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Madashira Gopal Manoj M Department of Pathology, 160 Military Hospital, Masimpur Military Station, Silchar, 788025 - - 2014
Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is most commonly associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a subset of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute biphenotypic leukemia. In contrast only 1 % of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) show a consistent association with the Ph Chromosome. Before making a diagnosis of Ph + AML stringent criteria need ...
Verrma Shailendra Prasad SP Division of Clinical Haematology, Department of Medicine, JIPMER, Pondicherry, - - 2014
Pre-T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a relatively rare leukemia. Twenty to 30 % of adult B cell leukemia cases are Philadelphia chromosome positive and it has a therapeutic and prognostic significance. Incidence and outcome of Ph+ T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T cell ALL) is unknown. Only about 25 cases ...
Marković-Lipkovski Jasmina J Institute of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. - - 2013
Primary kidney sarcoma, especially synovial sarcoma (SS), is a very rare neoplasm. Preoperative signs and symptoms are very similar to renal cell carcinoma, therefore, the proper diagnosis is very difficult and usually made after nephrectomy.This is a case report of primary renal SS. A 38-year-old man presented with a history ...
Bui Peter H - - 2013
Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 18 have been previously reported in many patients. Most cases involve the more distal regions of the long arm (18q21.1->qter). However, proximal interstitial deletions involving 18q11.2 are extremely rare. Here we report on a 14-month-old female with a 4.7 Mb (19,667,062-24,401,876 hg19) de novo ...
Tin Adrienne A Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2013
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule and has been studied as a biomarker of kidney function, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Little is known about the genes influencing its levels directly or through glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We conducted a genome-wide association ...
Brandigi Elisa - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) is a dynamic event in which a retrograde flow of urine is present into the upper tracts. VUR may occur isolated or in association with other congenital abnormalities or as part of syndromic entities.We present a patient with a bilateral primary VUR, syndromic disease caused ...
Aydin B - - 2013
Renal hypoplasia is a congenital anomaly, the etiology of which is not yet fully known. Genetic studies have shown that certain genes, in utero environmental factors and molecular mechanisms have a role in the identification ofnephron formation and kidney size. The coexistence of bilateral renal hypoplasia and optic disc coloboma ...
Thameem Farook F Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of - - 2013
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, is heritable, suggesting that genes influence renal function. Genes that influence eGFR have been identified through genome-wide association studies. However, family-based linkage approaches may identify loci that explain a larger proportion of the heritability. This study used genome-wide linkage and ...
Wakim Jad J - - 2012
In chronic myelogenous leukemia, chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells are rare and usually transient, but can infrequently lead to myelodysplastic syndrome and/or acute myeloid leukemia. We report an 82-ear-old patient with an 11-year history of chronic myelogenous leukemia, in complete cytogenetic response, who developed Philadelphia-negative t(15;17)/PMLRARA acute promyelocytic leukemia. This ...
Yang Bao-Zhu BZ Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2012
Multiple substance dependence (MSD) trait comorbidity is common, and MSD patients are often severely affected clinically. While shared genetic risks have been documented, so far there has been no published report using the linkage scan approach to survey risk loci for MSD as a phenotype. A total of 1,758 individuals ...
Sexton Tom T Institut de Génétique Humaine, UPR 1142, CNRS, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2012
Chromosomes are the physical realization of genetic information and thus form the basis for its readout and propagation. Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal contact map derived from a modified genome-wide chromosome conformation capture approach applied to Drosophila embryonic nuclei. The data show that the entire genome is linearly partitioned ...
Reyes-Turcu Francisca E - - 2012
The assembly of heterochromatin in eukaryotic genomes is critical for diverse chromosomal events including regulation of gene expression, silencing of repetitive DNA elements, proper segregation of chromosomes and maintenance of genomic integrity. Previous studies have shown that noncoding RNAs and the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery promote the assembly of heterochromatin ...
Wynne David J - - 2012
Meiotic chromosome segregation requires homologue pairing, synapsis, and crossover recombination, which occur during meiotic prophase. Telomere-led chromosome motion has been observed or inferred to occur during this stage in diverse species, but its mechanism and function remain enigmatic. In Caenorhabditis elegans, special chromosome regions known as pairing centers (PCs), rather ...
Tsend-Ayush Enkhjargal - - 2012
The basal lineage of monotremes features an extraordinarily complex sex chromosome system which has provided novel insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. Recently, sequence information from autosomes, X chromosomes, and XY-shared pseudoautosomal regions has become available. However, no gene has so far been described on any of the ...
Lam Kentson - - 2012
RUNX1 is a transcription factor that regulates critical processes in many aspects of hematopoiesis. RUNX1 is also integral in defining the definitive hematopoietic stem cell. In addition, many hematological diseases like myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasms have been associated with mutations in RUNX1. Located on chromosomal 21, the RUNX1 gene ...
Azzalin Claus M CM Institute of Biochemistry (IBC), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), Zürich, Switzerland. - - 2012
The human helicase and ATPase up-frameshift suppressor 1 (UPF1), traditionally known as a major player in several RNA quality control mechanisms, is emerging as a crucial caretaker of the stability of the genome. Work from my laboratory has provided insight into the function of UPF1 during DNA metabolism and has ...
Yao Changfu C Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, - - 2012
The chromodomain protein, Chromator, can be divided into two main domains, a NH(2)-terminal domain (NTD) containing the chromodomain (ChD) and a COOH-terminal domain (CTD) containing a nuclear localization signal. During interphase Chromator is localized to chromosomes; however, during cell division Chromator redistributes to form a macro molecular spindle matrix complex ...
Batiha Osamah - - 2011
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) plays an important role in mitotic cells to sense improper chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules and to inhibit APC(Fzy)-dependent destruction of cyclin B and Securin; consequent initiation of anaphase until correct attachments are made. In Drosophila, SAC genes have been found to play a role ...
Guacci Vincent - - 2012
Cohesin generates cohesion between sister chromatids, which enables chromosomes to form bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle and segregate. Cohesin also functions in chromosome condensation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage repair. Here we analyze the role of acetylation in modulating cohesin functions and how it affects budding yeast viability. Previous ...
Lee Semin - - 2012
Kinetochore targeting of the mitotic kinases Bub1, BubR1, and Mps1 has been implicated in efficient execution of their functions in the spindle checkpoint, the self-monitoring system of the eukaryotic cell cycle that ensures chromosome segregation occurs with high fidelity. In all three kinases, kinetochore docking is mediated by the N-terminal ...
Baixeries Jaume - - 2012
Recently, a random breakage model has been proposed to explain the negative correlation between mean chromosome length and chromosome number that is found in many groups of species and is consistent with Menzerath-Altmann law, a statistical law that defines the dependency between the mean size of the whole and the ...
Dombecki Carolyn R - - 2011
Homologous chromosome pairing is a prerequisite to establish physical linkage between homologs, which is critical for faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis I. The establishment of pairing is genetically separable from subsequent synapsis, defined as stabilization of pairing by the synaptonemal complex (SC). The underlying mechanism of presynaptic pairing is poorly ...
Lo Hsiao-Chi - - 2012
Meiosis divides the chromosome number of the cell in half by having two rounds of chromosome segregation follow a single round of chromosome duplication. The first meiotic division is unique in that homologous pairs of sister chromatids segregate to opposite poles. Recent work in budding and fission yeast has shown ...
Whelan Gabriela - - 2012
Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by cohesin and regulated by Sororin, is essential for chromosome segregation. In mammalian cells, cohesion establishment and Sororin recruitment to chromatin-bound cohesin depends on the acetyltransferases Esco1 and Esco2. Mutations in Esco2 cause Roberts syndrome, a developmental disease in which mitotic chromosomes have a 'railroad' track ...
Chung Brian H Y - - 2012
We report on two patients with developmental delay, hypotonia, and autistic features associated with duplications of chromosome region 2q23.1-2q23.2 detected by chromosome microarray analysis. The duplications include one OMIM Morbid Map gene, MBD5, as well as seven known RefSeq genes (ACVR2A, ORC4L, EPC2, KIF5C, MIR1978, LYPD6B, and LYPD6). MBD5 lies ...
Sun Shao-Chen - - 2012
BACKGROUND Meiosis is a unique form of cell division in which cells divide twice but DNA is duplicated only once. Errors in chromosome segregation during meiosis will result in aneuploidy, followed by loss of the conceptus during pregnancy or birth defects. During mitosis, cells utilize a mechanism called the spindle ...
Meunier Sylvain - - 2011
Chromosome segregation requires the formation of K-fibres, microtubule bundles that attach sister kinetochores to spindle poles. Most K-fibre microtubules originate around the chromosomes through a non-centrosomal RanGTP-dependent pathway and become oriented with the plus ends attached to the kinetochore and the minus ends focused at the spindle poles. The capture ...
Schetelig Marc F - - 2011
In Tephritidae sex determination is established by orthologs to the Drosophila melanogaster transformer and transformer-2 genes, though the primary signals for sex determination differ. The presence of the Y chromosome in the tephritid species is critical for male differentiation, while the ratio of X chromosomes to autosome ploidy is critical ...
Gent Jonathan I - - 2012
Both kinetochore function and sister chromatid cohesion can depend upon pericentromere chromatin structure, and factors associated with heterochromatin have been proposed to have general, conserved roles in distinguishing centromeres and pericentromeres and in conferring pericentromere-intrinsic functions. We applied genome-wide sequencing approaches to quantify RNA expression, DNA methylation and histone modification ...
Ishikawa K - - 2011
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) was recently discovered to be caused by 2.5- to 3.8-kb-long complex pentanucleotide repeats containing (TGGAA)(n), (TAGAA)(n), and (TAAAA)(n) in an intronic region shared by 2 different genes, BEAN (brain expressed, associated with Nedd4) and TK2 (thymidine kinase 2), in chromosome 16q22.1.(1,2) Among the 3 pentanucleotide ...
Kozel Beth A BA Departments of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2011
Elastin haploinsufficiency causes the cardiovascular complications associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome and isolated supravalvular aortic stenosis. Significant variability exists in the vascular pathology in these individuals. Using the Eln(+/-) mouse, we sought to identify the source of this variability. Following outcrossing of C57Bl/6J Eln(+/-), two backgrounds were identified whose cardiovascular parameters ...
Ho Hsuan-Chung - - 2011
Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA(+)-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide ...
Harper Nicola C - - 2011
Faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis requires pairing, synapsis, and crossing-over. In C. elegans, homolog pairing and synapsis depend on pairing centers (PCs), special regions near one end of each chromosome that interact with the nuclear envelope (NE) and cytoplasmic microtubules. Here, we report that PCs are required for nuclear ...
McAinsh Andrew D - - 2011
For over 70 years, chromosomes have been known to oscillate back-and-forth on the metaphase plate. These movements are directed by kinetochores, the microtubule-attachment complexes on centromeres that regulate the dynamics of bound spindle microtubules. Recent evidence shows that the CCAN (Constitutive Centromere Associated Network) kinetochore network, which directly binds centromeric ...
Ohkuni Kentaro K Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, - - 2011
The centromere (CEN) DNA-kinetochore complex is the specialized chromatin structure that mediates chromosome attachment to the spindle and is required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Although kinetochore function is conserved from budding yeast to humans, it was thought that transcription had no role in centromere function in budding yeast, in contrast ...
Yu Eun Young - - 2011
Summary  Telomeres are the nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes and maintain the genomic integrity through multiple cell divisions. Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation, end-to-end fusion and abnormal recombination and they also promote the end replication. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well-studied model ...
Capalbo Luisa L Cancer Research United Kingdom Cell Cycle Genetics Research Group, Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United Kingdom. - - 2011
The small GTPase Rab5 is a conserved regulator of membrane trafficking; it regulates the formation of early endosomes, their transport along microtubules, and the fusion to the target organelles. Although several members of the endocytic pathway were recently implicated in spindle organization, it is unclear whether Rab5 has any role ...
Vanneste David - - 2011
The bipolar spindle is a highly dynamic structure that assembles transiently around the chromosomes and provides the mechanical support and the forces required for chromosome segregation. Spindle assembly and chromosome movements rely on the regulation of microtubule dynamics and a fine balance of forces exerted by various molecular motors. Chromosomes ...
Hagan Robert S - - 2011
The spindle assembly checkpoint links the onset of anaphase to completion of chromosome-microtubule attachment and is mediated by the binding of Mad and Bub proteins to kinetochores of unattached or maloriented chromosomes. Mad2 and BubR1 traffic between kinetochores and the cytosol, thereby transmitting a "wait anaphase" signal to the anaphase-promoting ...
Gao Zhi - - 2011
Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a reciprocal translocation in maize between chromosomes 1 and 5 that has been used extensively in maize genetics revealed the presence of an inactive centromere at or near the breakpoints of the two chromosomes. This centromere contains both the satellite repeat, CentC, and the centromeric ...
Bachtrog Doris - - 2011
Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain few functional genes. Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their ancestral genes.
Duszczyk Malgorzata M MM Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764 Neuherberg, - - 2011
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female mammals depends on the noncoding RNA X inactivation specific transcript (Xist). The mechanism of chromosome-wide silencing by Xist is poorly understood. While it is established that the 5' region of Xist RNA, comprising the A-repeats and holding 7.5-8.5 copies of a conserved 26-mer sequence, is ...
Hu Hao - - 2011
The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme β-galactoside-α2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic ...
Matsui Maiko - - 2011
In many organisms, homolog pairing and synapsis at meiotic prophase depend on interactions between chromosomes and the nuclear membrane. Male Drosophila lack synapsis, but nonetheless, their chromosomes closely associate with the nuclear periphery at prophase I. To explore the functional significance of this association, we characterize mutations in nuclear blebber ...
Hasegawa Yuko - - 2011
Mammalian females repress gene expression from one of their two X chromosomes to compensate for the gene dosage difference between females and males, via a process called X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Since the first discovery of XCI 50 years ago, the knowledge of this phenomenon has greatly contributed to a ...
Vaquero-Sedas María I - - 2011
Telomeres prevent chromosome fusions and degradation by exonucleases and are implicated in DNA repair, homologous recombination, chromosome pairing and segregation. All these functions of telomeres require the integrity of their chromatin structure, which has been traditionally considered as heterochromatic. In agreement with this idea, different studies have reported that telomeres ...
Kaminsky Erin B EB Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2011
Copy number variants have emerged as a major cause of human disease such as autism and intellectual disabilities. Because copy number variants are common in normal individuals, determining the functional and clinical significance of rare copy number variants in patients remains challenging. The adoption of whole-genome chromosomal microarray analysis as ...
Teller Kathrin K Biocenter, Department Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU), Martinsried, - - 2011
The active and inactive X (Xa;Xi) territory with its seemingly highly compacted Barr body in nuclei of female mammalian cells provide a key example for studies of structure/function relationships in homologous chromosomes with different functional properties. Here we used about 300 human X-specific large insert clones to generate probe sets, ...
Guse Annika - - 2011
During cell division, chromosomes are segregated to nascent daughter cells by attaching to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle through the kinetochore. Kinetochores are assembled on a specialized chromatin domain called the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of nucleosomal histone H3 with the histone H3 variant centromere protein ...
Zhu Jinliang - - 2011
The bipolar spindle is a complex molecular machinery that drives chromosome congression and segregation. During meiosis in the mouse multiple microtubule organizing centers aggregate to form a bipolar intermediate followed by elongation and establishment of the barrel-shaped acentriolar meiotic spindle. Previous studies have shown that septin1 is localized to spindle ...
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