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Results 351 - 400 of 1052
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Abhyankar Suhas V - - 2006
The umbilicus is essential to the aesthetic appearance of the abdomen. However, very little has been written about the exact location of the aesthetically pleasing umbilicus as far as the Indian cosmopolitan population is concerned. Although a variety of reconstructive methods are available, no real standards define the location of ...
Katragadda Suresh - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of efflux mechanisms using transporter- targeted prodrug derivatization of a model P-gp substrate, quinidine. The L-valine, L-valine-valine esters of quinidine, val-quinidine (VQ), and val-val-quinidine (VVQ) were synthesized in our laboratory, respectively. [(14)C] erythromycin was chosen to delineate the affinity of ...
Ralston Katherine S - - 2006
The flagellum of Trypanosoma brucei is a multifunctional organelle with critical roles in motility and other aspects of the trypanosome life cycle. Trypanin is a flagellar protein required for directional cell motility, but its molecular function is unknown. Recently, a trypanin homologue in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was reported to be part ...
Raj Arjun - - 2006
The role of protein flexibility in molecular motor function has previously been studied by considering a Brownian ratchet motor that is connected to its cargo by an elastic spring, with the result that the average velocity of the motor/cargo system is increased by reducing the stiffness of the linkage. Here, ...
Civelekoglu-Scholey G - - 2006
During mitosis, ensembles of dynamic MTs and motors exert forces that coordinate chromosome segregation. Typically, chromosomes align at the metaphase spindle equator where they oscillate along the pole-pole axis before disjoining and moving poleward during anaphase A, but spindles in different cell types display differences in MT dynamicity, in the ...
Tytell Jessica D - - 2006
Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires biorientation of sister chromatids on the microtubules (MT) of the mitotic spindle. Chromosome-MT binding is mediated by kinetochores, which are multiprotein structures that assemble on centromeric (CEN) DNA. The simple CENs of budding yeast are among the best understood, but the roles of kinesin ...
So R H Y - - 2006
This paper reports on the types and magnitudes of localization errors of simulated binaural direction cues generated using non-individualized, head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) with different levels of complexity. Four levels of complexity, as represented by the number of non-zero coefficients of the associated HRTF filters (128, 64, 32, 18 non-zero ...
Tulu U Serdar - - 2006
In centrosome-containing cells, microtubules nucleated at centrosomes are thought to play a major role in spindle assembly. In addition, microtubule formation at kinetochores has also been observed, most recently under physiological conditions in live cells. The relative contributions of microtubule formation at kinetochores and centrosomes to spindle assembly, and their ...
Wang Xiaoxing - - 2006
Sgo1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that functions as a protector of centromeric cohesin during mitosis. Recent studies show that Sgo1 is kinetochorelocalized and required for accurate segregation of mitotic chromosomes because depletion of Sgo1 in mammalian cells results in precocious initiation of anaphase and mis-segregation of chromosomes. Through analysis ...
Maresca Thomas J - - 2006
Faithful distribution of the genome to daughter cells requires that replicated chromatids are compacted and resolved from one another, and that functional kinetochores assemble at their centromeres to mediate spindle interactions. A molecular and mechanistic understanding of these critical processes is far from complete. We discovered that linker histone H1, ...
Kelly Kerry - - 2006
The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and ...
Ganem Neil J - - 2006
Poleward microtubule flux is a conserved process during mitosis and meiosis in metazoan cells and is defined as the translocation of spindle microtubules toward spindle poles coupled to the depolymerization of their minus-ends. In some cell types, the rate of poleward microtubule flux matches that of poleward chromatid movement during ...
Heun Patrick - - 2006
The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally noncentromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic ...
Xiang Xin - - 2006
Is there a cellular mechanism for preventing a depolymerizing microtubule track from "slipping out from under" its cargo? A recent study in budding yeast indicates that when a chromosome is transported to the minus end of a spindle microtubule, its kinetochore-bound microtubule plus end-tracking protein (+TIP) Stu2 may move to ...
Weiping Sui - - 2006
A kind of amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan (2-hydroxyl-3-butoxyl)-propylcarboxymethyl-chitosan (HBP-CMCHS), has been synthesized, and the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of HBP-CMCHS was detected by the fluorescence method. The puerarin-loaded HBP-CMCHS micellar system was prepared by physical entrapped method. Result showed that when adding the same amount of puerarin, the solubilizing capacity ...
Kapoor Tarun M - - 2006
The stable propagation of genetic material during cell division depends on the congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator before the cell initiates anaphase. It is generally assumed that congression requires that chromosomes are connected to the opposite poles of the bipolar spindle ("bioriented"). In mammalian cells, we found that ...
Westermann Stefan - - 2006
Chromosomes interact through their kinetochores with microtubule plus ends and they are segregated to the spindle poles as the kinetochore microtubules shorten during anaphase A of mitosis. The molecular natures and identities of coupling proteins that allow microtubule depolymerization to pull chromosomes to poles during anaphase have long remained elusive. ...
Rosa Jack - - 2006
Survivin is a member of the chromosomal passenger complex implicated in kinetochore attachment, bipolar spindle formation, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanism by which survivin modulates these processes is unknown. Here, we show by time-lapse imaging of cells expressing either green fluorescent protein (GFP)-alpha-tubulin or the microtubule plus-end binding protein GFP-EB1 ...
Asakawa Kazuhide - - 2006
We have identified a novel temperature-sensitive mutant of fission yeast alpha-tubulin Atb2 (atb2-983) that contains a single amino acid substitution (V260I). Atb2-983 is incorporated into the microtubules, and their overall structures are not altered noticeably, but microtubule dynamics is compromised during interphase. atb2-983 displays a high rate of chromosome missegregation ...
Vasic Ana-Marija - - 2006
Passenger cars are the primary means of transportation in Europe. Over the past decade, a great deal of attention has therefore been paid to reducing their emissions. This has resulted in notable technical progress, leading to unprecedentedly low exhaust emissions. In the meantime, emissions from motorcycles have been ignored due ...
Okada Masahiro - - 2006
The kinetochore is structure composed of many proteins that assembles on centromeric DNA to mediate the binding of spindle microtubules to chromosomes and chromosome movement. Budding yeast has been used as a model organism to investgate the mechanisms underlying kinetochore assembly. Although the basic features of chromosome segregation are thought ...
Guerra M - - 2006
In the present work we report the phosphorylation pattern of histone H3 and the development of microtubular structures using immunostaining techniques, in mitosis of Rhynchospora tenuis (2n = 4), a Cyperaceae with holocentric chromosomes. The main features of the holocentric chromosomes of R. tenuis coincide with those of other species ...
Glade Nicolas - - 2006
The effect of weightlessness on physical and biological systems is frequently studied by experiments in space. However, on the ground, gravity effects may also be strongly attenuated using methods such as magnetic levitation and clinorotation. Under suitable conditions, in vitro preparations of microtubules, a major element of the cytoskeleton, self-organise ...
Tanenbaum Marvin E - - 2006
CLIP-170 is a microtubule 'plus end tracking' protein involved in several microtubule-dependent processes in interphase. At the onset of mitosis, CLIP-170 localizes to kinetochores, but at metaphase, it is no longer detectable at kinetochores. Although RNA interference (RNAi) experiments have suggested an essential role for CLIP-170 during mitosis, the molecular ...
Khodjakov Alexey - - 2005
During mitosis in a eukaryotic cell, microtubule subunits continuously move towards spindle poles. A new study has revealed that inhibiting this microtubule flux in mammalian cells has no major effects on chromosome movements; it does, however, increase the probability of erroneous chromosome segregation.
Gillis Amethyst N - - 2005
In budding yeast, the kinetochore scaffold complex centromere binding factor 3 (CBF3) is required to form kinetochores on centromere DNA and to allow proper chromosome segregation. We have previously shown that SKP1 and SGT1 balance the assembly and turnover of CBF3 complexes, a cycle that we suggest is independent of ...
Tanaka Tomoyuki U - - 2005
Kinetochores are large protein complexes that are formed on chromosome regions known as centromeres. For high-fidelity chromosome segregation, kinetochores must be correctly captured on the mitotic spindle before anaphase onset. During prometaphase, kinetochores are initially captured by a single microtubule that extends from a spindle pole and are then transported ...
Teising Martin - - 2005
Introjection, identification and projection are concepts that designate processes in which something is being put into or taken out of something else. These processes presuppose the overcoming of some form of separation between two entities. The permeability or impermeability of a fictive boundary between the representations of subject and object ...
Brown Christa L - - 2005
The bidirectional nature of late endosome/lysosome movement suggests involvement of at least two distinct motors, one minus-end directed and one plus-end directed. Previous work has identified dynein as the minus-end-directed motor for late endosome/lysosome localization and dynamics. Conventional kinesin (kinesin-1) has been implicated in plus-end-directed late endosome/lysosome movement, but other ...
Monen Joost - - 2005
Two distinct chromosome architectures are prevalent among eukaryotes: monocentric, in which localized centromeres restrict kinetochore assembly to a single chromosomal site, and holocentric, in which diffuse kinetochores form along the entire chromosome length. During mitosis, both chromosome types use specialized chromatin, containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A, to direct kinetochore ...
Rieder Conly L - - 2005
The attachment to and movement of a chromosome on the mitotic spindle are mediated by the formation of a bundle of microtubules (MTs) that tethers the kinetochore on the chromosome to a spindle pole. The origin of these "kinetochore fibers" (K fibers) has been investigated for over 125 years. As ...
Vincent S E - - 2006
The evolutionary success of macrostomatan (enlarged-gape) snakes has been attributed to their ability to consume large prey, in turn made possible by their highly kinetic skulls. However, prey can be "large" in several ways, and we have little insight into which aspects of prey size and shape affect skull function ...
Yuen Karen W Y - - 2005
The molecular mechanisms ensuring accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis and mitosis are critical to the conservation of euploidy (normal chromosome number) in eukaryotic cells. A dysfunctional kinetochore represents one possible source for chromosome instability (CIN) and the generation of aneuploidy. The kinetochore is a large complex of proteins and associated ...
Baldissera Fausto - - 2005
Ipsilateral hand and foot are easily coupled in isodirectional oscillations, while antidirectional coupling is difficult or even impossible. It was recently suggested that differences between the two types of coupling depend on the interaction of postural mechanisms with voluntary movement. We report here that when standing in an upright position, ...
Holt Sarah V - - 2005
Cenp-F is an unusual kinetochore protein in that it localizes to the nuclear matrix in interphase and the nuclear envelope at the G2/M transition; it is farnesylated and rapidly degraded after mitosis. We have recently shown that farnesylation of Cenp-F is required for G2/M progression, its localization to kinetochores, and ...
Chan Gordon K - - 2005
The vertebrate kinetochore is a complex structure that specifies the attachments between the chromosomes and microtubules of the spindle and is thus essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Kinetochores are assembled on centromeric chromatin through complex pathways that are coordinated with the cell cycle. In the light of recent discoveries on ...
Levi Valeria V Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, - - 2006
Xenopus melanophores have pigment organelles or melanosomes which, in response to hormones, disperse in the cytoplasm or aggregate in the perinuclear region. Melanosomes are transported by microtubule motors, kinesin-2 and cytoplasmic dynein, and an actin motor, myosin-V. We explored the regulation of melanosome transport along microtubules in vivo by using ...
Collins Kimberly A - - 2005
Kinetochores mediate chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. Budding yeast is an excellent organism for kinetochore assembly studies because it has a simple defined centromere sequence responsible for the localization of >65 proteins. In addition, yeast is the only organism where a conditional centromere is ...
Iwasaki Laura R - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Tooth movement has been studied largely with respect to the force required for tipping when pressure distribution varies along the length of the periodontal ligament. But important factors for effective canine translation include the nature and magnitude of applied stress and the patient's cell biology. The purpose of this ...
Nevitt Gabrielle A - - 2005
Petrels, albatrosses and other procellariiform seabirds have an excellent sense of smell, and routinely navigate over the world's oceans by mechanisms that are not well understood. These birds travel thousands of kilometres to forage on ephemeral prey patches at variable locations, yet they can quickly and efficiently find their way ...
Brouhard Gary J - - 2005
During mitosis, "polar ejection forces" (PEFs) are hypothesized to direct prometaphase chromosome movements by pushing chromosome arms toward the spindle equator. PEFs are postulated to be caused by (i) plus-end-directed microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins on the chromosome arms, namely chromokinesins, and (ii) the polymerization of spindle MTs into the chromosome. ...
Birinyi Paul V - - 2005
We evaluated rest effects on restless legs syndrome (RLS) sensory and motor symptoms. During two 60-minute Suggested Immobilization Tests (SIT) subject's signals of RLS leg sensations and periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW) were recorded. Sensations, PLMW, sensations preceding or after PLMW, sensations occurring without following PLMW, and PLMW occurring ...
Soni Lily E - - 2005
Mutations in the myosin-VIIa (MYO7a) gene cause human Usher disease, characterized by hearing impairment and progressive retinal degeneration. In the retina, myosin-VIIa is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, where it plays a role in the positioning of melanosomes and other digestion organelles. Using a human cultured retinal pigmented ...
Small Dana M - - 2005
Odors perceived through the mouth (retronasally) as flavor are referred to the oral cavity, whereas odors perceived through the nose (orthonasally) are referred to the external world. We delivered vaporized odorants via the orthonasal and retronasal routes and measured brain response with fMRI. Comparison of retronasal versus orthonasal delivery produced ...
McKay Ryan - - 2005
Two different modes of theorising about delusions are explored. On the one hand is the motivational approach, which regards delusions as serving a defensive, palliative, even potentially adaptive function. On the other, is the cognitive deficit approach, which conceptualises delusions as explicitly pathological, involving abnormalities in ordinary cognitive processes. The ...
Cimini Daniela - - 2005
Proper chromosome segregation is required to maintain the appropriate number of chromosomes from one cell generation to the next and to prevent aneuploidy, the condition in which a cell has gained or lost one or several chromosomes during cell division. Aneuploidy is a hallmark associated with birth defects and cancer, ...
Capela Delphine - - 2005
The NodD1 regulon of Sinorhizobium meliloti was determined through the analysis of the S. meliloti transcriptome in response to the plant flavone luteolin and the overexpression of nodD1. Nine new genes regulated by both NodD1 and luteolin were identified, demonstrating that NodD1 controls few functions behind nodulation in S. meliloti.
Delanoue Renald - - 2005
Molecular motors actively transport many types of cargo along the cytoskeleton in a wide range of organisms. One class of cargo is localized mRNAs, which are transported by myosin on actin filaments or by kinesin and dynein on microtubules. How the cargo is kept at its final intracellular destination and ...
Utter Brian - - 2005
We present experiments on the doublon growth morphology in directional solidification. Samples used are succinonitrile with small amounts of poly(ethylene oxide), acetone, or camphor as the solute. Doublons, or symmetry-broken dendrites, are generic diffusion-limited growth structures expected at large undercooling and low anisotropy. Low anisotropy growth is achieved by selecting ...
Shannon Katie B - - 2005
How microtubules act to position the plane of cell division during cytokinesis is a topic of much debate. Recently, we showed that a subpopulation of stable microtubules extends past chromosomes and interacts with the cell cortex at the site of furrowing, suggesting that these stabilized microtubules may stimulate contractility. To ...
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