural consequences of fast neutron radiation are not well understood. Here, we examine the genome-wide structural variants observed among 264 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) plants sampled from a large fast neutron-mutagenized population. ...
Di Paolo Aurélie A Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 5089, Toulouse, France; University of Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France; - - 2014
In contrast to its well-known role in the DNA damage response during interphase, the function of BRCA1 in the maintenance of chromosomal stability during mitosis remains to be defined. In this study, we uncover a novel role of BRCA1 in preserving centromere integrity in mitotic human cells. Using immunofluorescence and ...
Huang Haomin H Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings׳ Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 packages host chromosome separately from phage DNA, and transfers it to recipient cells at low frequency in a process called generalized transduction. Phage genomes are packaged from concatemers beginning at a specific site, pac. To increase transduction rate, we have inserted pac into the chromosome ...
Dorfman Luiza L Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, - - 2014
to identify chromosomal imbalances by whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in DNA samples of neonates with congenital anomalies of unknown cause from a birth defects monitoring program at a public maternity hospital. a blind genomic analysis was performed retrospectively in 35 stored DNA samples of neonates born between July ...
Garrigan Daniel D Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA - - 2014
Drosophila mauritiana is an Indian Ocean island endemic species that diverged from its two sister species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia, ~240,000 years ago. Multiple forms of incomplete reproductive isolation have evolved among these species, including sexual, gametic, ecological, and intrinsic postzygotic barriers, with crosses among all three species conforming ...
Ghezraoui Hind H Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 43 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France; CNRS, UMR7196, 43 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France; Inserm, U1154, 43 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, - - 2014
Breakpoint junctions of the chromosomal translocations that occur in human cancers display hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). In mouse cells, translocations are suppressed by canonical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) components, which include DNA ligase IV (LIG4), and instead arise from alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ). Here we used designer nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9) ...
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