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Results 301 - 350 of 1052
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Liu J L - - 2007
AIMS: To assess the influence of chemical treatment of the anode of a marine sediment biofuel cell (MSBFC) on the microbial diversity of the anode biofilm. METHODS AND RESULTS: A MSBFC was equipped with two graphite plate anodes, one pretreated by electrochemical oxidation in sulfuric acid and the other untreated. ...
Buster Daniel W - - 2007
Kinetochores are essential for the proper positioning, movement and segregation of chromosomes on spindle microtubules. Live cell analyses of kinetochore movements on the spindle provide an important tool for dissecting the molecular machinery underlying kinetochore-based chromosome motility. Here, we describe contemporary techniques for studying and manipulating kinetochore function in live ...
Fabian Lacramioara - - 2007
We tested whether the mechanisms of chromosome movement during anaphase in locust (Locusta migratoria L.) spermatocytes might be similar to those described for crane-fly spermatocytes. Actin and myosin have been implicated in anaphase chromosome movements in crane-fly spermatocytes, as indicated by the effects of inhibitors and by the localisations of ...
Pi?rard G E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Thigmotropism is a biological characteristic corresponding to the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This behavior has been shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We presently ...
Williams John R - - 2007
Steroidal saponins are complex compounds that have a steroid attached to a carbohydrate moiety. They are natural surfactants and detergents and exhibit a number of biological effects. Steroidal saponins have shown membrane-permeabilizing, hypocholesterolemic, immunostimulant, and anticancer properties. They have also been found to affect the growth, food intake and reproductive ...
Kotwaliwale Chitra - - 2006
Kinetochores direct attachment of chromosomes to microtubules of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Three recent studies in Cell, including one in this issue, reveal important new roles for two kinetochore protein complexes-Ndc80 and INCENP-Survivin-in establishing the correct attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules (Cheeseman et al., 2006, DeLuca et ...
Collins Kimberly A - - 2007
Chromosomes segregate using their kinetochores, the specialized protein structures that are assembled on centromeric DNA and mediate attachment to the mitotic spindle. Because centromeric sequences are not conserved, centromere identity is propagated by an epigenetic mechanism. All eukaryotes contain an essential histone H3 variant (CenH3) that localizes exclusively to centromeres. ...
DeLuca Jennifer G - - 2006
Mitotic cells face the challenging tasks of linking kinetochores to growing and shortening microtubules and actively regulating these dynamic attachments to produce accurate chromosome segregation. We report here that Ndc80/Hec1 functions in regulating kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics and attachment stability. Microinjection of an antibody to the N terminus of Hec1 ...
Dick Kimberly A - - 2006
We demonstrate here a method for controlled production of complex self-assembled three-dimensional networks of InAs nanowires on a substrate, based on sequentially seeded epitaxial nanowire structures, or "nanotrees". A position-controlled array of trunk nanowires is first produced using lithographically defined Au particles as seeds. With these wires positioned along the ...
Gardner Melissa K - - 2006
Chromosome motility is a highly regulated and complex process that ultimately achieves proper segregation of the replicated genome. Recent modeling studies provide a computational framework for investigating how microtubule assembly dynamics, motor protein activity and mitotic spindle mechanical properties are integrated to drive chromosome motility. Among other things, these studies ...
Kang Young H - - 2006
The polo-box domain (PBD) of mammalian polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is essential in targeting its catalytic activity to specific subcellular structures critical for mitosis. The mechanism underlying Plk1 recruitment to the kinetochores and the role of Plk1 at this site remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a PBD-binding protein, PBIP1, ...
Imamura Mariko - - 2006
Emmert's law and the size-distance invariance hypothesis have been said to be formally equivalent, provided that Emmert's law means that the perceived size of an afterimage is proportional to the perceived distance of the projected surface of the afterimage. However, there have been very few studies that have attempted to ...
Grishchuk Ekaterina L - - 2006
Prometaphase kinetochores interact with spindle microtubules (MTs) to establish chromosome bi-orientation. Before becoming bi-oriented, chromosomes frequently exhibit poleward movements (P-movements), which are commonly attributed to minus end-directed, MT-dependent motors. In fission yeast there are three such motors: dynein and two kinesin-14s, Pkl1p and Klp2p. None of these enzymes is essential ...
D'Avino Pier Paolo - - 2006
Several studies indicate that spindle microtubules determine the position of the cleavage plane at the end of cell division, but their exact role in triggering the formation and ingression of the cleavage furrow is still unclear. Here we show that in Drosophila depletion of either the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) or ...
Huang Baoying - - 2006
Attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle has been proposed to require dynamic microtubules that randomly search three-dimensional space and become stabilized upon capture by kinetochores. In this study, we test this model by examining chromosome capture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with attenuated microtubule dynamics. Although viable, these cells are ...
Field Nigel P - - 2006
Much of the contemporary bereavement literature on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) has emphasized its adaptiveness and given limited attention to when it may be maladaptive. The attachment literature on disorganized-unresolved attachment classification in relation to loss, or "unresolved loss," is informative in identifying CB expressions that are ...
Moores Carolyn A - - 2006
The kinesin-13 class of motors catalyses microtubule depolymerisation by bending tubulins at microtubule ends. Depolymerisation activity is intrinsic to the kinesin-13 motor core but the activity of the core alone is very low compared with that of constructs that also contain a conserved neck sequence. The full-length dimeric motor is ...
Sasabe Michiko - - 2006
After the segregation of chromosomes, animal and plant cells build a central spindle (midbody) and a phragmoplast, respectively, that are mainly composed of aligned microtubules and microfilaments. These microtubule-based structures are highly dynamic and play an essential role in cytokinesis. Recent studies using model organisms have shed light on the ...
Fedyanina Olga S - - 2006
Faithful chromosome segregation requires the combined activities of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle and the multiple proteins that form mitotic kinetochores. Here, we show that the fission yeast mitotic mutant, tsm1-512, is an allele of the tubulin folding chaperone, cofactor D. Chromosome segregation in this and in an additional cofactor D ...
Campàs Otger - - 2006
The motion and positioning of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division is investigated theoretically. We perform a self-contained analysis where the motion of mono-oriented chromosomes results from the competition between the kinetochore and chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms. We show that the interplay between the asterlike morphology of the mitotic ...
Cimini Daniela - - 2006
Merotelic kinetochore orientation is a misattachment in which a single kinetochore binds microtubules from both spindle poles rather than just one and can produce anaphase lagging chromosomes, a major source of aneuploidy. Merotelic kinetochore orientation occurs frequently in early mitosis, does not block chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate, and ...
Zhang Xin - - 2006
Two new studies show that Aurora B kinase corrects improperly attached chromosomes by recruiting molecules necessary for eliminating the bad attachments and by regulating the turnover of the kinetochore fiber.
Mao Shirui - - 2006
Polyplexes between siRNA and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) derivatives are promising nonviral carriers for siRNA. The polyplex stability is of critical importance for efficient siRNA delivery to the cytoplasm. Here, we investigate the effect of PEGylation at a constant ratio ( approximately 50%) on the biophysical properties of the polyplexes. Particle ...
Earhart Gammon M - - 2006
The author compared 10 participants' self-selected walk-to-run transition speeds on a standard treadmill with those on a circular treadmill. The speed of the outer limb at walk-to-run transition on the circular treadmill and on the standard treadmill were very similar. Adaptive aftereffects from running and walking on the circular treadmill ...
Ohmoto Hiroshi - - 2006
The presence of mass-independently fractionated sulphur isotopes (MIF-S) in many sedimentary rocks older than approximately 2.4 billion years (Gyr), and the absence of MIF-S in younger rocks, has been considered the best evidence for a dramatic change from an anoxic to oxic atmosphere around 2.4 Gyr ago. This is because ...
Aoki Keita - - 2006
Shortened kinetochore microtubules take separated chromatids to the opposing spindle poles in anaphase. Fission yeast Dis1 belongs to the Dis1/XMAP215/TOG family that is required for proper microtubule dynamics. Here, we report that Dis1is regulated by Cdc2 phosphorylation and that this mitotic phosphorylation ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Whereas mutants ...
Riley Patrick O - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Gait evaluation protocols using instrumented treadmills will be increasingly used in the near future. For this reason, it must be shown that using instrumented treadmills will produce measures of the ground reaction force adequate for inverse dynamic analysis, and differences between treadmill and overground gait must be well characterized. ...
Shimogawa Michelle M - - 2006
Duplicated chromosomes are equally segregated to daughter cells by a bipolar mitotic spindle during cell division. By metaphase, sister chromatids are coupled to microtubule (MT) plus ends from opposite poles of the bipolar spindle via kinetochores. Here we describe a phosphorylation event that promotes the coupling of kinetochores to microtubule ...
Choithani Jyoti - - 2006
Synthesis of a new heterobifunctional reagent, N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-6-(N-maleimido)-hexanamide (TPMH), for the preparation of oligonucleotide microarrays is described. Its triethoxysilyl function is specific toward virgin glass surface and maleimide function undergoes conjugate addition to 3'- or 5'-thiol-modified oligonucleotides. The construction of microarrays using TPMH has been realized via two routes. In Route ...
Hachisuka K - - 2006
A prospective study was carried out on the clinical application and features of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis (carbon orthosis) for polio survivors. The subjects comprised 9 polio survivors, and 11 carbon knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) were prescribed, fabricated, and checked out at the authors' post-polio clinic. Walking was ...
Mimori-Kiyosue Yuko - - 2006
CLASP1 and CLASP2 are homologous mammalian proteins, which associate with the ends of growing microtubules, as well as the cell cortex and the kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes. Previous studies have shown that in interphase cells CLASPs can attach microtubule plus ends to the cortex and stabilize them by repeatedly rescuing ...
Blackledge Todd A - - 2006
Orb-web weaving spiders depend upon the mechanical performance of capture threads to absorb the energy of flying prey. Most orb-weavers spin wet capture threads with core fibers of flagelliform silk. These threads are extremely compliant and extensible due to the folding of their constituent proteins into molecular nanosprings and hydration ...
Joubert L-M - - 2006
Protistan grazing on biofilms is potentially an important conduit enabling energy flow between microbial trophic levels. Contrary to the widely held assumption that protistan feeding primarily involves ingestion of biofilm cells, with negative consequences for the biofilm, this study demonstrated preferential grazing on the noncellular biofilm matrix by a ciliate, ...
Nishino Michiya - - 2006
The equal distribution of chromosomes during mitosis is critical for maintaining the integrity of the genome. Essential to this process are the capture of spindle microtubules by kinetochores and the congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate . Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a mitotic kinase that has been implicated ...
Burgherr Peter - - 2007
This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of ...
Jeffery Nathan - - 2006
Studies have reported a functional link between the arc size of the semicircular canals and locomotor agility across adult primates. However, canal size is spatially interlinked with the subarcuate fossa. This fossa can house the petrosal lobule of the paraflocculus, which also plays a role in coordinating head and eye ...
Frampton Geoff K - - 2007
Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge ...
Asbury Charles L - - 2006
Kinetochores remain attached to microtubule (MT) tips during mitosis even as the tips assemble and disassemble under their grip, allowing filament dynamics to produce force and move chromosomes. The specific proteins that mediate tip attachment are uncertain, and the mechanism of MT-dependent force production is unknown. Recent work suggests that ...
Draviam V M - - 2006
The correct formation of stable but dynamic links between chromosomes and spindle microtubules (MTs) is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which kinetochores bind MTs and checkpoints monitor this binding remain poorly understood. In this paper, we analyze the functions of six kinetochore-bound MT-associated proteins (kMAPs) ...
Blower Michael D - - 2006
The centromere/kinetochore complex plays an essential role in cell and organismal viability by ensuring chromosome movements during mitosis and meiosis. The kinetochore also mediates the spindle attachment checkpoint (SAC), which delays anaphase initiation until all chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment of kinetochores to the mitotic spindle. CENP-A proteins are centromere-specific ...
Michael D. Blower
The centromere/kinetochore complex plays an essential role in cell and organismal viability by ensuring chromosome movements during mitosis and meiosis. The kinetochore also mediates the Spindle Attachment Checkpoint (SAC), which delays anaphase initiation until all chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment of kinetochores to the mitotic spindle. CENP-A proteins are centromere-specific ...
Lin Y-T - - 2006
Faithful chromosome segregation is essential for maintaining the genomic integrity, which requires coordination among chromosomes, kinetochores, centrosomes and spindles during mitosis. Previously, we discovered a novel coiled-coil protein, highly expressed in cancer 1 (Hec1), which is indispensable for this process. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show ...
Sato Fumiaki - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: It is known that elastin mRNA is transcribed from a single gene. The variety of tropoelastin isoforms results from multiple alternative splicing of the primary transcript. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of elastic fiber assembled with tropoelastin isoform, which is full-length human tropoelastin (HTE), ...
Chen Xiaodong - - 2006
We systematically describe the striped pattern formation of the mixed monolayers of 1,2-di(2,4-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOEPC) and l-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) from the liquid expanded (LE) phase onto a mica surface by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer. The addition of the second component, DOEPC, strongly affects the formation of DPPC stripe patterns. When the molar ratio ...
Parra María Teresa - - 2006
Mitotic Centromere-Associated Kinesin (MCAK) is a member of the kinesin-13 subfamily of kinesin-related proteins. In mitosis, this microtubule-depolymerising kinesin seems to be implicated in chromosome segregation and in the correction of improper kinetochore-microtubule interactions, and its activity is regulated by the Aurora-B kinase. However, there are no published data on ...
Silljé Herman H W - - 2006
Formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle in somatic cells requires the cooperation of two assembly pathways, one based on kinetochore capture by centrosomal microtubules, the other on RanGTP-mediated microtubule organization in the vicinity of chromosomes. How RanGTP regulates kinetochore-microtubule (K-fiber) formation is not presently understood. Here we identify the mitotic ...
Smith David E - - 2006
A new approach to modelling patterns of glacio-isostatic land uplift during the Holocene in mainland Scotland, UK, is described. The approach is based upon altitude measurements at the inner margin or locally highest point of raised estuarine surfaces dated by radiocarbon assay supported by microfossil analyses. 2,241 altitudes have been ...
Colvin Robert A - - 2006
Zinquin (Zn(2+) selective fluorophore), when used to visualize intracellular Zn(2+), typically shows brightly fluorescent perinuclear endosome-like structures, presumably identifying Zn(2+) containing organelles. In this study, zinquin identified numerous and widespread sites of Zn(2+) compartmentalization in primary cultures of embryonic rat cortical neurons. Nuclear fluorescence, however, was absent. We labeled neuronal ...
Kline Susan L - - 2006
During cell division, kinetochores form the primary chromosomal attachment sites for spindle microtubules. We previously identified a network of 10 interacting kinetochore proteins conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. In this study, we investigate three proteins in the human network (hDsn1Q9H410, hNnf1PMF1, and hNsl1DC31). Using coexpression in bacteria and fractionation ...
Darouiche R O - - 2006
The in-vitro and in-vivo efficacy against Candida albicans and Candida krusei of devices impregnated with chlorhexidine and chloroxylenol was examined. The impregnated devices produced large zones of inhibition against both organisms (mean size, 39 mm and 38 mm, respectively). In a rabbit model in which segments of silicone catheters were ...
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